Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty


800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor

This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptianwith an M78Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita-Boyce Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

Ychromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2%)Lower Egypt, (27.3%)Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)Lower Egypt, (24.2%) – Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

(Which group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the Bantu migrations?

But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are “No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C.

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site is dated, before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78 (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors” of  “Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a Proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty “New Kingdom”

Ancient Y-DNA samples shows Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty belonged to Haplogroup  E1b1a/M2/E-V38:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2/E-V38, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.

Ramsses III from tomb KV11, Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

A genetic kinship analysis was done to investigate a possible family relationship between Ramesses III and Unknown man E, Who may actually be his son Pentawer. An ancient Egyptian Prince of the 20th dynasty, and son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. They amplified 16 Y-chromosomal, short tandem repeats (AmpF\STR yfiler PCR amplification kit; Applied Biosystems). Eight polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome were also amplified (Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits; Applied Biosystems). The Y-chromosomal Haplogroups of Ramesses III and unknown man E was screened using the Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor we determined the Y-chromosomal Haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal micro satellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2⇓). Although the mummy of Ramesses III’s wife Tiy was not available for testing, the identical Ychromosomal DNA and Autosomal half allele sharing of the two male mummies strongly suggest a Father-Son relationship.

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M268%).


M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =


(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

Modern day genetic studies on they-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi



The Central African corridor and southward al

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000😉

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R , Y- chromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are8,000 B.P. and older)

The AfriAsiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arabmales are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

E1b1a (V100) This population is one of two important populations to spring out of the Ethiopian Plateau, E1b1a effect became the most dominant population in Subsaharan Africa

E1b1a (M2) This population grew in enough numbers in the Ethiopian lowlands to be able to cross into the territories of Paleo Africans on their West in Sudan E1b1a (L576) This population represents an East to West thrust in Africa, only E1b1a lineage able to survive crossing the A1b1 territories E1b1a (L86.1) This mutation indicates that the population crossed the A1b1 dominated Grassland into the regions West of the great Lakes E1b1a (M58) Expansion between the Great Lakes & Midwest Africa E1b1a (M116.2) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M149) Very small minority in South Africa E1b1a (M155) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M10) Dispersed between Cameroon & Tanzania E1b1a (L485) An important lineage that emerged in the Eastern Benue valley in Central Nigeria E1b1a (L514) Marker for a strong lineage that played a major role in turning West Africa into their new territor E1b1a (M191) This marker indicates that the main body of (L485) reached the Benue River in Nigeria and Cameroon E1b1a (P252) A population that followed the Benue river South, an important marker of the Bantu expansion in Nigeria E1b1a (P9.2) The population that remained in the Benue region, expanded into West into Nigeria & South to Gabon E1b1a (P115) Eastern limit expansion population, reaching Southwestern Central Africa, with possible presence in other Fang regions E1b1a (P116) South of the Benue expansion in Southern Cameroon & Gabon E1b1a (U175) An important lineage that emerged in the Western region of Benue in Nigeria and Niger E1b1a (U209) This population represents the backbone of the Bantu expansion, emerged and expanded out of the Bantu Urheimat E1b1a (U290) A primary marker of African slavery in the USA, Important lineage in Southern Cameroon E1b1a (M154) Found in Western Cameroon & South Africa E1b1a (P268) Found in Gambia, could possibly indicate an early expansion out of Central Africa or late emergence out of an L86.1* that lived amongst (L485) or (U175) E1b1a (M329) The E1b1a population that remained in the Ethiopian lowlands.


Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia


Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako


Although Haplogroup R1* has an African-Asiatic Origin and Migration, It has Notable frequencies through out Africa as well..

Haplogroup R1*-M173 is the pristine form of Haplogroup R. In Africa researchers have detected frequencies as high as 95% among Sub-Saharan Africans. The phylogenetic profile of R-M173 supports an ancient migration of Kushites from Africa to Eurasia as suggested by the Classical Writers. In Fig. 3, we outline the spread of Haplogroup R from Nubia into Asia and West Africa. This Expansion of an African Kushite population probably took place Neolithic period. The Accumulated Classical literature, Archaeological, Craniometric, Genetic and Linguistic evidence suggest a Genetic relationship between the Kushites of Africa and Kushites in Eurasia that cannot be explained by Micro Evolutionary Mechanisms. The phylogeographic profile of R1*-M173 supports this Ancient Migration of Kushites fromAfrica to Eurasia as suggested by the Classical writers. This expansion of Kushites into Eurasia probably took place over 4kya.

The present studies on Y-chromosomes M78 , M35 , M2 shows the  Egyptian Dynasties has Northern and Southern inhabitants.

The migration difference from North to South mimics the Nubia, Upper Egypt and lower Egypt  Kingdoms of ancient times.

While Kashta of the 25th dynasty ruled Nubia from Napata, which is 400 km north of Khartoum, the modern capital of Sudan,

He also exercised a strong degree of control–over Upper Egypt by managing to install his daughter,Amenirdis I,

as the presumptive God’s Wife of Amun in Thebes in line to succeed the serving Divine Adoratrice of Amun,Shepenupet IOsorkon III’s


This Development was “the Key moment in the process of the extension of

Kushite power over Egyptian territories” under Kashta’s rule since it officially legitimized the Kushite takeover of the Thebaid region.

The Hungarian Kushite scholar László Török notes that there were probably already Kushite garrisons stationed in Thebes itself during

Kashta’s reign both to protect this king’s authority over

Upper Egypt and to thwart a possible future invasion of this region from    Lower Egypt.

Now… going back to E1b1a and the discovery of two major SNPs (V38 and V100) according to Trombetta et al. (2011) this significantly redefined the E-V38 phylogenetic tree.

This has led authors to suggest that E-V38 may have originated in East Africa with an East African Origin. V38 joins the North African and West-affilated E-M2 and the Northern East African-affiliated E-M329 with an earlier common ancestor who, like E-P2, may have also originated in East Africa.

It is possible that soon after the evolution of E-V38, trans-Saharan migrants carried the E-V38 marker to Northern Africa and Central and/or West Africa where the more common E-M2 marker later arose and became prolific within the last 20,000-30,000 years.[1][3]

Outside of Africa, E1b1a has been found at low frequencies. In Eurasia, the clade has primarily been found in West Asia. There have also been a few isolated incidents of E1b1a/M2 in Southern Spanish Europeans populations in Spain[26] and Portugal.[2

Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Tânout, Niger 44.4% (8/18 subjects) [14]
Tuareg from Gorom, Burkina Faso 16.6% (3/18) [14]
Tuareg from Gossi, Mali 9.1% (1/9) [14]
Cape Verde 15.9% (32/201) [15]
Maasai 15.4% (4/26) [7]
Luo 66% (6/9) [7]
Iraqw 11.11% (1/9) [7]
Comoros 23.46% (69/294) [16]
Merina people (also called Highlanders) 44% (4/9) [17]
Antandroy 69.6% (32/46) [17]
Antanosy 48.9% (23/47) [17]
Antaisaka 37.5% (3/8) [17]
Incidence of E1b1a in Eurasia
Population group frequency References
Saudi Arabians 7.6% (12/157) [28]
Omanis 6.6% (8/121) [10]
Emiratis 5.5% (9/164) [29]
Yemenis 4.8% (3/62) [29]
Majorca 3.2% (2/62) [27]
Qataris 4.2% (3/72) [29]
Southern Iran 1.7% (2/117) [30]
Iraq 1.4% (2/139) [31]
Pakistan 1.4% (9/638) [32]
Istanbul, Turkey 1.2% (1/81) [33]
Incidence of E1b1a
Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Al Awaynat and Tahala, Libya 46.5% (20/43) [Note 1] [19]
OranAlgeria 8.6% (8/93) [20]
Berbers, southern and north-central Morocco 9.5% (6/63) [21][Note 2]
Morrocan Arabs 6.8% (3/44) [21]
Saharawis 3.5% (1/29) [21]
Egyptians 8.33% (3/36), 1.4% (2/147), and (0/73) [10][22][23]
Tunisians 1.4% (2/148) [23]
Sudanese Hausa 12.5% (4/32) [24]
Sudanese Nubian 39.1 % (10/274) [25]
Somalis 1.5% (3/201) [18]
Ethiopians 3.4% (3/88) [26]
Oromo 2.6% (2/78) [13]
Amhara 0% (0/48)[Note 3] [13]
Incidence of E1b1a in populations of the Americas
Population group frequency References
African Americans, US 7.7%-7.9% [Note 4] [9]
Bahia, Brazil 19% (19/100) [34]
Nicaraguans 5.5% (9/165) [35]
Alagoas, Brazil 4.45% (11/247) [36]
Cubans 9.8% (13/132) [37]

The Incidence of  E1b1a/M2/E-V38 in populations of the Caribbean and Spainish Americas Population group frequency References Dominicans 7.69% (2/26) [37] Puerto Ricans 19.23% (5/26) [37] Several populations of Colombians 6.18% (69/1116) [39] The Indigenous Carioca from Rio de JaneiroBrazil  tested positive for the E1b1a1a M58 SNP.[38]The Place of Origin and Age is Unreported, (hmmmpt I wonder why) What would that mean to have indigenous Africans in Pre-Columbian America?  A long and hard re-write of His-Story…. The Egyptian Y-Chromosome  variation links below: Ramesses E1b1a 23247979 HapgroupE.2011.tree.

Ancient Egyptian Origins

Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia

Y-chromosomal diversity in West Africa of Guinea-Bissau:

Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa

Preliminary Results of Sephardic -Hebrew Y-DNA  Haplogroup M2/E3a

Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and relationship with nearby regions”

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share Deepest Clades of the  Y -Chromo- E- Phylogengy:

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in North Africa Prehistoric Egypt”

Y-Chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians, Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

88 thoughts on “Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

Add yours

  1. Dear Billy

    Very impressive website !
    I am a Doctor and at present I am doing a short Egyptology course in the University of Oxford Summer School.
    Did the Original Egyptians come up the Nile Valley from mankind’s origins, or did they come from the L3 haplogroup that went across the Gates of Grief in Ethiopia to the near east and back down into Egypt again?
    (or a mixture of both) ?

    I am finding it difficult to find good information on this.

    Kind regards

    Dr. Stephen Doyle

    1. Thanks for stopping by Dr. Stephen Doyle !

      To answer your question correctly, when you say Original Egyptians are you talking about the Early Dynastic Period ?

      The Early Dynastic or 1st Dynasty of Egyptians/Kemitians originated in the

      Nile Valley Region. This would be the “South”, which is Lower Nubia or Upper Egypt,

      as these regions were Unified by the Egyptian King Narmer 3100-3050 B.C. (First King of Upper and Lower Egypt)

      I Believe that Egypt is another Nile Valley Civilization. From the

      White Nile to the Blue Nile…

      The Nile Valley Civilization…

      The White Nile respectively spills from Lake Victoria Uganda, near Kenya

      and flows north-bound meeting the Blue Nile spilling from Lake Tana in Ethiopia.

      Merging with the White Nile via Sudan-Khartoum/Nubia. With full Continuity flowing

      through Egypt and the Mediteranean Sea..

      This Nile Valley route has the same migration as certain Haplogroups Mtdna such as L2a1 and

      L3* and M1 from “South to North”.

      These particular haplogroups also share the migrations to and from West Asia’s middle east etc..

      L2a1, L3* and M1 have notable frequencies in Nile Valley, Ethiopia, Egypt, as well as Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman.

      The Paternal Y-chromosome migrations may differ from the

      Maternal Mtdna migrations, due to age of haplotype and place of origin/migration of Haplogroups..

      Below i will paste two different studies on migrations of Haplogroups mentioned.

      My Parents belong to the Nile Valley Kushite Nubian-Egyptian Haplogroups (Y-chromsome) M2 and mtDna L2a1.

      The Ethiopian Gate of tears on Mitochondrial Dna study below:

      And Guinea Bissau mtdna Study of Haplogroups of the Congo the Sahara and Parts of North Africa

      The Haplogroup chart is on page 5 shows Egypt and Nile valley frequency from WHITE NILE- BLUE NILE please turn page counter clockwise to view..

      Click to access MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

      ( You may find this book by George Steindorff and Keith C. Steele, useful as well titled ” When Egypt Ruled the East” ) pub.1942

      I hope, that I have answered your questions thoroughly, feel free to inquire about anything I may have left out.

      Thanks Again Doc !!

  2. Dear Billy

    Many thanks for your detailed reply.

    I am interested in the very First Egyptians Pre-Dynastic, Pre-historic.

    (I have to do a presentation to the Archeological Study Group on Thursday)

    I have read that the original migration from East Africa to Egypt along the Nile Valley and the Green Sahara was about 120,000 years ago

    but that this migration was killed off by the ice age 90,000 years ago, that

    turned the area into Extreme Desert.

    Earliest human remains found in the Skhul Cave are dated to about 90-100,000 years old.

    Then there was the migration 85,000 years ago across the gate of Grief/Tears that went up into the Middle East

    and then back down into Egypt.

    Do you think that any humans survived up in the Nile Delta during this Ice Age ?
    ( We are studying the Archaeology of the Nile delta).

    Or was there a second migration from South-East Africa up the Nile valley &/or across the desert into Egypt at around 85,000 years ago?

    I am trying to find out if the inhabitants of Egypt at around 80,000 years ago came from Africa via the Middle East or

    directly from South East Africa after the Last Ice Age (or both).

    Is it possible to tell this from the present day genetics?

    I have read that all the non African humans are from the L3 branch but Egypt seems to be partly Africa and partly “rest of the world” – a sort of bridge…


    1. Thanks for your reply Stephen !

      So you want to know if any humans survived the Ice Age and inhabited Egypt around 80,000 years ago ?

      There are actually 4 mtDnA groups within the age range you mentioned from 85,000- 188,000. That also has notable frequencies in Egypt/Nile Valley

      L0 has a East African origin and is 112,000-188,000 B.P.

      ( this group would be the first up the Nile )

      L1 has a East African origin and is 107,6000-174,300 B.P.

      L2 has a East African origin and is 87,000-111,100 B.P.

      L3 has a East African origin and is 84,000-104,000 B.P.

      The Haplogroup “L0” is the Mitochrodrial Eve , and her descendants are as follows:

      Loa, L1, L2, L3 etc..

      These groups of today also has note-worthy frequencies in Egypt/Nile Valley,

      Loa has a frequency of 11% in Egypt and Nile Valley

      L1* has a frequency of 5% in Egypt and Nile Valley

      L2* has a frequency of 2% in Nile Valley.

      L2a frequency is 20% in Egypt and Nile Valley

      L3* has a frequency of 11% in Nile Valley.

      This study was conducted around 7 years ago..

      The haplogroup L family are considered indigenous to Africa/Egypt and Nile Valley..

      Egypt has relation to Asia and Europe due to its prime location. It is the door way out of Africa as well is the Horn of Africa.

      On page 2 of my blog there is a interesting article by Debra Katz entitled Saga of Sepharda on mtdna migrations..

      Thanks Again for your time..

      1. Dear Billy,

        Your answer to Dr. Doyle’s question is what I’ve been trying to figure out for months

        (re: if any humans survived the Ice Age and inhabited Egypt during that period).

        I’m compiling a cultural history of Egypt but got side tracked by their ancient prehistory,

        Hence, I’ve got a years worth of DNA studies piled in my office and its been an exciting adventure tracing

        Egyptians throughout time, plus, how migrations out of Africa, back migrations, Arab infux, etc. affected them.

        My problem is that I’m writing an ‘academic’ paper and have to back up everything

        I write with a primary source (research study/journal article).

        What articles did you read that made you come up with your answer to

        Dr. Doyle about the L0, L1, L2, L3, L4 frequencies in Egypt/Nile Valley Egyptians today:

        L0 at 11%; L1 at 5%, etc., etc.?

        Or is it just one, the one you say is 7 years old. What article is that?

        I can get the articles off my University’s Database if you don’t have the links to them,

        I just need to know how you came to that conclusion, which article(s).

        Your website is great by the way! I’m glad I stumbled upon you!

        Thanks, Cheri

      2. Hello Cheri, Thanks for stopping by..

        To answer your question precisely, you wanted know how i came to my conclusion?

        Dr.Doyle wanted to know if there were any humans that survived the Ice-Age during pre-dynastic times..

        Mitochondrial DNA and fossil evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago

        The Second part of my conclusion, was the todays populations of Nilotic and Asiatic-Africans in Egypt.

        This study was conducted by University College London (2004). its actually six years ago….

        The mtDna Chart is on page.5 turn page clock-wise to view…

        Click to access MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

        This Study is pertaining to Haplogroups Lo, L1, L2, L3

        Haplogroups L4, L5 and L6 are listed in the

        Ethiopian and Yeminis mtdna Chart

        Ethiopian across the Gate of Tears Study…

        It should also be noted that mtDNA lineages of

        “Ethiopian, Egyptian, and Yemeni” populations, the MDS plot (fig. 3) Clustered, Together with Egyptians,

        P.S ( all my claims are backed by citations, i try not to speculate)

        Have a Tour of my Blog for more citations and studies, Hope this helps with your research..


  3. Dear Billy

    Perfect! Many thanks.
    What is your background so that I can give you credit in my talk..
    Are you a professional geneticist or just an interested amateur?
    Are you living in the USA Now?

    (Us Europeans are great admirers of Barack Obama! )


    1. It was my absolute pleasure Stephen !!

      To answer your inquiry, no I am not a Professional Geneticist ..

      I am a individual intrigued with Ancestry, Anthropology, Genetics and Geneology, discovering my Parents Ethnic-Origins..

      And a true (Anthro’pologite)

      If I may, I would like to describe in short detail the genetic journey of my parents which began 3-6 years ago..

      I Belong to Haplogroup mtDna L2a1 and Hapolgroup M2

      My Ethnic background as far as that is concerned..

      I am a Hamitic/Khamitic, Asiatic-African or Hamito-Semitic
      {ሃሚተ-Hamite, ከሚተ-Kemite, ኩስሂተ-Kushite as well as an አፁሚተ-Axumite}

      My Nationalities would be,

      Ethiopian-Nubian Egyptian American..

      Myself and my Sister began our journey with the use of

      Geneology and sur-name back ground checks, and we utilized the U.S.

      Census records, from the year 1870 until present, to locate our lost ancestors/relatives..

      It was revealed, that at least for 133 years,

      My family’s ethnic identity was listed as Mulatto/Indian (native americans)

      Excerpt from 1705 Virginia Law:

      (82 years before U.S. Constitution 1787-1788)

      ”Be it enacted and declared, and it is hereby enacted and declared, That the child of an Indian and the child, grandchild, or great grandchild, of a negro shall be deemed, accounted, held and taken to be a Mulatto.”

      Source: Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large, vol. 3, pp. 250-251, 252.

      I have updated *Henings Statutes at Large 1705* to Wikipedia.
      ( )

      NOTE: the Virtual Jamestown site says this 1705 LAW was the FIRST DEFINITION OF A MULATTO IN VIRGINIA LAWS and it states THE CHILD OF AN INDIAN shall be deemed, accounted, held and taken to be a MULATTO.

      Virginia Jamestown Law:

      Henings Statues at Law p.252 (Who are mulattos)

      Relabeling Indians into Mulattos in Virginia

      Mulatto was also used interchangeably with the terms like “Turk”, leading to Further ambiguity when referring to many

      North Africans and west Asia Middle Easterners.

      Mulattos and or Melungeons are of mixed racial origins and are sometimes considered tri-racial isolates..
      ( )
      ( )

      Unfortunately back in 1924 in Virginia and under the Racial integrity Act
      ( )

      My entire family lost their Ethnic “Indian” identity and would forever be

      classified as Colored, Negroes, Blacks/African Americans..

      These terms do Not constitute a persons nationality or origin, they are narrow minded racial classifications….

      Moving along …….. myself and my sister was told by our

      Mother and Aunt that we were descended from either the

      Siouan speaking Cheraw Native Americans from Danville Virginia or the

      Lumbee Genetic Chart of Y-chromo E1b1a and L2a etc.

      Eastern Band Cherokee from parts of North Carolina

      ( my mom’s is from danville, virginia and my pops is from roebeson county north carolina )

      (There is a piece of literature entitled “Of the Servants and Slaves in Virginia” by Robert Beverley)(first ed.) published around 1705, records the mulattos and indians as

      having the same social status going back over 300 years ago on American Soil before today’s U.S. Constitution was put into place..

      (Slaves for Life or Servants for a Time..) Negroes were considered Slaves and Indians and Mulattos were Servants for a time..

      In order to join a so called Native American Tribe, one must have at least one grand parent listed on the Dawes Rolls list or

      United States Census records listed as Mulattos from 1900-1923

      ( as i mentioned earlier, my family is listed far back as 133 years ago as mulattos therefore would qualify as Native Americans)


      One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

      Northeastern Virginia and the Washington, DC, Metropolitan area.

      As well Other Metropolitan Cities

      So, our next move was to take a Blood type test, understanding that Native Americans from Southeast/Midwest and all of

      Central and South America are almost Exclusive to Blood type O.
      ( )
      Blood type distrubution by country

      Needless to say, myself and my sister’s results revealed that we were 100% O positve..

      All of the Commonwealth of Virginia used to be Virginia Indian Territory,
      An area estimated to have been occupied by Indigenous Peoples for more than 12,000 years

      Click to access Heritage%20Trail_2ed.pdf

      ( I believe today’s population of Egypt/Nile Valley has 33% blood type O and 36% blood type A, as well as other blood types.)

      (Abyssinia/Ethiopians has 43% O blood type and 27% A blood type, and Kikuyu from Kenya are 60% O blood type and 19% A blood.)

      Blood typing gives us a very broad perspective of human grouping and ethnic origins, so our ultimate and final step was DNA.

      I volunteered to take the test , due to the fact that males can test for both Parents Dna, as Females cannot.

      Females only pass down their Maternal mtDna they do have the Paternal Y-chromosome Dna.

      If you need a Professional opinion, you can use the citations i pasted, prior to this conversation..

      It will give you a list of concrete dates and evidence/facts as well as the Geneticist/Institutions involved with the research.

      Once again it was great speaking with you, best of wishes to your Project !!


      If i may also ask, you are a Dr. in which field ?

      Thanks again Dr. Doyle

      Billy Gambela

      ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

    1. No problem at all, thanks for stopping by... Stephen..

      Billy Gambela
      ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

  4. Hello ….

    I believe that I am M2/E3a,

    I also would like know if the Egyptians where E-M2 ?

    The same as the Nubians ?

    1. Hey Keni !

      Thanks for stopping by..

      Your question, was the Egyptians related to E/M2 Haplogroup ?

      The Male Egyptian population are related by the

      Ethiopian PN2 marker/transition that ties the triad M2, M35 and

      M78, together..

      The Y-Chromosomes that are the most prevalent among the Egyptians are as follows: M2, M35 and M78

      M2 has a frequency of 27.3% among the Egyptian males of the south, Upper Egypt

      and 39.1 % among the Nubians from Upper/Lower Nubia, in Northern Sudan… a total of around 67% in Egypt...

      M2 is mostly associated with Nubians, it has the highest frequency of the 3 groups in Nubia and among Nilo Saharans.

      So in short … Yes some Egyptians are M2 as well as the other 2 groups mentioned..

      I would also like to ask, where are you located ? US, UK, Africa, etc...

      What is your ethnic background ?

      What Dna service did you use, and what the haplogroup assigned to you ?

      Did you take a test for the maternal mtdna, and if so what was your assigned haplogroup ?

      ( At the bottom of this article is the Genetic Report to conclude Egyptian y-dna. note: M2 is IV Haplotype from study )

      Click to access keita6.pdf

      Thanks again for your time..

  5. Thanx for you’re quick reply !

    I am from Mongo people descendant (north of Congo D.R.) originated from East africa (upper nile) and Southern Sudan.

    I will soon do the test (maybe next week) which DNA service can i choose ?

    Who is more “correct” National Geographic or Ancestry Project ?

    Which one do you use ?

    I live in Brussels.

    1. No Problem at all...

      I have used both services

      National Genographic $99.00 only administers the 12 marker test for your Y-chromosome,

      however I find the migratory routes, and simulated maps to be very useful!

      Ancestry DNA $79.00-$149.00 gives you a choice of a 33 or 46 marker test for your Y-Chromosome..
      I find them both to be pretty accurate, as for which to chose between is truly a toss-up.

      I have used both, you may use one from each, for each Parent…

      There are also African Ancestry 9 marker test for only $299.00

      African Dna 25 marker test for only $189.00 for your Y-Chromosomes as well...

      Family Tree Dna has a 12-67 marker Y-chromsome test from $119.00-$268.00.. I hear a lot of good things from them as well...

      (Most Dna companies offer the same services, however you must do constructive research to conclude your findings)

      1. I wonder why African Ancestry only offers a 9 marker test, and charge $299.

        Would this 9 marker test be accurate enough to determine anything extensive enough to use?

        We have chosen to use African Ancestry for our DNA tests.

        Now, I feel that we should have chosen another company for more in depth testing with more markers.

    1. I belong to the Nubian, Egyptian mtdna L2a1 as well the Nubian-Egyptian clade M2

      Thanks again Keni,

      let me know how your results work out after you have taken the Dna test....

      ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

  6. Why everbody is saying that E-M2 is a “negroid” marker ?

    Is it true ?

    Because a lot of bantu speaking people have it.

    1. U really have to read the report I pasted prior to this conversation..

      M2 is associated with the Sub-Saharan population.. They are considered to be Negroid, which is a term I do not use.

      M2 has a strong affiliation with the Africans in the southern parts of the Sahara and Congo..

      Even with this being said. The PN2 markers, Unites the Egyptian Triad group M2, M35 which is associated with the south as well,

      and the Northern origin haplotype M78.

      These 3 groups are intricately related...

    1. Anytime.. Be in touch with you soon.

      Best of wishes with your ancestry search....

  7. Hmmm..

    Something very familiar about the above text– can’t quite put my finger on it though……

    LOL 🙂

    1. Hey there.. Lady M !

      I actually saw it on on your Blog !

      I was being a bit more creative with Title...

      Thanks for stopping by....

      I like your Blog... very interesting !

      ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

  8. Mr. Gambela,

    I have asked many so-called experts to prove
    or disprove the notion of Tutsis being related to
    ancient Egyptians.
    But only Martin Bernal had the courtesy
    the others have done multiple studies with west Africans instead of Somalis,Ethiopians or Tutsis that phenotitically closer
    to Egyptians.

    Do you now any non-political scientist who would pursue this study ?


    Eric Kira

    Dr. Tishkoff,

    I wonder why all comparative DNA studies use
    African samples from west Africa when it is
    clear that phenotipically and geographically
    It looks like avoiding the obvious

    ancient Egyptians are closer to East Africans
    Please find more facts
    that support my assertion that Tutsis

    are descendants of ancient Egyptians

    since we are related to Ethiopians

    II truly hope that we can seize this opportunity to advance the

    Knowledge of Africa’s contribution to the world.

    Please find attached the descendants of:

    Burundi’s Royal Family

    I am the grandson of “Prince (umuganwa) Joseph Kiraranganya”

    As you probably know the Tutsis of Burundi are pastoralists

    who migrated from north of Africa.They also have certain customs

    similar to ancient Egyptians before the Greek,roman and Islamic

    invasions.Phenotypically, Tutsis are similar to Somalis and ancient

    I would be be willing to undergo a comparative DNA test to

    clarify this mystery. I would be an ideal candidate since Tutsi Royals

    never married outside their clans…

    I am convinced it would put a stop to the false debate of

    Egyptian being Europeans.

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary population from Egypt.

    Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, Kefi R, Paris F, Gayraud RP, Spadoni
    JL, El-Chenawi F, Béraud-Colomb E.

    INSERM U387 – Laboratoire d’Immunologie, Hôpital Sainte Marguerite, 270
    Boulevard Sainte Marguerite, BP29, 13274 Marseille Cedex 09, France.

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of 58 individuals from Upper Egypt,
    more than half (34 individuals) from Gurna, whose population has an ancient
    cultural history, were studied by sequencing the control-region and
    screening diagnostic RFLP markers. This sedentary population presented
    similarities to the Ethiopian population by the

    L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup

    frequency (20.6%), by the West Eurasian component

    (defined by haplogroups H to K and T to X )

    and particularly by a high frequency (17.6%) of haplogroup M1 .

    We statistically and phylogenetically analysed and compared the Gurna
    population with other Egyptian, Near East and sub-Saharan Africa
    AMOVA and Minimum Spanning Network analysis showed that the
    Gurna population was not isolated from neighbouring populations.
    Our results suggest that the Gurna population has conserved the trace
    of an ancestral genetic structure from an ancestral East African population,
    characterized by a high M1 haplogroup frequency.
    The current structure of the Egyptian population may be the result of further influence of neighbouring
    populations on this ancestral population.

    Publication Types:

    a.. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t;;

    This email and any files transmitted with it are confidential and intended
    solely for the use of the individual or entity to which they are addressed.
    If you are not the intended recipient, you are notified that disclosing,
    copying, modifying, distributing or taking any action in reliance on the
    contents of this information is strictly prohibited. Please notify the
    sender immediately by email if you have received this by mistake and delete
    this email from your system.

    L’information contenue dans ce courriel et les fichiers qui l’accompagnent
    est confidentielle et réservée exclusivement au destinataire. Si le lecteur
    de ce message n’est pas le destinataire prévu, toute divulgation, copie,
    distribution ou action prise ou abandonnée sur la foi de celui-ci est
    interdite. Si vous avez reçu cette communication par erreur, veuillez en
    aviser immédiatement l’expéditeur par courriel et effacez le message de
    votre ordinateur.


    No virus found in this incoming message.
    Checked by AVG –
    Version: 8.5.392 / Virus Database: 270.13.35/2271 – Release Date: 07/29/09


    No virus found in this incoming message.
    Checked by AVG –
    Version: 8.5.392 / Virus Database: 270.13.38/2274 – Release Date: 07/31/09

    1. Hotep ! ሆተፕ !

      Brother Kiraranganya thanks for stopping by..

      First let me say it a pleasure and honor to be of service to you and your family.

      To answer to inquiries correctly, secondly

      let me say that Ethiopians definitely share genetic ancestry with Nubians as well the Egyptians..

      I carry the genetic markers ( mtDna L2a1/ Y-chr M2/E3a ) related to Amhara Ethiopians, Nubians, Egyptians , Kenyans,

      Ugandans, and various ethnicities from Tanzania, Mozambique as well other regions in Central East and South East Africa..

      The Y-chromosome M2, that I have inherited, are also related to the Tutsis males.

      Professor Yochanan (Jean) Bwejeri

      I have not found any conclusive evidence of a designated haplogroup for the Maternal Tutsis Dna..

      However, I do believe that they would be related to my family as well..

      I also believe that you hold the key to unlocking your ancestors past,

      Being the Males can test for Both Maternal and Paternal Dna..

      I will also paste a link of a Y-chromsome study that was conducted by Dr. S.O.Y. Keita, that ties the

      Nubian Subsaharan/Congo related Y-Chromosome M2 with the Ethiopian/Egyptian haplogroups M35 and M78..

      These 3 Y-chromosomes M2, M35, M78 are related paternally by the Marker PN2...

      These 3, Y-chromosomes also make up the Highest frequencies of the Ethiopian/Nubian/Egyptian Male population...

      As for the Maternal Dna Genetics, I have studies that binds the Congo population to the Horn of Africa as well the Sahara , Nile Valley and Egypt..

      As I mentioned I belong to mtDNA L2a1, which has relation to North, Central, East and South East Africa

      Haplogroup L1b
      has relation to Nubians and Egyptians as well as Tali, Fulani, Lemba and Igbo Nigerians..

      Haplogroups L0a1 is related to Amhara Ethiopians as well as Tigrai, and Nubians

      L2a1a , and L3e1/L3d1 may have relation to the

      Tutsis Female, for they are related to the Nyungwe, Tswa and

      Oromo Ethiopians,

      of course only the actual mtdna results will resolve the facts..

      If you are truly interested in taking both Maternal and Paternal DNA test..

      I would suggest 46 Y-marker $149.99 ( for the Male Test, and

      The Genographic Project’s HV1 mtDna Test $99.00 ( for the Female Results..

      Genetic Citations and Studies pasted below:

      Y-chromosome Study on the Variation of the Egyptian Male ( )

      I have 2 mtDna Studies, One is from West Africa, however it has a Chart on pg.5 that breaksdown the African Macro-Haplogroup L. from the Congo to Sahara .

      Click to access MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

      The other mtDna study is from South America, I will personally email this to you, it has a clear breakdown of haplogroups related to the Congo and Saharan Africa…

      In the meantime, if you have any other questions or inquiries , feel free to contact me on my blog or direct email..


      let me know the outcome of your results..I would love to Help !

      Billy Gambela
      ብልልይ ። ግምብለ

  9. Hehe.…. can you post a video on Youtube PLEAAASE

    I would like u too !!!

    People are always claiming E3B as caucasoid !

    You’re blog rocksss!!!!!

    1. Hotep ! ሖተፕ and Shalom ! ስሃሎም

      Thanks for checking my blog,

      I am currently trying to assemble some video footage for the near future..

      In the mean time if you would like to see footage from the actual scientist involved with this particular study click link below

      The following footage was filmed in the U.K. it is Dr. Soy Keita explaining the Bio Cultural Origins of Egypt..

      M2 , M35 and M78 are related paternally through the PN2 marker…

      (part 3-4 of the video explains this E3b/M35 relation to the congo affiliated E3a/M2)

      Thanks for Stopping by…

      Billy Gambela
      ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

  10. Hello Billy,

    First off, your site is really interesting and informative.

    Secondly, I wanted to know your thoughts on where

    Igbos originated from?

    I’m born to two Igbo parents, and our traditions have mainly been

    passed down orally.

    My mtDNA haplogroup is L1b and the Y-DNA taken from my brother

    showed E1b1 with the shorthand being E-P2/PN2.

    I apologize if you may have already addressed this question on your site.

    Also, on the history of Sephardic Jews in Africa.

    I‘m trying to see if there is any connection to some with my


    Any insight you can share on this would be appreciated.

    1. Shalom ስሃሎም and Greetings...

      Thanks for stopping by Laura !.

      To answer your inquiry correctly,

      let me first say that I am not proclaiming the origin the of the Igbo people,

      However i will do my best to elaborate on the migrations of both of your Haplogroups..

      Haplogroup L1b has a Eastern or SouthEast origin and approximately 30, 000 years B.P.

      L1b has a completely different Geographical Distribution within Africa.

      It is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa (particularly geographically adjacent areas,

      connected by the West African coastal pathway) but little in East, Southeastern, or Southern Africa.

      It is also common in socalled African Americans
      (~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

      A simple interpretation would therefore attribute a West African distribution to L1b, with significant diffusion into North and Central Africa.

      However, because the coalescence time of L1b is estimated at only ~30,000 years,

      Whereas its sister clade, L1c, is estimated at ~60,000 years old—a recent bottleneck and

      Reexpansion in West Africa may have shaped the evolution of L1b.

      Given the likely origin of its sister clade L1c in Central Africa, a Central African Origin seems plausible for L1b as well.

      Your mtDNA haplogroup L1b shows she is relative to

      Lemba who are said to have the Hebrew relation.

      Your L1b is also related to Fulbe/Fulani which also

      has a Hebrew and Nile Valley Affiliation....

      Lastly L1b is descended from the Egyptian population as well, and would be one of the

      earlier groups up the Nile...

      There is a article on my blog entitled Saga of Sepharda which elaborates on the Sephardic Migrations…

      This is also a study from the College London University from 2004,

      The Chart on pg.5 has Haplogroup breakdown..

      Click to access MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

      As for your Paternal Haplogroup

      E1b1/PN2 or P2,

      He does have relation to the Egyptian triad M2, M35,


      The Ethiopian Marker PN2 is the paternal Father of both groups

      Nubian/M2 and the Egyptian/M35 which mutates into the

      Northern Egyptian/M78 clade..

      The Haplogroup E1b1 is approximately 35,000 years old and has an East African Orgin…

      E1b1/ PN2 shows strong relation to the Ethiopian Hebrew Family ..

      I will also paste Dr. Soy Keita from Howard University, 2005

      Y-chromosome Egyptian Study.. This deals with the PN2 relation to 75% of African Continent.. as well as Sephardic Hebrew Africans..

      Click to access keita6.pdf

      Sephardic Hebrew % among Haplogroup E

      M2/IV8.4% , M35/XI – 6.8% and M78/V – 18.6% as a total of 33.8% among Sephardic Jews..

      I will also paste a video from Dr.Keita explaining your father’s PN2 marker, on the Bio Cultural Origins of Egypt..

      ( part 4 deals with PN2 marker, but please watch full video)

      I have a mtDNA study from Brazil that shows L1b relation to Lemba , Fulani and Egyptians..

      ( all the above, who are said to have hebrew/jewish lineage )

      I will personally email this study to you, I hope that i have answered your questions..

      Feel free to email me if you have any further questions...

      I would also like to ask what country are you from ?

      Which Dna company did you use ?

      Billy Gambela
      ብልልይ ። ግምብለ

  11. This is to Shed some Light on the idea of Tutsi migration from Egypt!
    I think what should be Investigated is Tutsi migration to Egypt!!
    The identity of Pastorlist East Africans to the Rift Valley areas has increasingly been proven .
    So the idea that they are migrants into the interior from Egypt is just proselytizing,
    The Hamitic Hypothesis which has been debunked by most Scholars.
    In my next post I will shed light with some Studies.

    1. Hotep ሆተፕ and Shalom ስሃሎም, Thanks for your comments..

      So let me ask you, do you belong to the Tutsi Clan?
      Also did you participate in a Dna Origin Test.
      I recently spoke with Eric Kira of the Royal Tutsi family who belongs to the Grandson of “Prince
      (Umuganwa) Joseph Kiraranganya” He Belongs E3a/M2 the same as myself and my Grandfather..
      Nubian-Egyptian clad E3a/M2 @ 67% in Nubia-Egyptian and Tutsi Males @ 80% and Kenyan Males @ 52%
      Males in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya

      Click to access keita6.pdf

      (P.S. I look forward to reading the migration studies you have on Tutsis)

      Thanks for Stopping by..

      Billy Gambela

    1. Hello Nefer! welcome back,

      I would love to do a full analysis for you, however I will at least need your HVR1 sequences.

      This will clearly show your migration and related peoples/regions..

  12. But, it doesn’t?

    I can scan the letters for you to see. There are no numbers at all?

    It also tells me that the Mende sequences share and A in position 6.

    1. You used African Ancestry?

      I am not sure what to make of that?

      Your HVR1/HVR2 and or Code Regions should have numbers and letters..

      Can you email this to the address I gave you ?

      Upon having a closer look at the results, African Ancestry Displayed your (CRS) results from your HVR1 but Not the HVR1 motif.

      Your HVR1 is 1/3 of your Mitochondria Genome Sequence,
      HV2 is 2/3 and your Coding Region is 3/3 Full Genome Sequenced..

      When mitochondrial DNA testing is used for Genealogical purposes,

      The results are usually reported as differences from the revised CRS.

      Such differences are not necessarily mutations:

      The CRS is a reference sequence rather than a record of the earliest human mtDNA.

      In Human Mitochondrial Genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Haplogroup and
      Major subclade of Haplogroup L (mtDNA).

      Though it is typically used to refer to a family of lineages found in Africa, L1 is sometimes referred to as
      Haplogroup L1-6, which is the macrohaplogroup that includes the majority of African lineages and all non-African lineages.

      Haplogroup L1* and according to the study of mtDNA profile of West Africans here is L1* related ethnicities..

      Nigeria 1%, Egypt 1%, Mozambique 6%, Ethiopia 4%, Kenya/Sudan 16%, Nile Valley 4% and Kung Khwe @ 69%..

      This Haplogroup L1* shows a Strong Southern presence, in the Kung Khwe and Bush people as well as other Pygmies..

      Haplogroup L1* also has a slight eastern presence in Ethiopians, Sudanese, Kenyans, and NileValley with a very small
      portion in Egypt as well as Nigeria in the West..

      NOTE: I can not be definitive about your migration or related ethnicities without HVR1&2 or Code Region numbers/motif..

      Click to access MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

      1. I’m not sure why I didn’t get any HVR1 numbers.

        But, they said the test was a 100% match to the Mende peoples in Sierra Leone, and Kru peoples in Liberia, from the results.

        I’ve looked at some migration maps according to the language/speech, and it shows migration may be from Egypt, and Nubia, and maybe Sudan/Nuba.


        In fact, historical, archaeological and architectural support the fact that the Bassa, Kloa, Wee, Belle, Grebo, Gbii, River Cess Bassa, Kplor, and Dei ethnicities are not only autochthones but also that their vernacular is prototype of which the Bassa is the largest. Likewise, Kpelle, Loma, Mende, Kissi, Gbandi, Gola, Vai, and Mandingo are autochthones of which the Kpelle who migrated from Egypt, is the largest.

  13. Your Haplgroup L1* has an East African origin @ 174,300 B.P.

    So according to modern genetics, you would have a migration that

    Would have its Origin in the Eastern parts of Africa.

    I have no doubt that you would have relations to Nubia/Egypt/Sudan.

    I have displayed the frequencies of Haplogroup L1* from my prior comments, which corroborates an eastern affinity..

    My main objective is that you dont have the HVR1&2 seq numbers to do a Comparative search..

    Your Haplogroup L1 HVR1 may come close to another subclade, but without this information makes it difficult to be absolutely positive..

    Click to access ScienPapers%5CThe_Making_of_the_African_mtDNA_Landscape.pdf

    1. The only thing I can find right now from National Genographic Project is, L1 originates from what is now Ethiopia or Sudan. I am very disappointed with my results from African Ancestry.

      I paid a lot of money for my results, and they seem not to be what I need to find a migration for my haplogroup.

    1. Hello Nefer,

      It is truly as toss-up between the two, however both companies are somewhat affiliated.

      1. Genographic provides the 12 markers, has nice migration presentation. Only provides HVR1 $99.00

      2. Ancestry by Dna. by Dna Diagnostic Center, Provides the HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3
      All three regions for
      $199.99 (note this is not a FGS test)

      3. Family Tree DNA provides the Control Region HVR1, HVR2, as well as your

      Code Region/ FGS (full genome sequence) most definitive test. $279.00. The UPGRADE price is $199.00 from HVR1 to FGS from genographic via FTDNA..

      A.) So with option one its least expensive, however it only places you in a Haplogroup from HVR1 perspective.

      ( genographic allows you to upgrade to FGS via FTDNA for additional charge and transfer permission)..

      B.) With option 2 you can test HVR1,2,3 with option or 3 you can test for the FGS (full genome sequence) and be done with mtdna).

      As well as finding the closest relative from inside or outside your country of residence..

      Furthermore this upgrade places you in a more recent and definitive Haplogroup/Subclade.

      (family tree has a very extensive Dna databases, you will find very useful for comparative reasons)

      As for now, these may your best choices.

      1. Hi Billy!

        I just ordered 2 of the Family Tree mtDNA (FGS) full genome sequence tests.

        I will update with the results as soon as I receive them.

        I pray that this time around, we will give better results than what I received from African Ancestry…what a waste of money, and time with them!

        I wouldn’t recommend them at all.

        My husband’s Y chromosome test results from African Ancestry, put him at 100% Spain & Portugal.

        Yet, they assigned No haplogroup for him.

  14. I hope you find this company useful, let me know how your results work out?

  15. Salaam,

    I am trying to find an article that I found not too long ago regarding a Nubian man that came to the U.S.,
    He wanted his race changed from “white” to “black”, and lost his case.
    Have you heard of this?
    I can’t find this article anymore, and I hope that you have heard about it.

    1. Alaykum As Salaam, Hello Nefer

      Yes i have heard the article, I actually posted it under my Beja/Queen Tiye Post.

      The Nubian gentlemen who’s name is Mustafa Henfy, was suing the U.S. Govt,

      The OMB (office of management and budget) for listing his race as White.

      (excerpt from online article: Egyptian immigrant sues U.S. Government to Change Race from White to Black)

      A Dark-Skinned Egyptian immigrant recently filed a suit in

      Detroit to get the Federal Government to Change his Racial Classification from White to Black.

      The man, Mostafa Hefny, 46, said his Classification

      Is Based solely on his Country of Origin, and it has kept him from

      Seeking jobs, Grants, Scholarships and Loans as a member of a minority group.

      Hefny said although he’s from Egypt, his Ancestry is from the

      Ancient Black Kingdom of Nubia, now a part of modern Egypt and Northern Sudan.

      His suit targets Directive No. 15 of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget,

      Which defines {Blacks} as having (Origins) with the
      (Black Racial Groups) of Africa and

      {Whites} as having (Origins) with (Original) peoples of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, including Egypt.

      Hefny, a Naturalized U.S. citizen, said his Hair is Kinkier,

      His Completion is Darker and his features are more African than Blacks Such as Detroit Mayor Dennis Archer and retired Gen. Colin Powell.

      “I was Born and raised in Africa and they were Not,” he said.

      “And yet they ( in the u.s.) are classified as Black and I am classified as White.” No court date had been set for the Lawsuit..

      COPYRIGHT 1997 Johnson Publishing Co.
      COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning

      (pictures of mostafa henfy courtesy of cnn: click link below)

      {Here is an excerpt from the OBAMA’s administration OMB)
      (obama’s office of management and budget)

      (b) Black

      The Term “Black” in Directive No. 15 refers to a person having origins in any of the Black Racial Groups of Africa.

      There were suggestions to change the definition to “persons having origins in any of the Black peoples of Africa,”

      Or to define the term to include All Black persons regardless of Country of Origin or Country of Citizenship.

      Requests were made to identify Blacks according to the Geographic Region of their Ancestors.

      “African-American” and “Black African-American” were suggested as names for the category

      [the suggestions of “Black American” and the newly “Amero-Fian”
      (Described as Blacks who are American Natives, European, and West African)

      (more excerpts.)

      (1) Collect Data for Black ethnic groups according to Geographic Origin of Black Ancestors:

      (African, Haitian, Jamaican, Caribbean, West Indian, Brazilian, Ethiopian, etc.)

      Blacks born in Brazil or the Caribbean (especially immigrants)

      Do Not Identify with the Term, “African American.”

      Some Blacks who have been in the United States for Generations have

      (No Record) of where in {Africa} their (Ancestors)

      were Born or (Origin) and Do Not wish to be called


      {Mid-1997 OMB Publishes Final Decision regarding any changes to Directive No. 15 in a Federal Register notice}
      (See OMB under Clinton Oct 1997 pasted in prior comments)

      Billy Gambela
      {2010 Census Link below}

  16. Salaam,

    Thank you so much!

    I have been searching for this for hours,
    and I was almost positive I saw it HERE!.
    You have made my Day!
    Now, I can share this with other Family Members.

    1. My Pleasure,

      I love to share information..

      Please let me know when you receive your FGS results from FTDNA..

      Stay in touch..

  17. Salaam,

    Here is what I have so far for my

    Paternal DNA:

    DYS 393 – 15
    DYS 390 – 21
    DYS 19/394 – 15
    DYS 391 – 10
    DYS 388 – 12
    DYS 389-1 – 13
    DYS 392 – 12
    DYS 389-2 – 30

    This is just an 8 marker test. I am currently adding more markers to be tested. And, also I believe so far this is E1b1a.

    What information do you have for this?

    1. Salaikum As Salaam..

      Welcome back Nefer… I am not sure what to make out of your sequence..
      You could be the several other haplotypes under E1b1a,
      8 markers
      is not enough for a comparative match..
      Haplogroup E1b1a is found through out 80% of African Males…
      Some of its Sublclades are M2, M191, etc…

      Haplogroup E1b1a in found in

      West Africa, North Africa, East and Sub-Equatorial, as well as South-West Asia (Middle East)

      It is among, Tutsis, Nubians, Egyptians, Senegalese, Sudanese, Nigerians, Moors, Sephardic Hebrews etc..

      Let me know, once you have the full 67 markers and a definitive sub-haplogroup…..

    1. Thanks for stopping by..

      I have not found an isolated genetic reports on Haitians at this time.
      However many Haitians may share the same genetic mtDna and
      Y-Chromosomes as their fellow Caribbean folk..

      Genetic studies shows that the so called African American/Black male had the M2 SNP/E1b1a.
      It has been observed at a frequency of 82% in the (Americas/United States) of Paternal African Descent.
      In the northeast state of Bahia, Brazil, E1b1a was found at 18% of the state’s sample tested male population.

      As far as the maternal side the mtdna reports show some Haitians known as the Marabou belong to Macro Haplogroup L Family which has an African Origin

      Some of their descendants have come up with mtdna from the sub-Saharan haplogroup L3,
      Yet others have come up with the East Indian mtdna haplogroup M2.

      These are Haitians that are well integrated in Haitian society.
      Marbou show no Taino Amerindian DNA.
      Marabou is a term of Haitian origin denoting multiracial admixture.

      Some Haitains may belong to Haplogroups L1a, L2a/L2a1 as does the Dominican Republic. (specifically L1a and L2a), from East Africa (Salas et al., 2002).

      The results indicate that although both Haiti and Jamaica display Genetic affinities with the Continental African collections, a Stronger African signal is detected in Haiti than in Jamaica.

      Jamaica displays Genetic input from both European and East Asian sources, an admixture profile similar to other New World collections of African descent analyzed in this report.

      Click to access vieraviera.pdf

      Click to access ScienPapers%5CThe_Making_of_the_African_mtDNA_Landscape.pdf

      Until a comprehensive Dna study is published, this would be comparatively sound.

      Thanks Again…

  18. Hi Billy,

    I want to share with you the results of my Genetic Journey through the Genographic Project of National Geographic and I’m identified as Haplogroup E1b1b1, M35 (Subclade E1b1b1a1, V12).
    I would appreciate if you could enlighten me about these results and what it says about me.
    FYI, I’m an Ethnic Somali.

    Type Y-Chromosome
    Haplogroup E1b1b1, M35 (Subclade E1b1b1a1, V12)

    Ahmed Dirie
    San Jose, CA

    1. Thanks for Stopping by Ahmed..

      Your Haplogroup M35/ E1b1b1a1,V12 is part of the
      Y-DNA Haplogroup E/PN2 family and its Subclades….

      M35 is approximately (22,400 B.P.) in age..
      This is the same time frame as Halfan Culture (24,000 B.P.)..

      They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan Tradition of Fishing.
      Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size,

      There is a greater concentration of artifacts,
      Indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering,
      But a sedentary population one that had settled, at least for a time.

      The Halfan is seen as the Parent Culture of the

      IberoMaurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.
      Sometimes seen as a protoAfroAsiatic Culture,

      This group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

      Haplogroup M35 is frequent among Somalis, Yemenis,

      Nubians and Egyptians and Ethiopian Hebrews,

      Ethiopian Amhara, Ethiopian Oromo, Ethiopian Wolayta,

      Mixed Ethiopians from the Horn and the Levant

      Borana (Oromo) from Kenya, Bantus from Kenya, NiloSaharans from Kenya..

      Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)-Lower Egypt, (28.8%)

      Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

      Click to access hape3b.pdf

      Click to access keita6.pdf

      Hope you will find this information useful..

      May i ask did you take an mtDna/FGS for you Maternal Side?

      1. Thanks Billy,

        Thanks for the useful explanations about my Y-DNA analysis and also providing me more useful info and links.
        To answer your question, No I did not take the Maternal test (mtDna) but requested paternal one since Somali lineage is based Paternal AncestrySomalis are Patriarchal Society.

        I call myself Somali(s) and Not Somalian(s), though English speakers use Somaliansorry for lecturing you about this but I always try not to miss an opportunity to remind others (ITS SOMALI NOT SOMALIAN).

        I’m more interested in pinning down my ancestry and hope to find a definitive answer to certain degree. But sadly, I do come from a society were almost all of its history is based oral narrative and not on written documentations.

        But for sure, the journey has begun to unlock my genetic journey.

        Ahmed Dirie

      2. Welcome Back Ahmed!
        Forgive me for the Americanize term, and Thanks for correcting me as to the proper pronunciation..
        I Will update my Blog as well, not to further offend any of my SOMALI East African Family..
        I Would be more than willing to assist you along your genetic journey….

  19. Salaam,

    I have just received part of my results back from Family Tree DNA for my paternal tests.

    My predicted haplogroup so far is E1b1a E-M2.

    I have no matches but, here are the first 25 markers out of 67:

    DYS# 393 390 19* 391 385a 385b 426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
    Alleles 15 21 15 10 16 19 11 12 13 13 12 30

    DYS# 458 459a 459b 455 454 447 437 448 449 464a** 464b** 464c** 464d**
    Alleles 16 8 10 11 11 27 14 21 32 13 15 16 17

    1. Welcome Back Nefer,

      Congratulations you belong the E-Family E1b1a/M2.

      This is a Y-Chromo/MacroHaplogroup. This Entire Article is about the E-PN2 family M2, M35, M78..

      I will place some data on M2 once again, Keep in mind to look at entire articles for previous information

      M2 can be found in 80% in Western Africa and 203% in Eastern Africa, but is also found in North Africa @ 28%

      This group is also found in South Africa and Middle East and Parts of Europe and Mediterranean.

      Wikipedia has the Origin of M2 as West Africa, But my finding shows a clear Eastern Origin.

      I have tried to explain my interpretation backed by citations and loads of evidence, only to have
      wikipedia disregard my information and distribution of E1b1a...

      (I will try to update this information to wikipedia, in the near future)

      The Distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by
      the ‘‘Bantu migrations (which occurred 3000-2500 B.C),’’ ?

      But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers Can Not be explained in this way…

      Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

      Who went on to people the Nile Valley in The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988).

      E1b1a/M2 has an Origin Date of 20,00030,000 B.P.

      This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

      Which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are “No Bantu speakers there either.”

      Egyptian Y-chromosome frequency of E1b1a/M2:

      Y-chromosome (IV) E-M2 is Diversified with

      (1.2% Lower Egypt, (27.3%) Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

      This Haplogroup E1b1a/M2 is also in North Africa and the Levant:

      Mauritania 8.0%, Algeria 8.5%, Libya 7.9% Supra Sahara Composite 4.4%

      Lebanon 3.7% , Iraq 1.4% and Palestine 1.4%, Oriental Jews 1.8% and Sephardic Hebrews 8.4%

      Haplogroup E1b1a has been found in 7.6% of a sample of Saudi Arabian population..


      M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

      Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-ians… Garners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

      A deep clade test will give u a definitive haplogroup after the 67 marker test, however there are not many publications at this time, that has studies on these newly named subclades…

      There are 34 subclades that you could belong to under E1b1a

      More Citations:

      Click to access keita6.pdf

      Click to access AVOTAYNU_XXIII_2.pdf
      Haplogroup E1b1a Melungeon/Mulatto by FTDNA
      (please check article above for more information on E1b1a)

  20. Salaam,

    Thank you for responding, and your interpretations.
    I am currently awaiting for the complete test markers, and subclades.

    My results are still pending. I will let you know as soon as they are done!

    I have checked that Wiki citation, and it doesn’t make any sense to me, and it cannot be a signature haplogroup for “Bantu migrations“, since it is older than when the migrations occurred.

    I wholeheartedly agree that it has an Eastern Origin.

    You have done a great job in your research findings regarding this haplogroup.

    Thanks again 🙂

    1. You are Very Welcome...

      Thanks for your support.. As the research continues 🙂

      (I just updated the wiki page on E1b1a to Origin North Africa or East Africa)

      lets see how long , before they take this information down again…

      1. So, with this new information that I have from the results, what does it say for my paternal background?

        Excellent job on updating the Wiki page!!

        Now, all you need to do is create a map to show your findings, and get rid of this map:

        Because it really doesn’t correspond with the findings.

      2. Welcome Nefer,

        I am sorry, but let me be clear

        I have elaborated as much as i can for E1b1a for the time being, and will continue to do so.

        Regarding your DYS and Alleles, Once you have your completed 67 marker and Deep Subclade test,
        You can comparatively match your sequences and subclades to its pertaining groups and migrations..

        Also keep in that you may not find studies or matches pertaining to the newer subclades, until they are available.

        It would be incomplete to make an assertion about your sequence when it is still in the processing stage...

        As for the Map showing E1b1a Distribution,

        This an Interpretation of the West African E3a population of Guinea-Bissau:
        with some South African Migration, possibly the Bantu Expansion…

        We could show the Niger-Congo or Afro-Asiatic map to explain E3a linguistic Distribution as well.

        Its all about how your information and evidence concludes your interpretation, other wise its just rhetoric..

        Thanks Again 🙂

      1. Welcome back Nefer, congratulations on your results

        There are a few citations and articles i have found on E1b1a7, not much information is available at this time.

        These findings below are from West Africa Nigeria and Other Regions..


        Citations and Articles:

        Peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

        Click to access Veeramah_BMCEB10_Nigeria.pdf

        Y-Haplogroup E in Macedonia:

        Nilotic People of E1b1a7:

        M2/E3a7/ E1b1a7/M191/U174 Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs

        Click to access r1b3.pdf

        The Y-Chromosome consortium:
        Binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree

        You may still refer to works written on E1b1a and M2,
        Until updated versions are completed, let me know what you find..

        NOTE: you listed your haplogroup with U175 which is E1b1a8

        2010 Y-Dna Chart: 34 subclades of Haplogroup E

        E1b1a7 – M191, U186, P253
        E1b1a7a – U174
        E1b1a8 – U175

        I will be on the look out for information on E1b1a7, and the above as it becomes available..

      2. Thank you for the information.
        Also, I tested negative for U175.
        I copied and pasted what my haplogroup information was.
        There is a negative sign at the end of 175-
        So, the correct haplogroup information is E1b1a7 (M191+ M2+).

    2. I have noticed on the wiki page that it has changed back to E1b1a originating from West instead of East.

      How can this be?

      I have matches with Kenya (Luo), Tanzania, and Sudan (which is in East Africa).

      There is no way that it originated from the West.

      I also have a match in Ethiopia from ysearch!

  21. I am confused.

    Someone led me here after looking at Something I had on my blog about
    what I prefer to be called other than Black or African or African American.

    See, Im from the US….NC to be exact….I dont even know how to read all of this.

    Sounds fascinating from what the comments say but I dont really know what all the letters and numbers mean.

    If you click my name, you can be directed to my blog and you will see……whomever this blog belongs to.

    Thank You,

    1. Welcome Della,

      I have visited your blog very interesting topic, and i will leave a comment as well..

      Your Blog reads: Negroes, Africans, African Americans, Coloreds! Spank!

      May i ask what are your ancestral origins or ethnicity, what is your nationality and how do you define yourself?

      My Blog deals with DNA, Nationality, Anthropology, and Jurisprudence, Please have a tour of our discussions..

      Billy Gambela

  22. Salam,

    Where did you find this information?

    L2a1a , and L3e1/L3d1 may have relation to the

    Tutsis Female, for they are related to the Nyungwe, Tswa and

    Oromo Ethiopians

    1. Welcome Nefer,

      Let me be clear about that statement on relation to the Tutsi Female,
      which i ascertained through the Genetic Migrations and Geography listed below..

      The following haplogroups have notable frequencies in Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda in relation to the Nyungwe and Tswa, and geographically these are the same countries that the Tutsi, also inhabit.

      Haplogroup L2a1a (sp37), and Haplogroup L3e1 (sp56) are related to Nyungwe and Tswa..

      Excerpt from: The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

      There are two L2a clusters well represented in SouthEastern Africans, L2a1a and L2a1b,
      Both defined by transitions at quite stable HVS-I positions.

      Both of these appear to have an Origin in West Africa
      (as indicated by the distribution of matching or neighboring types), and to have undergone
      Dramatic Expansion either in SouthEastern Africa or In a Population Ancestral to PresentDay,
      SouthEastern Africans.

      L2a1a occurs at its highest frequency in SouthEastern Africa (Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

      Haplogroup L3e1 is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but it is especially common in South Eastern Africans.

      Lastly Haplogroup L3d1 (sp55) are related to the Nyungwe, Tswa and Oromo Ethiopians..

      Excerpt from Ethiopian mtDna Study:

      One Oromo among them had a haplotype match with six Yemeni sequences in the L3d1 subclade.

      This has a characteristic 16124-16223-16319 HVS-1 motif, which shows an elevated frequency in SouthEastern Africa.
      A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1),
      matching a Fulbe lineage, at a considerably elevated frequency.


      This was the analysis i made from a Brasil study, in conjunction with others to determine the possible maternal haplogroup of the Tutsi mtDna, as there are no published studies at this time.

      I have listed these studies to you under my post on my moms Mtdna article on May 28th 2010 @ 10:57 a.m. regarding your L2a1a results

      References listed below:

      Mtdna Control Regions for L2a1a (sp37) report via Brasil.

      Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage:

      The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape:

      Click to access ScienPapers%5CThe_Making_of_the_African_mtDNA_Landscape.pdf


  23. Very interesting Blog! I am mongo from Democratic Republic of Congo like Keni. Do you know if he took the DNA test he talked about? Thanks.

  24. Mr Bileh Gambela,

    Thank you for your invitation to your blog and as I said reviewing your material has only given me the following clues.

    “As for your Paternal Haplogroup E1b1/PN2 or P2, He does have relation to the Egyptian triad M2, M35, M78,,,

    The Ethiopian Marker PN2 is the paternal Father of both groups
    Nubian/M2 and the Egyptian/M35 which mutates into the Northern
    Egyptian/M78 clade..

    The Haplogroup E1b1 is approximately 35,000 years old and has an East African Orgin…”

    Now most of the citations in your blog mention E1b1a or b, this additional letter could be the difference between being Tutsi or Ethiopian Hebrew.

    I did check out the following article and it was over my head, I did learn something about the PN2 being the father of both lines After watching Dr Soy’s presentation.

    E1b1/ PN2 shows strong relation to the Ethiopian Hebrew Family ..

    But this doesn’t answer my question, this is what I need. I’m a 59 year old

    African american male living in Ohio. My father was from Bessemer Ala and here

    recently I got a 23 and me DNA screening that said that my fathers y

    chromosome puts me in haplogroup E1b1 and that my mothers haplogroup puts me

    in L3e3b1. This is the most facinating thing I have done in years. I see where you

    have 1a and 1b experience but what about just the straight E1b1, where do we

    belong. or are we just African.

    My maternal y-chromosone haplogroup shows a E1b1.My Mtdna for my mother is L3e3b1, I am trying to figure what my origins are. I hope the addition of my haplogroups will assist you further in your research.

    1. Welcome Sefu, and thanks for stopping by..

      I will try answer your questions to the best of my ability. You belong to the Y-chromosome paternal line of E1b1/PN2 with a origin date of 35,000 BP. Your haplogroup has a Eastern origin and is prevalent among ethnic groups of Eastern and Northern Africa.

      Your Haplogroup E1b1 is likely to have originated in the highlands of East Africa’s Ethiopia, as this is the place with the high frequency of ancestral subclades of this haplogroup. E1b1 is the ancestor of the majority of E subclade lineages existing today. The reason why your haplogroup does not have the additional 1a or 1b, is because it has diverged into two brother subclades who are much younger than the prior:
      Haplogroups E1b1a at 30,000 BP and E1b1b at 22,400 BP (Cruciani et al. 2004).

      So to paint a genetic timeline concerning your Haplogroup would be as follows:

      E1b1 arises in Eastern Africa 35,000 BP, Then 5000 years later it mutates into haplogroup E1b1a, who then mutates 7600 years later into E1b1b.

      This time line would coincide with Nubian- Egyptian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.P.

      This would also give the plausible assignment of the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) and M2 (30,000 B.P.) as the “Progenitors” of “Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”.. Who lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

      Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

      The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

      Sometimes seen as a proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

      The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan,which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

      The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

      The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

      The distribution of E-P2* appears limited to Eastern African peoples.

      As far as related etnicities for your haplogroup E1b1 you shares ancestry with the following groups:

      The E-P2* lineages were observed mainly in Ethiopians, Somalis, Kenyans, Nubians and Egyptians which are geographically eastern and north eastern africans. There may be a smaller frequency of this group in the Western and Central parts of African groups as well.

      I would be able to assist you further by acutally seeing your STR Y-chromosome sequence, as i would be able to do a comparative match as well with related ethnicities. Also i would like to know how markers did you test for 12, 25, 37 , 67 or 111? This would give me a better idea who you are closely related to.
      As far as your mtDNA Haplogroup L3e3b1 It has a West-Central African origin . Its the most common L3 sub-clade in Bantu-speaking populations. The L3e3 clade is primarily West African, but with its root type present at elevated frequency in the southeast and with some southeastern African derivatives.

      Some of the ethnic groups that belong to your haplogroup are as follows:

      The Bubi from the Ancient Bubi Kingdom from Cameroon and Bioko Islands,
      The Cabinda from Angola, The Bakaka of Cameroon, The Bamileke from Cameroon who are originally from Egypt and Sudan, The Bassa of Camerron, Nairobi from Eastern Kenya , Bantu-Mozambique Chopi and Chwabo, Makonde of Tanzania and Mozambique, Nguni of Eastern and Central Africa, Yao people from Malawi,
      The Forros from Sao Tome and Principe Islands to name a few..

      Again to draw a clearer picture i would need to see your actual HVR Sequences for comparative matches.


      The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

      The Halfan Culture :

      The Bakaka of Cameroon:

      The Bubi People:

      mTDNA Ethnic Groups from a Brasil Study:

      Click to access Suppl_Table.pdf

      Y Chromosome Haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2) Revealed through Newly Characterized Binary Polymorphisms:

      Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area :

      [S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

      Hope you find this informative advantageous to your research..

  25. Hello, Bileh
    Great site! I have a question. I recently found out that I am R1b.

    I haven’t done further testing yet, but I intent to do so in the near future. My family tree, which I know very little about, is based in Upper Egypt in a town called Minya. The majority of my family remains there today. I live in the States because my dad immigrated here when I was a child.

    Any insight into how R1b could have ended up there? What tests do you suggest i do to further understand my ancestry? This is quite fascinating and I feel as if I’m searching for an old hidden treasure.

    Cheese aside, I’d appreciate your help.


    1. Hello and thanks for sharing your genetic information.

      Your Haplogroup R1b is a sub-clade within the much larger Eurasian MNOPS “macro-haplogroup”, which is one of the predominant groupings of all the rest of human male lines outside of Africa, and this whole group, it is believed to have originated in Asia.

      Haplogroup R1b is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe, parts of central Eurasia (for example Bashkortostan, and in parts of sub-Saharan Central Africa (for example around Chad and Cameroon). R1b is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia and North Africa.

      Y-DNA R1b has been finally defined including all or most of African R1b1*. The defining SNP has been named V88. This lineage is found specially at the Nile Valley area (more common in Sudan than Egypt and more in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt) and in the Chad basin (Chadic speakers).

      Haplogroup R1b1c (formerly R1b1a) is defined by the presence of SNP marker V88, the discovery of which was announced in 2010 by Cruciani et al. Apart from individuals in Southern Europe and Western Asia, the majority of R-V88 was found in Northern and Central Africa:

      R1b1c is found in northern Cameroon in west central Africa at a very high frequency, where it is considered to be caused by a pre-Islamic movement of people from Eurasia.

      About 20% of the Y chromosomes are from West Asia or Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R , Y- chromosomes. Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa
      (G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are 8,000 B.P. and older)

      The Afri-Asiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%
      ( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%. Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

      I have to stress without further testing such as 67 marker or SNP test, we cannot confidently discern your
      definitive haplogroup or ethnic group.


      Wikipedia Haplogroup R:

      Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages.

      Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe:

      Genetic Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula:

      Hope you find these references useful..

  26. Dear friend Bileh,
    please help me to interpret this my Haplogroup E1b1a7a:

    HAPLOGROUP INFO: E1b1a7 U174+ P9.2- P116- P115- P113-

    All New Y-DNA Haplotree – Now iPad™ and Android™ tablet Compatible

    Welcome to our all new Y-DNA Haplotree. Version 2.0 of the haplotree has been redesigned from the ground up to work on all major browser platforms, including iPad and Android tablet devices, without requiring the Adobe Flash plugin. We have employed new technology and design techniques to accomplish this cross-platform application. Please report any difficulties you may come across to our customer feedback and we will address any problems that may occur. If you are not able to view or use the new haplotree, you can use our flash version by clicking here.

    View My HaplotreeYour Confirmed Haplogroup: E1b1a7aShorthand: E-U174

    Legend: Your Confirmed Haplogroup+Tested Positive-Tested Negative^Presumed Positive!Test

    Available…Test In Progress

    Your test results show that your haplogroup is E1b1a7a. A Y-DNA SNP extension test is not available

    You may also use the Choose Your Own SNPs order page to order specific SNPs. Click below to continue.

    About My Haplogroup:

    Haplogroup E1b1a is an African lineage, that has a Origin Date of 20,000-30,000 YBP. This haplogroup dispersed South from Northern Africa within the last 3,000 years with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is also the most common lineage among African Americans.

    It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East.

    Also Bileh, i would like to know is E1b1a7a Yorubá igbo?

    1. Welcome Antonio, and thanks for sharing your genetic information.

      Your E1b1a7a also known as E1b1a1a1f1a1 (YCC E1b1a7a) is defined by P252/U174.

      It appears to be the most common subclade of E-L485. It is believed to have originated or has a genetic origin near Central West Africa.

      It is rarely found in the most western portions of West Africa. Montano et al. (2011) found this subclade very prevalent in Nigeria and Gabon. Filippo et al. (2011) estimated a tMRCA of ~4.2 kya from sample of Yoruba population positive for the SNP.

      Many previous studies on Y chromosomal variation in Africa associated with haplogroup E1b1a (and sometimes its sub-lineage E1b1a7). However, the distribution of these two lineages extends far beyond the area occupied nowadays by Bantu speaking people, raising questions on the actual genetic structure behind this expansion.

      Within the Niger-Congo phylum, we ascertain for the first time differences in haplogroup composition between Bantu and non-Bantu groups via two markers (U174 and U175) on the background of haplogroup E1b1a (and E1b1a7), which were directly genotyped in our samples and for which genotypes were inferred from published data using Linear Discriminant Analysis on STR haplotypes.

      Your E1b1a7a is very common in Nigeria and shows strong relation to the Yoruba from Nigeria as well.

      The Results from your FTDNA Family Finder Test, which is an Autosomal test shows the following results:

      77.82% (West African) Yoruba

      8.11% (Middle East) Jewish, Palestinian, Bedouin, Bedouin South, Druze

      14.07% (Europe) Finnish and Russian

      NOTE: This test is an Autosomal test and this test goes back 6-8 generations, which is about 200 years ago.

      Also FTDNA geographically list Sudan and Egypt as part of the Middle East, even though they are North African Countries, that has Indigenous Nubians and Bedouins as well as an influx of Arab and Middle Eastern Populations.

      Your Middle Eastern groups from the Levant shares ancestry with the Druze, who are a monotheistic religious community, found primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, which emerged during the 11th century from Ismailism. The Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. which is home to about 20,000 Druze.

      The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40%–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30%–40% in Lebanon, 6%–7% in Israel, and 1%–2% in Jordan.

      Large communities of expatriate Druze also live outside the Middle East in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America, the United States, and West Africa. They use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to those of the other peoples of the eastern Mediterranean region.

      Your Family Finder ancestry is shared from both parents and Grand Parents and Great Great Grands on Both Sides.

      This test should not be confused with an Ancestral Origin Test such as mtDNA and Y-Chromosome test.

      There are not many studies on your E1b1a7a at this time, but these references should be useful..


      Y-chromosomal variation: Insights into the history of Niger-Congo groups:

      Haplogroup E1b1a Y-Dna on Wikipedia:

      The Yorubua People:

      The Druze People:

      The Yoruba SNP list was inferred from the dbSNP submission at

      Thanks again, for sharing your genetic information..

  27. Dear Bileh,

    These are my L2a1c1 mtDNA and results:

    mtDNA – Resultados
    + Ajuda da Página
    Tour Interativo
    Consulte Amigos e Familiares

    Haplogroup – L2a1c1


    16086C 16223T 16278T 16294T 16309G 16390A
    73G 143A 146C 152C 195C 198T 263G 315.1C
    750G 769A 930A 1018A 1438G 2416C 2706G 2789T 3010A 3308C 3594T 4104G 4769G 6164T 6311T 6663G 7028T 7175C 7256T 7274T 7521A 7771G 8188G 8206A 8604C 8701G 8860G 9221G 9540C 10115C 10398G 10873C 11137C 11719A 11914A 11944C 12693G 12705T 13590A 13650T 13803G 14566G 14766T 15301A 15326G 15784C
    Download de arquivo FASTA:
    Origem Haplogroup

    Parte do cluster de haplogrupos L, o que foi concretamente caracterizadas como representando a linhagem humana original mitocondrial, L2A haplogrupo é encontrado na África. Este haplogrupo data de aproximadamente 55.000 anos atrás, e é detectado em maior freqüência no norte, oeste e na África central. O trabalho futuro será ainda documentar a distribuição histórica deste haplogrupo e intimamente relacionado haplogrupos do cluster L.

    POLÍTICA DE USO: O uso da descrição Haplogroup acima requer permissão por escrito da Genealogia pela genética.

    Seqüência de referência revista Cambridge

    Mostrar todas as posições
    Posição CRS Seu resultado
    16086 T C
    16223 C T
    16278 C T
    16294 C T
    16309 A G
    16390 G A
    Mostrar todas as posições
    Posição CRS Seu resultado
    73 A G
    143 G A
    146 T C
    152 T C
    195 T C
    198 C T
    263 A G
    315,1 C
    Mostrar todas as posições
    Posição CRS Seu resultado
    750 A G
    769 G A
    930 G A
    1018 G A
    1438 A G
    2416 T C
    2706 A G
    2789 C T
    3010 G A
    3308 T C
    3594 C T
    4104 A G
    4769 A G
    6164 C T
    6311 C T
    6663 A G
    7028 C T
    7175 T C
    7256 C T
    7274 C T
    7521 G A
    7771 A G
    8188 A G
    8206 G A
    8604 T C
    8701 A G
    8860 A G
    9221 A G
    9540 T C
    10115 T C
    10398 A G
    10873 T C
    11137 T C
    11719 G A
    11914 G A
    11944 T C
    12693 A G
    12705 C T
    13590 G A
    13650 C T
    13803 A G
    14566 A G
    14766 C T
    15301 G A
    15326 A G
    15784 T C

    Origins of My Ancestors:

    mtDNA – Ancestral Origins
    + Page Help
    Interactive Tour
    Refer Friends & Family

    Country Match Total Country Total Percentage Comment
    Angola 1 193 0,5% Mbundu (1)
    Cameroon 2 894 0,2% Ewondo (1)
    Ghana 2 267 0,7% Ga (1)
    Portugal 1 604 0,2%
    Spain 1 1.366 0,1%
    United States 1 1.565 0,1%
    Yemen 1 148 0,7% MDKO: Brazil (1)
    Country Match Total Country Total Percentage Comment
    Cameroon 1 29 3,4%
    Spain 1 595 0,2%
    United States 1 711 0,1%

    1. Welcome Antonio, and thanks for sharing your results.

      Your Haplogroup L2a1c1 has a North African Origin. It is defined by markers 198, 930, 3308, 8604, 16086.

      L2a1c1 haplogroup is observed among North Africans, Moors, Tunisia Sephardic, Ashkenazi, Hebrews, Egyptians, Nubians, Yemenis, Moroccans, Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal) Portuguese Angola, Angola Mbundu Tribe.

      Your Haplogroup L2a1c1 has a HVR1 match with the Mbundu of Angola.

      The Mbundu are one of the Bantu peoples. They had been arriving in the Angola region from the early Middle Ages on, but the biggest part of the immigration took place between the 13th and 16th century C.E., From Northern Africa

      Kimbundu is a West-Bantu language, and it is said that the Mbundu have arrived from North Africa rather than from East Africa which would correspond with your Haplogroup L2a1c1 North African Origin.

      You also have a genetic match with The Ewondo People who are related the Beti-Pahuin People.

      The Beti-Pahuin’s exact origins are unclear.

      At one point, they were thought to have migrated into the territory of present-day Cameroon from North Africa in the Azande area of Sudan. This North African geographic location also corroborates the assignation of your Haplogroup L2a1c1..

      Your Haplogroup also has genetic relation to the Ga People of Ghana.
      Some scholars believe the Ga-Adangbe people originated to the East of their current location on the Accra plains.

      This is also plausible for your Haplogroup L2ac1 thats has some migrations in Western Africa.

      Your North African Origin also has notable frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal, Spain).

      This group also shares ancestry with the Spanish Sephardim Hebrews and Moors of Iberia..

      This Haplotype would also share ancestry among the Moriscos who were Moorish Muslims who privately practiced Islam and the Murranos who were Hebrews/Sephardim who converted to Christianity but held on to thier Judeo traditions in private..

      A smaller frequency of L2a1c1 is found in Hebrews from South West Asia’s Yemen and Oman..


      The Moors of North Africa and Iberia on Wiki:

      The Morsicos (Muslims Converts to Christianity)

      The Murranos (Hebrew Converts to Christianity)

      The Sehardim/Sephardic Hebrews:

      Mbundu People of Northern Cameroon

      North Mbundu Language:

      The Ewondo/Beti-Pahuin of Cameroon:

      Haplogroup L2 on Wikipedia:

      Haplogroup L2a1c1 North Africa Origin:

      I hope that you find my references useful

      Thanks Again…

      1. You are very welcome Antonio..

  28. I found it interesting that the current timing for the emergence of subclade E-V22 in the Lake Nubia region at the beginning of ancient Egyptian dynastic history would be so heavily represented among Polish and Ukrainian Jews today.A recent article on Sub-Saharan DNA among modern Jews (Sephardis,Ashkenazic and Mizrahi) suggests a long standing relationship between Jews and the African continent.I wonder why there isn’t more scholarly research being done on this question,even though I’ve done much of my own.My ancestry is E-V22 (E-M35.1)

    1. Welcome Micheal, and thanks for sharing this information.

      In human genetics, E1b1b1a (or E-V68), is the name of a major Y chromosome haplogroup found in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia and Europe.

      This clade comprises most of those classified in the “delta cluster” of Cruciani et al. (2004). Cruciani et al. (2006) later noted that “E-V22 and E-V12* chromosomes are intermingled and not clearly differentiated by their microsatellite haplotypes”.
      This sub-clade of E-M78 is “relatively common”[1] in the Horn of Africa and Egypt, with higher microsatellite variance (0.35 vs. 0.46, respectively) in Egypt. In the article announcing this first information, Cruciani et al. (2007) described it as uncommon in Western Asia and they proposed Northeast Africa (Libya/Egypt) as this sub-clade’s likely place of origin. Hassan et al. (2008) also reported a significant presence in neighboring Sudan, making up about 30% of the diverse range of the country’s E-M78 lineages in their study, including 8 out of 26 Fulani (about 31%), a widely-dispersed pastoral people.[Note 14] E-V22 was also present in much smaller frequencies amongst the Shilluk (2 of 15 samples, 13%) and Dinka (3 of 26, 11.5%) Nilotes of Southern Sudan. Hassan et al. suggest that E-V22, like E-V12, might have entered Sudan from North Africa “after the progressive desertification of the Sahara around 6,000–8,000 years ago”. They add that the gene flow to Sudan “is not only recent (Holocene onward) but also largely of focal nature”, and that “most speakers of Nilo-Saharan languages, the major linguistic family spoken in the country, show very little evidence of gene flow and demonstrate low migration rate, with exception of the Nubians, who appear to have sustained considerable gene flow from Asia and Europe together with the Beja.”
      Other frequencies reported by Cruciani et al. (2007) include Asturians (4.44% out of 90 people), Sicilians (4.58% out of 153 people), Moroccan Arabs (7.27%, 55 people), Moroccan Jews (8%, 50 people), Istanbul Turkish (5.71% out of 35 people), and Palestinians (6.9% out of 29 people). Cadenas et al. (2007) found a 6.7% presence in the UAE.

      Your Haplogroup belongs to the Paternal African E family with PN2 which is E1b1/PN2 or P2,

      He does have relation to the Nubian- Egyptian triad M2, M35, M78 The Ethiopian Marker PN2 is the paternal Father of both groups Nubian/M2 and the Egyptian/M35 which mutates into the Northern Egyptian/M78 clade..

      The Haplogroup E1b1 is approximately 35,000 years old and has an East African Orgin…

      E1b1/ PN2 shows strong relation to the Ethiopian Hebrew Family ..

      Dr. Soy Keita from Howard University, elaborateson 2005 Y-chromosome Egyptian Study..

      This deals with the PN2 relation to 75% of African Continent.. as well as Sephardic Hebrew Africans..

      Click to access keita6.pdf

    1. Greetings, I would like to help, but i also need some information from you. Which DNA Company did you test with and what type of test did you take? Do you have the HVR1/HVR2 sequence for your Haplogroup L2a1/1a? Please Advise

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Blog at

Up ↑

<span>%d</span> bloggers like this: