Archive for the Beja Category

Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor

This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptianwith an M78Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita-Boyce Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://ingiagzennay.free.fr/Keita-Boyce.pdf

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Ychromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2%)Lower Egypt, (27.3%)Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)Lower Egypt, (24.2%) – Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

(Which group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the Bantu migrations?

But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site is dated, before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78 (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors” of  Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a Proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty “New Kingdom”

Ancient Y-DNA samples shows Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty belonged to Haplogroup  E1b1a/M2/E-V38:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2/E-V38, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

A genetic kinship analysis was done to investigate a possible family relationship between Ramesses III and Unknown man E, Who may actually be his son Pentawer. An ancient Egyptian Prince of the 20th dynasty, and son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. They amplified 16 Y-chromosomal, short tandem repeats (AmpF\STR yfiler PCR amplification kit; Applied Biosystems). Eight polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome were also amplified (Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits; Applied Biosystems). The Y-chromosomal Haplogroups of Ramesses III and unknown man E was screened using the Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor we determined the Y-chromosomal Haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal micro satellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2⇓). Although the mummy of Ramesses III’s wife Tiy was not available for testing, the identical Ychromosomal DNA and Autosomal half allele sharing of the two male mummies strongly suggest a Father-Son relationship.

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

http://www.academia.edu/2308336/Revisiting_the_harem_conspiracy_and_death_of_Ramesses_III_anthropological_forensic_radiological_and_genetic_study

Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M268%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on they-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000😉

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Y– chromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are8,000 B.P. and older)

The AfriAsiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arabmales are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

http://www.thegeneticatlas.com

E1b1a (V100) This population is one of two important populations to spring out of the Ethiopian Plateau, E1b1a effect became the most dominant population in Subsaharan Africa

E1b1a (M2) This population grew in enough numbers in the Ethiopian lowlands to be able to cross into the territories of Paleo Africans on their West in Sudan E1b1a (L576) This population represents an East to West thrust in Africa, only E1b1a lineage able to survive crossing the A1b1 territories E1b1a (L86.1) This mutation indicates that the population crossed the A1b1 dominated Grassland into the regions West of the great Lakes E1b1a (M58) Expansion between the Great Lakes & Midwest Africa E1b1a (M116.2) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M149) Very small minority in South Africa E1b1a (M155) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M10) Dispersed between Cameroon & Tanzania E1b1a (L485) An important lineage that emerged in the Eastern Benue valley in Central Nigeria E1b1a (L514) Marker for a strong lineage that played a major role in turning West Africa into their new territor E1b1a (M191) This marker indicates that the main body of (L485) reached the Benue River in Nigeria and Cameroon E1b1a (P252) A population that followed the Benue river South, an important marker of the Bantu expansion in Nigeria E1b1a (P9.2) The population that remained in the Benue region, expanded into West into Nigeria & South to Gabon E1b1a (P115) Eastern limit expansion population, reaching Southwestern Central Africa, with possible presence in other Fang regions E1b1a (P116) South of the Benue expansion in Southern Cameroon & Gabon E1b1a (U175) An important lineage that emerged in the Western region of Benue in Nigeria and Niger E1b1a (U209) This population represents the backbone of the Bantu expansion, emerged and expanded out of the Bantu Urheimat E1b1a (U290) A primary marker of African slavery in the USA, Important lineage in Southern Cameroon E1b1a (M154) Found in Western Cameroon & South Africa E1b1a (P268) Found in Gambia, could possibly indicate an early expansion out of Central Africa or late emergence out of an L86.1* that lived amongst (L485) or (U175) E1b1a (M329) The E1b1a population that remained in the Ethiopian lowlands.

_______________________

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

_

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

______________________________________________ Continue reading

The ብጃ Beja The Egyptian (Ta-seti) ጥሰቲ Warriors known as the FuzZy Wuzzies/ Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty

Posted in anthrolpology, Beja, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Eritrea, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, Nomadic, North Africa, Sahara, Sudan, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

old-kingdom-official

Ta Seti Fuzzy Wuzzy Beja 2

The WARRIORS ?


በጃ Beja the Ta-Seti Archers

Of

Nubia-Egypt

The  Beja በጃ (Ge’ez language:)(Arabic: البيجا‎) are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

The term Bejawi comes from Ta-Itjawypeople of Itjawy“.

Ta-Seti Neferet, the mother of Egyptian King Amenhemet I‘s was of a peoples from Upper Egypt known as Ta-Seti. He built a great city state called “Amenemhat-itj-tawy” (“Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands“), more simply called Itjtawy.

Amenemhat’s Ta-Seti army and conscripts came to be known Ta-Itj-tawy. In modern languages this is pronounced Bigawy, Bedjawi or Bejawi, Beja.

The Beja are found mostly in Sudan, but also in parts of Eritrea, and Egypt. They formerly were classified as belonging to the Hamitic race (a classification now generally regarded as scientifically incorrect).

Most of them live in the Sudanese states of Red Sea around Port Sudan, River Nile, Al Qadarif and Kassala, as well as in Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba Regions in Eritrea, and southeastern Egypt.

Other Beja ethnic groups are endemic to Egypt’s Western Desert and to Yemen. Some Beja groups are nomadic.

bedscha2

In Ancient Egyptian times, the Beja በጃ were known as Ta-Seti ታሰቲ

and were renowned for their skill as “archers in the Egyptian army”.

The Beja በጃ have also been named Blemmyesin Roman times,

ቡጋስ “Buga”s in  አፁሚተ Axumite inscriptions in Ge’ez,

and ፉዝዝይ ዉዝዝይ ”  “Fuzzy Wuzzyby Rudyard Kipling.


The Bejas attach a high importance to their “Hair”.  Their Prominent Crown of Fuzzy Hair”

(it is called tiffa in their language) and has characterized the Beja for centuries….

http://www.ancienthistoricalsociety.org/BejaTribe.html

Ta-Seti Beja (fuzzy wuzzy)

(Bejas believe that they are the descendants of a female Lioness deity and her Hue-man consort…)

The Prophecy of Neferti is an Ancient Egyptian literary text, wriiten for

King SnoFru from the 4th Dynasty Old Kingdom:

“Then a King will come from the South,  Amen ye the Justified by name.

SoN of a Ta-seti Womb-man, child of Upper Egypt..

He will take the White Crown and He will wear the Red Crown, He will join the two Mighty Ones..

Rejoice O’ People of his time..

The Sun of wombMan, will make his name for all Eternity ! ..

Asiatic invaders will fall to his Sword..

Libyans will fall to his Flame..

Rebels to his wrath , Traitors to his Might !

As the serpent on his brow, subdue the rebels for him..

One will build the Walls -of- the- Ruler to Bar Asiatics from entering Egypt”..

Beja Young Man  ..  photo by Vit HassanThe Egyptian Beja groups are believed to be the descendants of

The Maahes Caste of High Priests of Amen and their Soldiers.

Ta-Seti (beja) WarriorsEgyptian- Priest-Kings ; Pinudjem, Psusennese and Masaharta are acknowledged as

The patriarchal ancestors of Egypt’s Western Desert Maahes by Egyptian Bejas.

Hereditary Chief Sheikh Beja Khawr al`allaqi is a descendant of one of Egypt’s oldest surviving lineages.

Egyptologist, Emile Brugsch traced the clan of the Khawr kiji through the matriarchal Female line to the 20th Dynasty.

The Khawr kiji claim their Ancestress Maternally was the Mother of an even “earlierDynasty.

Most Egyptian deities first appeared as very local cults and throughout their history retained those local centres of worship, with

most major cities and towns widely known as the home of these deities.

The Goddess Isis originally was an independent and popular deity established in predynastic times, prior to 3100 B.C.,

at Sebennytos in the Northern Delta’s Lower Egypt.

Beja worshiped the Goddess Isis“(Eye-Sis) at Philae until the 6th century. After the temple was closed down officially in the 6th century

A.DGoddess Isis, wall painting 1360 B.C.

Queen Tiye of the 20th Dynasty THE NEW KINGDOM..

Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty .. the New Kingdom,

Queen Tiye ( 1398 B.C.-1338 B.C.) also spelled ( Taia, Tiy and Tiyi)


She was the daughter of the Royal Family,  Yuya and his Wife Tjuyu @ Amarna..Family Royal Temple@ Amarna of Yuya and Thuya

Tiye became the Great Royal Wife of the Egpytian Pharaoh Amenhotep III and the matriarch of the “Amarna Family”.Amenhotep III

The Amarna Family’s lineage can be traced back to the Royal Family of Ancient egypt..Amenhotep III and Queen Tyie

Tiye’s Father, Yuya , was a wealthy landowner from a Southern Upper Egypt town of Akhmin.

There it is said that he served as a Priest and Superintendent of Oxen...

Tiye’s Mother, Thuya was involved in many Religious sects, as her many titles attested..

( singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min..)

These traits suggest that she was a member of the Royal Family..

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. he had been born of a secondary wife of his father

and needed a stronger bond to the Royal lineage...

Amenhotep III Head  Statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child perhaps between the ages of 6-12 yrs old.

Tiye and Amehotep had at least 6 children, out of the six, one went on to become Pharaoh, his name is Akhenaten.Amehotep IV aka Akhenaten

Tiye’s eldest daughter Sitamun, was said to have married her father Amenhotep III, and become entitled , the

Royal Great Wife , as well…

The Great Land of Mother Al’kebu-Lan.. (Africa)

The Mother Land

Map of Egypt/Sudan's Nubia Nation. year of 1910

Names for Ancient Nile Valley Egypt

as a source for population classifications…

The Ancient Egyptians called their land many things

including ta-meri ታመሪ and km.t. ከሚተ.

Also, They called Upper Egypt- ta-shemu ታ ስሀሙ , “the sedge”, and

Lower Egypt- ta-mehu ታ መሁ or “the papyrus thicket”.

One of the most popular names for Egypt in ancient Egyptian is km.t (ከሚት) (read “Kemet”), meaning “blacks”.

The word is composed of the noun km , which translates into “black”, and determinative t, which makes the word a plural.

The use of  ከሚት km.t “blacks” in terms of a place was generally in contrast to the “Desert” or “Red land”: the desert beyond the Nile valley.

When used to mean people, ከሚት km.t “people of  Kemet”, “black people” is usually translated “Egyptians”, some writers argue.

Debate has centered around whether the ‘kmt’ term is an ethnic, cultural, spiritual reference, or a combination of the three.

Some scholars suggest that the term refers to the ‘racial’ or ethnic characteristics of the people.

Still, other scholars disagree with this position, and hold that k.m.t refers to the color of the land, or soil, and not that of the people.

It is of note that terms meaning land, such as ta, orateb, are No where to be found in the name km.t Land,

However is found in other names, typically as ta, like in terms:

British East Africa Map of Ethiopia Tana land of the Ta Nahesi.jpg

Ta-Nahisi ታ ናሂሲ , and Ta-Seti ታ ሰቲ , which translate to

“land of the southerners”, and “land of the bow” respectively,

The latter a reference to the Nehesy or “Nubian” weapon of choice…

The Nile river was sometimes called “Ar” አር or “Aur” ዐኡር

(Coptic ‘laro‘).

The land itself may have been given its oldest name,

‘Kem’ ከም or Kemi’ ከሚ ..

which signifies darkness, based on the black color of the sediments from it….

Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ