Archive for Nubia

MtDna Migration Map of (Haplogroup L2a1 North Africa and South West Asia)

Posted in afri asiatic, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, DNA, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 30, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

egypt-nubian_wedding-copy

l2a1-asiatic-african-geodna-map-copy

This is Highlighted feature Map of the migrational route of Haplogroup L2a1 mtDNa

Haplogroup -L2a1 @ positions HVR1

16223T16278T16294T16309G, 16368C and 16519C.

(Note: mtDna results above from Genographic is HVR1 sequence only. Definitive results are acquired from FGS (full genome sequence) Test.

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Middle East and North Africa Related Ethnicites

Part of the “AfrI-Asiatic-Semitic Family”.   The process was very simple and pain-less.

This Map shows my L2a1 Northern Nile Valley migration as well as West Asia from  Nat’l Genographic

It took all of 3 minutes to extract saliva from my inner cheek.   place the swab back in the container that’s enclosed in the package with

(instructional dvd included..)

I then sent off my package “anonymously” with a “generated ID” number to follow the process “Online”…   4 weeks later results are in to check securely online in the privacy of your home.

At completion you will be assigned a (Paternal) YDNA or (Maternal) mtDNAHaplogroup (from the Greek word: ἁπλούς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Once this process is done you will recieve a Genetic Migration Map of Whatever Region your DNA Originates...

The Americas, Africa, Madagascar , Asia, Europe , Australia etc..

My Parents‘s Ethnic Ancestral Origins and Migrations

“The Americas” and “North Africa” (NileValley)(West Asia)”

(Indigenous American) and (Nubian-Egyptian)  

My Nationality from my parents genetic origins would be stated as 

Nubian-Native American or Indigenous American Kushite

BAM   !! U now have an Ethnic Origin The cost are from $79-$149 and takes about 4-6 weeks to process.

Excerpt from Genetic – Ethiopian Study : copy and paste the link below in your web browers to view:

(http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182106)

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33“African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a1}  complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps  None of those sequences, (shown below) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309”} L2a1 samples.

 

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins) 

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

 

*(ANCESTRAL ORIGINS CONT’D FOR L2A1:)*

 

5. L2a1a2- has (PAKISTAN) (ITALY), (MOZAMBIQUE), (YEMEN), (USA) Origins

6. L2a1a3- has (GABON), (CHAD), (PORTUGAL) Origins

7. L2a1c1- has (TUNISIA), (USA) Origins

8. L2a1c6- has (SPAIN), (PORTUGAL) Origins

9.  L2a1d1- has (ETHIOPIA), (EGYPT) Origins

10. L2a1c8- has (CAMEROON), (ISRAEL) Origins

11. L2a1m- has (OMAN), (YEMEN), (ARABIA), (ISRAEL) Origins

12. L2a1k- has (CZECH REP.), (SLOVAK REP.) Origins

13. L2a1c4- has (SPAIN) (ANDALUSIA) Origins

14. L2a1c4a- has (TUNISIA), (BURKINA FASO), (USA) Origins

15. L2a1a2a1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (TUNISIA), (EGYPT), (USA) Origins

16. L2a1c1a- has (PORTUGAL), (USA) Origins 

17. L2a1n- has (USA), (ISRAEL) Origins

18. L2a1o- has (LIBYA), (ISRAEL) Origins

19. L2a1p- has (USA) Origins

20. L2a1b- has (EGYPT) Origins

21. L2a1b1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (MOZAMBIQUE), (KUWAIT), (KENYA) Origins

22. L2a1c- has (CHAD), (GABON), (SPAIN), (USA) Origins

23. L2a1c5- has (USA), (GABON), (EGYPT) Origins

24. L2a1c2- has (BURKINA FASO), (DOMINICAN) Origins

25. L2a1c3- has (ISRAEL), (SPAIN), (GUINEA BISSAU) Origins

 

 

**EXCERPT FROM GENETIC STUDY 2012.**

“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea.  10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and  multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes have an African and or American Origin, but as a Haplogroup remains to be 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transitionnp16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)....

(NOTE): You have to do extra research such as,

Dna data Bases or Forums for comparative matches as well as ,

Public record Genetic studies, to pin-point the Highest Frequencies !! of your Personal DNA number sequence).

DNA-animation

THE  GOVt  in all countries and Monarchs alike .. WorldWide have DNA DATABASES

They know who you are ..   but do you know who you Are ?

(With the Scare tatics and  Biological Threats and

Exotic Flu Viruses this Science is Imperative !

(ex. the swine flu and vaccine ready H1N1 companies)

To know who You are)...

Something to ponder on ...

(the term “African-American” is a

(Corporate Constitutional definition/term:

that was implemented in December of 1988,

to hide your True Ethnic Nationality..)

OFFICE OF MANGEMENT AND BUDGET:

Federal Register Notice on Oct.30, 1997

Revisions to the standard for the Classification of Federal Data On Race and Ethnicity

Copy and paste link into your web browser to view site:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/fedreg/ombdir15.html

AFRICAN AMERICAN CELEBRITIES, ACTORS AND MUSICIANS and THIER DNA GENETIC GEOGRAPHIC COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:

1. Morgan Freeman mtDna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara

2. Oprah Winfrey – Haplogroup L3b Kpelle

3. Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone  his (moms)- Angola.

4. Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

5. Dr. May Angelo (R.I.P.) the Mende people of Liberia and Sierra leone who migrated from Western Sudan..

6. Dr. Mae Jemison L1a listed as West Africa via African Ancestry…

7. Tina Tuner Haplogroup L2a Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Niger, South Sudan, Kenya.

8. AfricaNews – Exclusive: Isaiah Washington mtdna on Dual citizenship – Sierra Leone

9. India Arie- Nigeria  

10. Chris Tucker- Y-Dna is  E3b Mbundu from Angola  and his Mtdna is L1c* Bamileke of Cameroon

11. Don Cheadle has Afro-Asiatic male Y-chromosomes R1b was found in Cameroon

12. Chris Rock has Central African-Asiatic Y-chromosome B21a  has notable frequencies in North Cameroon from Uldeme tribe.

13. Forest Whittiker is from  Igbo Nigeria

14. Danny Glover Nigeria- Igbo

15. T.D. Jakes – are mtDna L1c and Y-chromo E3b Nigerian (Igbo-people)

16. Judge Hatchett is from NigeriaYoruba/Hausa...

17. John Legend’s mtDna belongs to the Mende from Sierra Leone and his Y-Dna belongs to the Fula of Guinea Bissau..

18. Wanda Sykes from the hit show Curb Your Enthusiasm belongs to the Tikar and Fulani  from Cameroon.

19. Erykah Badu  maternal ancestry is from Cameroon with the Bamileke who migrated from Egypt.

20. Q-Tip from Tribe called Quest maternal ancestry belongs to the Jola People of Guniea-Bisaau.

21. Michael K. Williams who played Omar from the Wire maternal ancestry is Mende from Sierra Leone.

22. Quest Love from the Roots is Mende from Sierra Leone.

23. Black Thought from the Roots maternal ancestry goes back to Senegal with the Mandinka.

24. President Barack Hussein Obama -American-Kenyan.

25. Issac Hayes- Ghana..  R.I.P.

26. Whoopi Goldberg – Guinea Bissau Kpelle

27. Blair Underwood –  is a descendant of the Babungo people of Cameroon.

28. Marcus Garvey – Maternal Dna traces back to Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal his Paternal DNA traces to Iberia (Spain & Portugal).

29. Martin Luther King Jr. – Maternal DNA traces back to Mende from Sierra Leon his paternal is from Ireland.

Most of the individuals that were tested with African Ancestry had West African Ancestry?

*Wikipedia.org/Billy Gamble…

Genetic Genealogy and the Ancestries of African Americans by Dr.Rick Kittles.pdf

Lets Go people .. What are u waiting for ?

Nubia.Sudan.Meroe.Pyramids.

Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian Ancestry,

First-generation Egyptian immigrants, or Descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the United States.

In the 2007 U.S. census, the number of people with Egyptian Ancestry was estimated at 195,000,

Although some estimates range from 700,000 to 2 million.

The large majority of Egyptians in the U.S. are Coptic Orthodox

Some Christians in Egypt are increasingly marginalized.

NOTE:

One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

Northeastern Virginiaand theWashington, DC, Metropolitan area.

Other Egyptian American communities are concentrated in

Jersey City, New Jersey, Levittown,

New YorkSteinway Village in Queens, and

New YorkBay Ridge in Brooklyn, New York,

As well as in California, mainly in and around the

Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas,

And parts of Florida and, increasingly, Philadelphia.

African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora.

It is estimated that the current population of recent

African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.

Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S.

EthiopiaEritreaEgypt,  Somalia,

NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone, and South Africa.

Title: Reconstructing ancient L2a1 mitochondrial DNA links between Africans and Europeans

Authors: Cerezo M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Perego UA, Gómez-Carballa A, Brisighelli F, Lancioni H, López-Soto M, Carracedo Á, Capelli C, Torroni A, Salas A / Click link below:

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/suppl/2012/03/01/gr.134452.111.DC1/Cerezo_GR_2011_L Europe_manuscript_Supplemental_Data_S2_final_version.pdf

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2012/03/21/gr.134452.111.full.pdf+html

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  Egyptian population Haplogroup L link below …

http://www.fsigenetics.com/article/S1872-4973(08)00136-1/abstract?cc=y

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA and  Study of Human Evolution

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins

Investigation in the mtdna genetic structure of  Barbadians Haplogroup L …

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  U.S. “Hispanic Haplogroup L…

BioMed Central | Additional Files | The RHNumtS compilation ..

.Figure 2

Africa | Africa Map | Travel Africa | African Safari

Africa the Continent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Evidence of the Early Penetration of Negroes into Prehistoric Egypt”

African diaspora – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Egyptian American – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of  the newly 53 African colonized countries

“The socalled Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau”

NJ State Police  mtdna Micro-Chip Technology called Gene-Chip..

Revisions to the U.S. OMB Standards for Negro Racial Classification of Federal Data …

H.R. 2647-NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2010 CONFERENCE ..

Terracotta Goddess Isis from 18th Dynasty Collections

ብልልይ።ግምብል

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Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor

This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptianwith an M78Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita-Boyce Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://ingiagzennay.free.fr/Keita-Boyce.pdf

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Ychromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2%)Lower Egypt, (27.3%)Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)Lower Egypt, (24.2%) – Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

(Which group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the Bantu migrations?

But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site is dated, before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78 (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors” of  Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a Proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty “New Kingdom”

Ancient Y-DNA samples shows Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty belonged to Haplogroup  E1b1a/M2/E-V38:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2/E-V38, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

A genetic kinship analysis was done to investigate a possible family relationship between Ramesses III and Unknown man E, Who may actually be his son Pentawer. An ancient Egyptian Prince of the 20th dynasty, and son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. They amplified 16 Y-chromosomal, short tandem repeats (AmpF\STR yfiler PCR amplification kit; Applied Biosystems). Eight polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome were also amplified (Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits; Applied Biosystems). The Y-chromosomal Haplogroups of Ramesses III and unknown man E was screened using the Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor we determined the Y-chromosomal Haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal micro satellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2⇓). Although the mummy of Ramesses III’s wife Tiy was not available for testing, the identical Ychromosomal DNA and Autosomal half allele sharing of the two male mummies strongly suggest a Father-Son relationship.

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

http://www.academia.edu/2308336/Revisiting_the_harem_conspiracy_and_death_of_Ramesses_III_anthropological_forensic_radiological_and_genetic_study

Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M268%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on they-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000😉

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Y– chromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are8,000 B.P. and older)

The AfriAsiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arabmales are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

http://www.thegeneticatlas.com

E1b1a (V100) This population is one of two important populations to spring out of the Ethiopian Plateau, E1b1a effect became the most dominant population in Subsaharan Africa

E1b1a (M2) This population grew in enough numbers in the Ethiopian lowlands to be able to cross into the territories of Paleo Africans on their West in Sudan E1b1a (L576) This population represents an East to West thrust in Africa, only E1b1a lineage able to survive crossing the A1b1 territories E1b1a (L86.1) This mutation indicates that the population crossed the A1b1 dominated Grassland into the regions West of the great Lakes E1b1a (M58) Expansion between the Great Lakes & Midwest Africa E1b1a (M116.2) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M149) Very small minority in South Africa E1b1a (M155) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M10) Dispersed between Cameroon & Tanzania E1b1a (L485) An important lineage that emerged in the Eastern Benue valley in Central Nigeria E1b1a (L514) Marker for a strong lineage that played a major role in turning West Africa into their new territor E1b1a (M191) This marker indicates that the main body of (L485) reached the Benue River in Nigeria and Cameroon E1b1a (P252) A population that followed the Benue river South, an important marker of the Bantu expansion in Nigeria E1b1a (P9.2) The population that remained in the Benue region, expanded into West into Nigeria & South to Gabon E1b1a (P115) Eastern limit expansion population, reaching Southwestern Central Africa, with possible presence in other Fang regions E1b1a (P116) South of the Benue expansion in Southern Cameroon & Gabon E1b1a (U175) An important lineage that emerged in the Western region of Benue in Nigeria and Niger E1b1a (U209) This population represents the backbone of the Bantu expansion, emerged and expanded out of the Bantu Urheimat E1b1a (U290) A primary marker of African slavery in the USA, Important lineage in Southern Cameroon E1b1a (M154) Found in Western Cameroon & South Africa E1b1a (P268) Found in Gambia, could possibly indicate an early expansion out of Central Africa or late emergence out of an L86.1* that lived amongst (L485) or (U175) E1b1a (M329) The E1b1a population that remained in the Ethiopian lowlands.

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Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

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Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

______________________________________________ Continue reading

Nubian ኑቢአን Migrations Across Africa and West Asia etc.. (Nubian Mother and Child in image below:)

Posted in African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Horn of Africa, Human Rights, Levant, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, The Sahel with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubia's map of today's Egyptnubian-woman-with-child

The Nubians of Central Africa

A cluster of 7 Nubian Tribes in 8 countries



The Nubians consist of “Seven” Non-Arab Muslim tribes who originated in the Nubia region,

An area/region between Aswan in southern Egypt and Dongola in Northern Sudan.

for centuries, this territory was a crossroads between Egypt and the NubianEthiopian African tribal kingdoms.

Some Nubians are now Settled in:

1.) Ethiopia

2.) Kenya

3.) Nile Valley

4.) Uganda

5.) North Africa (Sahara) ex.. Chad, Egypt and Libya…

6.) Saudi Arabia

7.) Yemen,

8.) Oman

and other countries etc..

From the 1500’s until the 1800’s, the Ottoman Empire encroached upon the Nubia region. As a result, many Nubians migrated to remote areas along the Nile. Distinct groups evolved and were named according to their locations. For example, those who settled near the Wadi Kenuz became knows as the Kenuzi; those who settled in Dongola became known as the Dongolawi.

Nubian Dongolawi Girl

In the 1960’s, many of the Nubian villages were flooded as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam. About 100,000 Nubians were forced to resettle in “New Nubia,” 20 miles north of Aswan. Others relocated in Uganda and Kenya.

Most Nubian groups speak their own dialect of the Nubian language.

Dongolawi Nubians

However, many also speak Arabic, which is the common language of business and trade. Although their languages are different, each group is identical in social, economic, and cultural organization.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Nubian economy is based on agriculture. During the winter months they grow wheat, barley, millet, beans, peas, and watermelons. Mangoes, citrus fruits, and palm dates are also part of the Nubian diet.

A thin, course bread called dura, is one of their basic staple foods. Pieces of the bread are usually piled on top of each other and eaten with vegetables and sauces, or spread with date jelly.

In Old Nubia, men migrated to the big cities to find work, while the women farmed the land, cared for the animals, and did household chores.

Today, since the land is located far from their dwellings, men do most of the field work while the women work at the home.

Some women have also found employment as schoolteachers, public service workers, and seamstresses. Some of the men now own grocery stores or drive cabs.

The typical Nubian house is very spacious, with several large rooms that are able to accommodate the extended family members and guests. In the center of each home is an open courtyard. The front of the house is colorfully painted with geometric patterns. Most of the paintings and decorations on the homes have religious connotations. The colorful designs are a distinctive and admired feature of Nubian culture.

The literacy rate among Nubians is high in comparison to their rural Egyptian neighbors.

Primary and secondary schools have been set up in New Nubia, and there are also teacher-training facilities in the area.

In addition to education, policies, radio and television are other ways in which socialization takes place among the Nubians.

For centuries, the Nubians often held lengthy religious and agricultural ceremonies. However, since relocation, the ceremonies have been shortened and are now limited to the villages. During these ceremonies, the Nubians express themselves through singing, dancing, and beating drums.

What Are Their Beliefs? The Nubians were converted to Christianity during the sixth century. They remained so until the gradual process of Islamization began taking place from the fourteenth until the seventeenth centuries. Today, the Nubians are virtually all Muslims. However, their traditional animistic beliefs (belief that non-living objects have spirits) are still mingled in with their Islamic practices.

The traditional beliefs of the Nubians were centered on the spirit of the Nile. The Nile is believed to have life-sustaining power and to hold the power of life and death within it.

The people believe that the river is endowed with angels, sheiks (religious leaders), and other powerful beings. The sheiks are sought daily for their advice in the areas of health, fertility, and marriage.

The Kenuzi Nubians have an annual festival known as the “Saints Day Celebration,” or moulid. This holiday reinforces the history of the Kenuzi. Gifts are presented at the ancestral shrines in the fulfillment of a promise made the previous year. Colorful processions are held during this time of celebration. Dancing, singing, and feasting are also included in the festivities. The moulid is still celebrated in New Nubia each year.

What Are Their Needs?

The Nubians in Kenya and Uganda” have no Christian resources or missions agency working among them.

Most Nubians Tribes  have not heard a clear presentation of the Gospel…

The Nubians in Egypt have only portions of the Bible written in their language.

Only one missions agency is currently working among them. Intense prayer, increased evangelism efforts, and additional Christian resources are necessary to reach these tribes who were once a Christian people…

Prayer Points

1. Pray that the Lord will raise up laborers who are willing to invest long term service as missionaries to the Nubians of Central Africa.

2. Pray that loving African Christians will gain a vision to see the Nubians reached with the Gospel.

3. Ask the Lord to save key leaders among the Nubians who will boldly declare the Gospel.

4. Pray for cooperation among missions agencies that are targeting these tribes.

5. Pray that God will raise up linguists to translate the Word of God into each of the tribal languages.

6. Take authority over the spiritual principalities and powers that

are keeping these tribes bound.

7. Ask God to send medical teams and humanitarian aid workers to minister to the Nubians.

8. Pray that strong local churches will be planted among each of these tribes.

NUBIAN

EL’NUBIO

Nubians in Kenya website

Unreached Peoples of Nubia Prayer Profiles

Linguistic Aspects of Greater Nubian History -The Cradle of .

Geo-Map of Nubian in Middle East and North Africa

Geo-Map of Nubians in  East Africa and Southern Africa

Joshua Project – Nubians, of Arabized Egypt Ethnic People Profile

Joshua Project – Nubian, Nubi of Kenya Ethnic People Profile

Joshua Project – Nubians, of Dongola-Dongolawi Sudan Ethnic People Profile


African map of 1812

Bileh* Gambela
በላይ ። ጋምበላ

Egypt… Another Nile Valley Civilization: The White Nile to the Blue Nile

Posted in Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization with tags , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubia and Ancient Upper and Lower Egyptian map.svg

774px-view_from_cairo_tower_31march2007 The Nile Valley Civilization

The Blue Nile and the White Nile

Egypt, Ethiopia , Nubia to Uganda

The Nile Valley is dominated by the longest river in the world, and  is home to a large variety of peoples and cultures, who vary widely in skin color, facial shape and other indices.

Below is a survey of the peopling and origins of various Nile Valley populations, including scholarly anthropological and archaeological views on their origins, similarities, differences, and related movements.

A variety of factors are involved in studying the origins of the Nilotic or Nile Valley peoples, including geographic, genetic, and environmental data. These are presented throughout the article. As one archaeological text suggests, interpretations of the biological affinities and origins of the Ancient Nile Valley peoples:

The Egyptians as simply another Nile Valley population

A number of current mainstream scholars such as Bruce Trigger, and Frank Yurco eschew a racial approach, asserting that the previous archaeological and anthropological approaches were ‘marred by a confusion of race, language, and culture and by an accompanying racism’.

As to racial affinities of the people of northeast Africa, Yurco declares that all the peoples of the region are indigenous Africans and that arbitrary divisions into Negroid and Caucasoid stocks is misguided and misleading. To Yurco, the indigenous stocks are part of a continuum of physical variation in the Nile Valley.

Just as Europeans are noted to vary between tall blonde Swedes, and shorter, darker Portuguese, or Basques with strikingly different blood types, so the Nile Valley populations are simply allowed similar variation.

Other mainstream scholars such as Shomarka Keita applaud Trigger’s and Yurco’s approach but note the continued use of terms such as “Mediterranean” to incorporate the ancient Egyptians, and the continued use of classification schemes that screen out or deemphasize variability, and the rich diversity of the African people.

As one mainstream anthropologist puts it:

The living peoples of the African continent are diverse in facial characteristics, stature, skin color, hair form, genetics, and other characteristics.

No one set of characteristics is more African than another”.

Variability is also found in “sub-Saharan” Africa, to which the word “Africa” is sometimes erroneously restricted. There is a problem with definitions. Sometimes Africa is defined using cultural factors, like language, that exclude developments that clearly arose in Africa.

For example: sometimes even the Horn of Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea) is excluded because of geography and language and the fact that some of its peoples have narrow noses and faces.

However, the Horn is at the same latitude as Nigeria, and its languages are African.

The latitude of 15 degree passes through Timbuktu, surely in “sub-Saharan Africa,” as well as Khartoum in Sudan; both are north of the Horn. Another false idea is that supra-Saharan and Saharan Africa were peopled after the emergence of “Europeans” or Near Easterners by populations coming from outside Africa.

Hence, the Ancient Egyptians in some writings have been de-Africanized. These ideas, which limit the definition of Africa and Africans, are rooted in racism and earlier, erroneous scientificapproaches.” (S.  Keita, “The Diversity of Indigenous Africans,” in Egypt in Africa, Theodore Clenko, Editor (1996), pp. 104-105. )

The general Egyptology consensus is captured in the words of mainstream scholar Frank Yurco:

“Certainly there was some foreign admixture [in Egypt], but basically a homogeneous African population had lived in the Nile Valley from ancient to modern times… [the] Badarian people, who developed the earliest Predynastic Egyptian culture, already exhibited the mix of North African and Sub-Saharan physical traits that have typified Egyptians ever since (Hassan 1985; Yurco 1989; Trigger 1978; Keita 1990.. et al.,)…

The peoples of  Egypt, the Sudan, and much of East African Ethiopia and Somalia are now generally regarded as a Nilotic continuity, with widely ranging physical features

(complexions light to dark, various hair and craniofacial types) but with powerful common cultural traits, including Cattle Pastoralist traditions.

The White Nile (Arabic: النيل الأبيض, transliterated: an-Nīl al-Ābyadˤ) a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. In the strict meaning, “White Nile” refers to the river formed at Lake No at the confluence of the Bahr al Jabal and Bahr el Ghazal rivers. In the wider sense, White Nilerefers to the approximately 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) of rivers draining from Lake Victoria into the White Nile proper. It may also, depending on the speaker, refer to the headwaters of Lake Victoria.

The 19th century search by Europeans for the source of the Nile was mainly focused on the White Nile, which disappeared into the depths of what was then known as “Darkest Africa”. The discovery of the source of the White Nile thus came to symbolise European penetration of unknown jungle.

The most distant source of the waters of Lake Victoria is the Luvironza River in Burundi, which flows into the Rurubu River near the northern Burundian town of Kayanza. The Ruvuvu in turn flows into the Kagera River, the most notable feature of which is Rusumo Falls. On 28—29 April 1994, 250,000 Rwandans crossed the bridge at Rusumo Falls into Ngara, Tanzania in 24 hours in what the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees called the “the largest and fastest refugee exodus in modern times.” The Kagera forms part of the Rwanda-Tanzania and Tanzania-Uganda borders before flowing into Lake Victoria.

The river continues north to Nimule where it enters Sudan and becomes known as the Bahr al Jabal (“River of the Mountain”, sometimes Mountain Nile). Bahr al Jabal was the former name of the state of Central Equatoria. The Bahr al Jabal then winds through rapids before entering the Sudan plain and the vast swamp of the Sudd. It eventually makes its way to Lake No, where it merges with the Bahr el Ghazal and forms the White Nile. An anabranch river called Bahr el Zeraf flows out of the Bahr al Jabal and flows through the Sudd to eventually join the White Nile. The Bahr al Jabal passes through Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan, and the southernmost navigable point on the Nile river system, and then Kodok, the site of the 1898 Fashoda Incident that marked an end to the “Scramble for Africa“. The river lends its name to the state of White Nile before merging with the larger Blue Nile at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.

The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia forms the upstream of the Blue Nile. It is Fal also known as Tis Issat falls after the name of the nearby village.

The Blue Nile flows generally south from Lake Tana and then west across Ethiopia and northwest into Sudan/Nubia. Within 30 km (18.6 mi) of its source at Lake Tana, the river enters a canyon about 400 km long. This gorge is a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication from the north half of Ethiopia to the southern half. The power of the Blue Nile may best be appreciated at Tis Issat Falls, which are 45 m (148 ft) high, located about 40 km (25 mi) downstream of Lake Tana. Despite the hazards and obstacles of the river, on January 29, 2005 Canadian Les Jickling and New Zealander Mark Tanner reached the Mediterranean Sea after an epic 148 day journey becoming the first to have paddled the Blue Nile from source to sea.

The flow of the Blue Nile reaches maximum volume in the rainy season (from June to September), when it supplies about two thirds of the water of the Nile proper. The Blue Nile, along with that of the Atbara River to the north, which also flows out of the Ethiopian highlands, were responsible for the annual Nile floods that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley and the consequent rise of Ancient Egyptian civilization and Egyptian Mythology. With the completion in 1970 of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt, the Nile floods ended.

The Blue Nile is vital to the livelihood of Egypt. Though shorter than the White Nile, 56% of the water that reaches Egypt originates from the Blue Nile branch of the great river; when combined with the Atbara River, which also has its source in the Ethiopian Highlands, the figure rises to 90% of the water and 96% of transported sediment.The river is also an important resource for Sudan, where the Roseires and Sennar dams produce 80% of the country’s power. These dams also help irrigate the Gezira Plain, which is most famous for its high quality cotton. The region also produces wheat, and animal feed crops.  Amhara.Blue Nile

blue-nile-falls-in-ethiopia-copy

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

Stateless-ness Citizens/Refugees. People in Foreign or Native Countries with out Soveriegn Nationality.. Do “Stateless Citizens” have same rights as “Country Nationals” ?

Posted in afri asiatic, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Are you a U.S. citizen or a American National ?, Blood type O, Do you have a Nationality ?, Indigenous American, Indigenous people, Jus Soli and Jus Sanguinis, Native American, Nubians, O-positive blood with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻



Juanita Retro Native American Afro Mulatto Shot
The U.N. 1961 Convention on the Reduction of State-less-ness.. = Juanita (Mulatto Native American )

Juanita Mulatto Native American retro pic 1969 copy


11 Main Reasons to check your nationality or citizen status.. are you stateless/without a country of Origin ?

1. Renunciation of nationality (eg.  african-american , negroe or black/white /U.S. citizen see 14th Ammend..)

2. Deprivation of nationality (eg. for disloyalty, for treasonous acts, forobtaining nationality by fraud)

3. Membership of a group which is denied citizen status in the country on whose territory they are born (eg. Gypsies and Jews in Third Reich Germany (1934-1945))

4. Birth in disputed territories (eg. Israel occupied territory)

5. Birth in an area ruled by an entity whose independence is not internationally recognized (eg. Manchukuo 1932-1945)

6. Birth on territory over which no modern state claims sovereignty (eg. unclaimed region of Antarctica)

7. Statelessness creates problems forstates and disadvantages for those left stateless (eg. African-Americans), to wit:

Diminished civil rights in “comparison to the nationals of the states where they reside”.(eg. Egyptian-Americans)

(Note:  Africa is a Continent not a Country.. you must know your country of origin to claim your birth-right nationality…)

This may occur despite the ideals espoused in the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons

8.  A perception that stateless persons lack loyalty to their country of residence

9. Lack of ability to endow one’s children with a nationality

10. Inability to avail oneself of consular services when outside the country of habitual residence.

11.  No Home Country to which one is guaranteed the Automatic right of return.

Statelessness may frustrate deportation action where no state assumes

the responsibility to accept the person made subject to a criminal deportation..

Statelessness most commonly affects refugees although not all refugees are stateless, and not all stateless persons may be able to qualify as refugees. Refugee status entails the extra requirements that the refugee is outside their country of nationality (or country of habitual residence if stateless), and is deserving of asylum based upon a well-founded fear of persecution for categorized reasons which make him/her unwilling or unable to avail the protection of that countrySee refugee.

The Convention was originally intended as a Protocol to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees,

while the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was adopted to cover stateless persons who are not refugees and therefore not within the scope of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

Migrations forced from political instability during World War II and its immediate aftermath highlighted the international dimensions of problems presented by unprecedented volumes of displaced persons including those rendered effectively stateless.

Kisha Hampton

Dating from December 1948,

The “Universal Declaration of Human Rights“at Article  15  affirms that:

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

The Room of the United Nations General Assembly where Resolution was passed in 1949 which inspired the adoption of the

Convention Regarding the Status of Stateless Persons in 1954 and the completion of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness

At the Fourth United Nations General Assembly Session in October-December 1949, the International Law Commission included the topic “Nationality, including Statelessnessin its list of topics of international law provisionally selected for codification. At the behest of ECOSOC in its 11th Session soon after, that item was given priority.

The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees was done on 28 July 1951. It was originally desired to cover:

“refugees and stateless persons”, however agreement was not reached with respect to the latter

The International Law Commission at its fifth session in 1953 produced both a Draft Convention on the Elimination of Future Statelessness, and a Draft Convention on the Reduction of Future Statelessness. ECOSOC approved both drafts.

The 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was done in September 1954 (The Status Convention). This completed the unfinished work of the Refugee Convention three years prior.

On 4 December 1954 the UN General Assembly by Resolution adopted both drafts as the basis of its desire for a conference of plenipotentiaries and an eventual Convention.

Today, nationality law is based either on” jus soli or jus sanguinis”, or on a combination of the two.

Jus soli is the principle in which a child born in a country’s territorial jurisdiction acquires that country’s nationality.

(Ex: United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, France ).

Jus sanguinis, is the child’s right of Blood/Dna either from the Father or Mother. (inherited nationality/citizenship).

It is a social policy by which nationality or citizenship is not determined by “Place of Birth”, but your “Place of Ethnic origin”.

similarily by having an ancestor who is a national of  the country or citizen of the state.

It contrasts with jus soli (Latin for “right of soil”).

whereas,  jus sanguinis (Latin for “right of blood”).

Ayanna Bria ኣያንና ብሪአ the Ethiopian-Nubian

Global Internet Censorship Geo-Map

No censorship is in BLUE

Some censorship is in Gold

Under surveillance is in Red

Internet black holes is in Black (most heavily censored nations)

Internet censorship – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Internet Censorship | American Civil Liberties Union

Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ 

 


Displacement of Nubians from there own Homeland.. Daniel Williams, reports via Bloomberg News

Posted in afri asiatic, Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nubian Displaced @ Aswan/Egypt, Nubians, Sahara with tags , , , , , , , on April 25, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubian Boys Playing in the NileNubian on the Shore of the Nile

A very good profile from Bloomberg today

about a displaced people within their own country. Similar to the Kurds in Iraq,

The Nubians of Egypt have had to leave their traditional villages along the Nile. Some of the displacement is caused by floods, while some is due to reservoirs that the government builds and plans to build upon.
Daniel Williams of Bloomberg news tells us about the Nubian people and their efforts to preserve their own kind.

Singing songs and chatting in an ancient language, hundreds of cheerful Nubian travelers gathered at Alexandria’s railway station for a long pilgrimage to a lost homeland.

Exiles in their own country, they journeyed 18 hours to celebrate a Muslim holiday in southern Egypt’s Nile valley, a region their ancestors once dominated from a loose confederation of villages along the river banks.

In 1964, their shoreline was inundated when the Aswan High Dam created Lake Nasser, the world’s largest reservoir. Now the Egyptian government has floated plans to develop and populate land surrounding the lake — without reserving space for Nubians. Activists in the ethnic minority say no fair: They want terrain set aside for new villages so their brethren can live again on the Nile, returning from a northern Egypt diaspora and arid settlements established 44 years ago for displaced families.

“The settlements are false Nubia,” said Haggag Oddoul, an author who has become an outspoken advocate for resettlement. “To restore our character and community, we need to be rerooted. We need to return.”

Nubians ruled Egypt in pharaonic times, their armies having ousted Libyan invaders…

They speak their own, non-Arabic language and sing their “Songs to Drum beats”….

The river was their economic lifeblood and fountain of memory, identity and lore.

Central to old beliefs, it held the spirits of angels and holy men.

Nubians, now numbering about 3 million of Egypt’s 73 million people,

have been leaving their stretch of the Nile valley for more than a century

some because of poverty, some because of efforts to tame the river’s annual floods.

The first dam near Aswan was built in 1902; subsequent ones obliterated settlements further and further south until all of Egyptian Nubia was under water.

Khabairi Gamal, 70, unfurled a hand-drawn map of old Nubia for holiday visitors earlier this month in Aniba, one of the transplanted villages.

Young Nubians are forgetting their past, he said, turning to Islam. Fathi, 23, and asking where he was from originally…

“Well,” Fathi stammered with a smile….

“Go home and ask about your grandfather….

Ask about it!”     stormed Gamal, the village leader. “And do you know Nubian ?”

“A few ”  “Learn it,” Gamal ordered. “You see, we have to move back. Otherwise, there will be no Nubia and no Nubians.”

Nubian Boys Gather

Nubians live in the Upper Nile region.

When the Condominium Agreementof 1899″ fixed the boundary between Egypt and Sudan,

Lower Nubians found themselves “under direct Egyptian rule” and politically “separated” from their kin to the south.

This arbitrary frontier divides the Nobiin-speaking group more or less equally between Egypt and Sudan. Close ties of culture, language and family continue to unite the people north and south of the border, and until the evacuation of 1964 that accompanied the building of the Aswan High Dam there was continual visiting back and forth between them.

Egyptian Nubia is part of the Governorate of Aswan which also includes a populous area whose inhabitants are not Nubian.

As a result, Nubians have found themselves a minority within their native province.

bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109…

Historical context

Although Egypt remained the stronger power for most of its dynastic period, it did not destroy its southern neighbour, Nubia;

nor did Nubia, in spite of its adoption of Egyptian gods and ideas of kingship, completely succumb to its neighbour’s ways.

The Nubian city of Meroe was sited on the banks of the Nile about 200 kilometres north of present-day Khartoum, growing rich from control of trade on the Nile until the fourth century CE. Its wealth gave rise to elite patronage of art work such as pottery and shield rings, worn on the forehead, a practice that Nubians continue today. The incorporation of Egypt into the Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to the Nile region. Coptic Christianity spread to Nubia, where a Christian kingdom existed from the sixth to the fourteenth centuries.

At the end of this period Nubia adopted Islam, 700 years later than the north of Egypt, and many of its large churches were converted into mosques.

Rural Nubians have been neglected and exploited for much of the twentieth century. From about 1910 until their final destruction in the 1960s, the villages of Egyptian Nubia were populated chiefly by women, children and older people; most able-bodied men were forced to migrate to find work. For the sake of increased agricultural production downstream, their land has been destroyed piecemeal by the building of successive dams at Aswan without any effort to gain their consent. Over a period of 70 years about 60 per cent of Egyptian Nubia territory has been destroyed or rendered unfit for habitation, and roughly half the surviving Nubian-speaking people have been obliged to find new homes.

Some attempt has been made to compensate Nubians for the loss of their farms and date groves and create new livelihoods for them, but development south of Aswan has failed to keep pace with the rest of the country. For thousands of years ‘Nubian’ and ‘slave’ were virtually synonymous in the Egyptian mind; although this prejudice has lessened in the modern era, Nubians are still largely excluded from Egyptian national life.

Nubians convened a ‘First Nubian Congress’ in October 2002, and petitioned the government for greater compensation for their lost land.

Current issues

Nubians remain bitter over the loss of their land to the dam projects without adequate compensation.

While the dams were designed to serve Egypt’s development needs ,Nubians complain that the government continues to neglect their needs…

(Map below of dates the African countries gained independent soveriegnity) Egypt, Ethiopia, Algeria ,Sudan, Ghana etc..

Geo Map of African Independence dates


To World Wide :

The International Appeal to Rescue Nubia And to stop Building the Kajbar Dam

Halfa First! Kajbar Next!!
Nubia Drowns and Dies of Thirst!!!

Date: May 12, 2007

Nubian Guard

To:
The United Nations Secretary General
• United Nations programs and Specialized Agencies:
• International Labor Organization (ILO)
• UN High Commission for Human Rights (UNHCHR)
• World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
• United Nations Economic Development Program (UNDP)
• United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
• United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).
• United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
• World Tourism Organization (WTO)
• World Health Organization (WHO)
• United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)
• United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
• International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
• The African Union (AU)
• The International Rivers Network
• The Arab League.

We, the signatories on the this appeal, individuals and organizations, call upon the United Nations, its specialized agencies, governments of free nations, human rights organizations, academicians, scholars, and the international community

at large to heed to this urgent appeal and rush to the rescue of Nubia from the eminent destruction and devastation by the proposed Kajbar Dam at the Third Cataract on the River Nile which will inundate one of the most precious and invaluable archaeological sites of the world.

The international community is urged to exert all possible pressures on the government of Sudan to “Stop” building dams in the Nubian lands without the consent of the Nubians and put an end to decades of intentional marginalization, isolation, cultural and ethnic cleansing which has been practiced by the consecutive governments of Sudan in collaboration with the Egyptian government against Nubians, their culture and heritage.

The Nubians have never recovered yet from the devastation of the High Dam of Egypt to their lands and properties in early sixties of last century.

The governments of Sudan and Egypt have jointly and intentionally implemented series of destructive policies to dismantle the Nubian society and assimilate the indigenous people of Nubia into Arabic culture through well organized programs of cultural cleansing, acculturation and indoctrination.

It is our believe that the international community has a legal and moral obligation towards preserving and protecting the Nubians as one of the indigenous people of the world, their heritage and culture from the excessive and intentional process of Arabization and cultural cleansing.

Governments of Sudan and Egypt have signed the Four Freedoms Agreement (the freedom to move, live, work and own.)

on April 5, 2004 and the officials of the two governments expressed their desire to bring millions of Egyptian farmers to the Nubian lands of Argeen without the knowledge and consent of Nubians.

On the other hand the government of Sudan has issued a presidential decree last year to confiscate the Nubian lands in Wadi Halfa municipality.

Governments of Sudan and Egypt “prohibi”t usage of the Nubian” language” in their educational curricula and apply disguised and discriminatory measures to deny Nubians from holding sensitive and key governmental positions unless they master

Arabic “language” and get affiliated with the ruling elites and culturally assimilated to the dominant Arabic culture as a precondition for holding senior positions. The systematic depopulation of the Nubians from their lands and gradual replacement of Nubians by non-Nubians is intended to destroy the strongly knitted social fabric of Nubian society and disrupt the long lived harmony and demographic homogeneity of the Nubians, one of the oldest indigenous and distinctive cultural groups in Africa.

Nubians as “indigenous people” are entitled to get international protection according to the international laws protecting the indigenous people, their cultures and heritage.

Last March, the Nubians saw the Sudanese government bringing Chinese workers and equipments being brought to the site of

Kajbar Dam and the Nubian organizations and associations organized a big demonstration to protest the building of Kajbar Dam without their consent. They expressed their opposition to the dam and demand immediate removal of equipments from the site. The governor of the Northern Province promised the angry protesters but he reneged and even began to put obstacles to the committees opposing the Kajbar Dam. When the Nubians protested again, the security forces at the Kajbar Dam site used tear gas and live ammunition to disperse the peaceful demonstration injuring several people.

During the last few weeks the state authorities deployed more security forces to the site of the Dam and the governor announced that the government will conduct feasibility studies only to decide whether to proceed in building the dam or stop it. The government is trying to fool the people and continue building the dam and force the Nubians to accept the dam as a reality and a status quo matter like what they did at Meroe Dam and to the people affected by the dam.

Nubian Children in Village

We call upon the international community to:

• Take every necessary steps to move expediently to stop forthwith the building of Kajbar Dam and any dam in the heartland of Nubia and extend every possible help Nubians are entitled to,by the international laws to get their share

in “power and wealth” as stipulated in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in Naivasha, Kenya between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People Liberation Army/Movement and the agreements signed in Abuja and Asmara between the government of Sudan and the Darfur rebels and the East Front rebels.

• Protect and enable the Indigenous people of Nubia to have the right and freedom to use their ancestral lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, and their right to maintain, control, protect and develop their language, cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions

• Make sure that the Nubians who suffered from forcible relocations for the purpose of building the High Dam of Aswan, the biggest man made dam in the history in their lands be compensated for their sufferings during the last four decades and that they shall not be forcibly removed again from their lands or territories and that no relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous people of Nubia.

• Insure the right of the indigenous people of Nubia to revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems and literatures.

• Enable the right of the indigenous people of Nubia to establish and control their educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning.

• Enable the Indigenous people of Nubia who are divided by international borders between Sudan and Egypt, to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with their own members as well as other peoples across borders.

• Insure the right of the Indigenous people of Nubia to have free access to public media or establish their own media in their own languages and to have access to all forms of non-indigenous media without discrimination.

The Nubians, their organizations and association inside Sudan and around the world were asked to organize demonstrations on May 21st, 2007 inside Sudan and in front of Sudanese and

Chinese embassies and UN offices worldwide to express their unequivocal opposition to Kajbar Dam and any future plans to build dams in the Nubian lands and spread the word through the international media to expose to the world the hidden war against Nubians and the conspiracy to wipe out Nubia from the map of the world..

Nuraddin Abdulmannan
Secretary General
The Rescue Nubia and Kajbar Dam Resistance Committee – US chapter.
151 Danbury Street SW
Washington, DC 20032
Tel. (240)441-6993

Date: May 14, 2007

Sincerely,

http://www.petitiononline.com/Appeal/

and Sudan’s Dafur Crisis

http://www.savedarfur.org/

http://www.genocideintervention.net/

http://www.operationsnehemiah.org/

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