Archive for the Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people Category

The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade: Only 4.4% of Slaves were Shipped to North America (U.S. & Canada) The Majority 93.6% of Slaves were shipped to Central America, South America and the Caribbean Islands #slaveryfacts

Posted in A Subtle Racist Classification, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Indigenous people, Semetic People with tags , , , , , on November 28, 2013 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

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Facts and Figures

  • Number of Slaves Transported by Each European Country (12)

  Country   Voyages   Slaves Transported  
  Portugal (including Brazil)   30,000   4,650,000  
  Spain (including Cuba)   4,000   1,600,000  
  France (including West Indies)   4,200   1,250,000  
  Holland   2,000   500,000  
  Britain   12,000   2,600,000  
  British North America, U.S.   1,500   300,000  
  Denmark   250   50,000  
  Other   250   50,000  
  Total   54,200   11,000,000  
  • Number of Slaves Delivered to Each Country / Destination  (12)

  Country / Destination   Slaves Delivered     %  
  Brazil   4,000,000     35.3  
  Spanish Empire (including Cuba)   2,500,000     22.1  
  British West Indies   2,000,000     17.7  
  French West Indies (including Cayenne)   1,600,000     14.1  
  British North America & U.S.   500,000     4.4  
  Dutch West Indies (including Surinam)   500,000     4.4  
  Danish West Indies   28,000     0.2  
  Europe (including Portugal, Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, etc.   200,000     1.8  
  Total   11,328,000     100.0  
  • Number of Slaves Leaving African Ports (12)

  African Port   Number of Slaves Departing     %  
  Senegambia (including Arguin), Sierra Leone   2,000,000     15.4  
  Windward Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Ivory Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Gold Coast (Ashanti)   1,500,000     11.5  
  Slave Coast (Dahomey, Adra, Oyo)   2,000,000     15.4  
  Benin to Calabar   2,000,000     15.4  
  Cameroons / Gabon   250,000     1.9  
  Loango   750,000     5.8  
  Congo / Angola   3,000,000     23.1  
  Mozambique / Madagascar   1,000,000     7.7  
  Total Leaving African Ports   13,000,000     100.0  
  • First Employment of Slaves in the Americas (12)

  First Employment   Number of Slaves     %  
  Sugar Plantations   6,000,000     54.5  
  Coffee Plantations   2,000,000     18.2  
  Mines   1,000,000     9.1  
  Domestic Labor   1,000,000     9.1  
  Cotton Fields   500,000     4.5  
  Cocoa Fields   250,000     2.3  
  Building   250,000     2.3  
  Total   11,000,000     100.0  

       These data were derived from the W.E.B. Du Bois database of slaving voyages, which was later combined with other databases to form the comprehensive Voyages database of nearly 35,000 slaving expeditions, estimated to represent 80% of the total  (32).

  Period   Number of Slaves Accounted For     %  
  1450-1600   409,000     3.6  
  1601-1700   1,348,000     11.9  
  1701-1800   6,090,000     53.8  
  1801-1900   3,466,000     30.6  
  Total Slave Exports   11,313,000     100.0  
  • Abolition Dates in the New World

Country   Date of Abolition   Comments
Upper Canada   1793   Ontario between 1791 and 1840
Haiti   1794   Revolution of slaves began in 1791
Lower Canada   1803   Quebec between 1791 and 1840
Argentina   1813    
Chile   1823    
Federal Republic of Central America   1824   Included Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Mexico   1829    
Jamaica (British Empire)   1834    
Guadeloupe (French Empire)   1848    
Peru   1851    
Surinam (Dutch Empire)   1863    
United States   1865   Following the Civil War
Puerto Rico   1873    
Cuba   1880    
Brazil   1888    
  • U.S. Census Data by Race – 1800 to 1860 (84)

Census Year Total Population

Breakdown By Race

Total,  %  Black
White Total Black Free Black Slave
1860 31,443,321 26,922,537 4,441,830 488,070 3,953,760

14.1

1850 23,191,876 19,553,068 3,638,808 434,495 3,204,313 15.7
1840 17,063,353 14,189,705 2,873,648 386,293 2,487,355 16.8
1830 12,860,702 10,532,060 2,328,642 319,599 2,009,043 18.1
1820 9,638,453 7,866,797 1,771,656 233,634 1,538,022 18.4
1810 7,239,881 5,862,073 1,377,808 186,446 1,191,362 19.0
1800 5,308,483 4,306,446 1,002,037 108,435 893,602 18.9

Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster

Image

Sources and Selected Links

Primary Sources

  1. Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite Jr., The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record    hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/index.php

  2. fizzog’s photostream, Gate of No Return, Cape Coast Castle,    www.flickr.com

  3. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Reading Room,_Images of African-American Slavery and Freedom    www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

  4. Circumcisioninfo.com

  5. Alex Haley, Roots: The Saga of an American Family,  Doubleday: Reissue edition (August 17, 1976), copyright 1976 by Alex Haley

  6. Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O’Rourke, Power and Plenty: Trade, War and the World Economy in the Second Millennium, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. In the UK, Princeton University Press, Woodstock, Oxfordshire. c. 2007 by Princeton University Press.

  7. wayfaring stranger, The door of no return, Gorée Island, www.flickr.com

  8. Mark Moxon, La Maison des Esclaves (Slave House) Image    www.moxon.net/senegal/ile_de_goree.html

  9. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, A History of Public Health in South Carolina,    www.scdhec.net

  10. MSN Encarta, Emancipation Proclamation,    encarta.msn.com

  11. Wikipedia, Fort Wagner,    en.wikipedia.org

  12. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York, c. 1997 Hugh Thomas

  13. R. Reynolds, An Accurate MAP of Africa From the Latest Improvements and Regulated by Astronomical Observations From A New Universal Collection, 1771, Engraved for Drakes Voyages, London: T. Cooke, University of Florida Map & Imagery Library    www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPAFRICA-D.HTML

  14. United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section, Map No. 4045 Rev. 4, AFRICA, January 2004    www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/africa.pdf

  15. Slavery in America, Map of West African Slave Ports c. 1750,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  16. NASA, Astronomy Picture of the Day, Earth at Night, 2000 November 27,    antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html

  17. Slavery in America, Slave Trade From Africa to the Americas 1650-1860,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  18. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Nigeria,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

  19. Slavery in the North, Slavery in Massachusetts,    www.slavenorth.com

  20. Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, A History of Slavery in Africa, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, c1983, second edition c2000 Paul E. Lovejoy

  21. Joseph C. Miller, Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade: Statistical Evidence on Causality, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 11:385-423

  22. James Ciment, Atlas of African-American History, Checkmark Books, An Imprint of Facts On File, Inc., c2001 by Media Projects Inc.

  23. Charles T. Webber, The Underground Railroad, Oil on Canvas at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Subscription Fund Purchases, Accession Number 1927.26,    www.cincinnatiartmuseum.org    [inscribed, verso: This picture is painted for the love of my dear wife Frances Augusta Webber-C.T.W. Dec 22, 1891]

  24. Ohio Memory, An Online Scrapbook of Ohio History,    Underground Railroad Painting, omp.ohiolink.edu

  25. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Senegal,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

  26. Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitochondria,    micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html

  27. Genetics Home Reference, Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions, Y chromosome,    ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome=Y;jsessionid=E08860AEBFD0E58ED766FE844F97C806

  28. PBS.org, African American Lives, Who Am I? A Genealogy Guide& African American Lives DVD c. 2006 Kunhardt Productions, Inc, Educational Broadcasting Corporation, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.    www.pbs.org/wnet/aalives/genealogy.html

  29. Ancestry.com, Slave Registers of former British Colonial Dependencies, 1812-1834,    www.ancestry.com

  30. Ancestry.com, U.S. Census Collection,    ancestry.com/?rc=locale%7E&us=0   [contains key word searchable census records from 1790 to 1930. Paid membership required]

  31. Cyndi’s List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet, African-American,    www.cyndislist.com/african.htm

  32. Voyages, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database,    www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces   [this site contains the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade database known as the Voyages Database]

  33. BeyondBooks.com, Guest Experts, Professor Ira Berlin,    http://www.beyondbooks.com/chat/1999/berlinarchive.asp   [an interview with Professor Ira Berlin, a noted historian of southern and African American life. Berlin is Professor of History at the University of Maryland, and has authored a number of books on African American history]

  34. Family Tree of Beth Nolan – Tasmania Australia, Compiled by Beth (Nolan) Stott,    stott.customer.netspace.net.au/famtree2.htm   [a typical family tree]

  35. University of Massachusetts Lowell, African-American Roots Project,    www.uml.edu/roots/Default.asp

  36. National Geographic Genographic Project, A Partnership Between National Geographic Society and IBM, Gene Project to Trace Humanity’s Migrations,    reference.aol.com/natgeo/_a/gene-project-to-trace-humanitys/20050413141909990001

  37. Visit Zambia, New DNA test results trace Oprah Winfrey’s ancestry to Liberia / Zambia,    www.visitzambia.co.zm/lk/news/new_dna_test_results_trace_oprah_winfrey_s_ancestry_to_liberia_zambia   [discussion of Oprah Winfrey’s DNA analysis and the tribes she is likely descended from]

  38. Mitochondria Interest Group Website, MIG icon image: Rat brain dendrite illustrating 6 mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang. NINDS, NIH,tango01.cit.nih.gov/sig/home.taf?_function=main&SIGInfo_SIGID=60    [image of a rat brain dendrite illustrating six mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang, NINDS, NIH.]

  39. Library of Congress, American Memory, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875, Feb. 27, 1869, Fifteenth amendment to the Constitution,    memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=015/llsl015.db&recNum=379    [resolution by the Senate and the House of Representatives, regarding the 15th amendment to the Constitution, providing voting rights to all adult males including former slaves]

  40. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave,    sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/07.html    [contains the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, online]

  41. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage, The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, Oxford University Press, New York, c. 2006 David Brion Davis

  42. Street Law & The Supreme Court Historical Society Present… Landmark Cases Supreme Court, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),    www.landmarkcases.org/dredscott/home.html    [a description of the Dred Scott case and Supreme Court decision. Provides a teacher’s guide for covering the material with students.]

  43. The Louisiana Purchase, A Heritage Explored, An Online Educational Resource from LSU Libraries Special Collections,    www.lib.lsu.edu/special/purchase/history.html#outline1    [an interesting history of the Louisiana Purchase]

  44. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children & Families, HHS NEWS, Campaign Launched in Nashville to Identify, Assist Victims of Human Trafficking,www.act.hhs.gov/news/press/2007/human_trafficking_victims.htm

  45. PBS.org, Africans in America, Judgement Day, Dred Scott’s fight for freedom,    www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html    [a very good description of Dred Scott’s life at the time he was pursuing his freedom in the courts]

  46. Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Collection, Scott v. Sandford, Taney, C.J., Opinion of the Court, www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0060_0393_ZO.html     [transcript of the opinion of Chief Justice Taney. Each Justice wrote his own opinion, and all of the documents are included on this website]

  47. Christine’s Genealogy Website, Who are your people?,    ccharity.com

  48. Guardian Unlimited, Church apologizes for benefiting from slave trade,    www.guardian.co.uk/religion/Story/0,,1705628,00.html

  49. The Evangelist, Official Publication of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany, Church’s failures of two millennia include repression, Crusades, Inquisition, www.evangelist.org/year2000/0699fait.htm

  50. msn Encarta, John Paul IIJohn Paul’s Achievements,    encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552499_2/John_Paul_II.html

  51. Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves (Paperback), Mariner Books, Reprint Edition (February 10, 2006), c. 2005 by Adam Hochschild, Hardcover Edition published by Houghton Mifflin, New York (January 7, 2005)

  52. CNN.com Transcripts, Live From President’s Day, Aired February 16, 2004, Miles O’Brien, CNN Anchor, and Rick Shenkman, Presidential Historian, transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0402/16/lol.01.html    [a humorous interview about the Presidents on Presidents Day, sharing little known facts]

  53. Wikipedia, Franklin Pierce,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Pierce

  54. United States Senate, Historical Minute Essays, The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner,    www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/The_Caning_of_Senator_Charles_Sumner.htm

  55. Wikipedia, Ain’t I a Woman?,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ain’t_I_a_Woman%3F

  56. New Jersey State Bar Foundation, Students’ Corner, Forty Acres and a Mule,    www.njsbf.org/njsbf/student/respect/fall02-2.cfm   [a concise discussion of the origin of the phrase ’40 acres and a mule,’ a promise made to freed slaves as the Civil War was in its final months. Unfortunately, the benefits turned out to be short lived.]

  57. Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, What About My 40 Acres & A Mule?    www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1994/4/94.04.01.x.html    [an interesting discussion by Gerene L. Freeman of the promise of 40 acres and a mule, in the context of teaching a predominantly African-American group of students about playwrights of African descent who emerged as a result and/or in spite of the American slave system.]

  58. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Citizen Information Service, Massachusetts Facts, Part Four, Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War Hero, www.sec.state.ma.us/cis/cismaf/mf4.htm    [provides a brief biography of Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War hero and member of the Massachusetts 54th Regiment, a black brigade that became famous for the assault on Fort Wagner. Carney was the first African-American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest honor. The site includes an account of the battle of Fort Wagner in Carney’s own words.]

  59. Wikipedia, Strange Fruit,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strange_Fruit

  60. PBS, Independent Lens, Strange Fruit,    www.pbs.org/independentlens/strangefruit/film.html    [includes a sound clip of the song ‘Strange Fruit,’ sung by Billie Holiday]

  61. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Finding Oprah’s Roots – Finding Your Own, First EditionCrown Publishers, New York, c. 2007 by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

  62. African Ancestry, trace your dna . find your roots,    www.africanancestry.com    [a commercial site that offers DNA testing. One of the labs used in the PBS African American Lives genealogical study of prominent African-Americans, hosted by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.]

  63. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Ghana,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gh.html

  64. Wikipedia, Sojourner Truth,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sojourner_Truth

  65. New Orleans Convention & Visitors Bureau, A Brief History of New Orleans,    www.neworleanscvb.com/static/index.cfm/contentID/sectionID/1/subsectionID/0

  66. Blupete.com, History of Nova Scotia, Book #1: Acadia, Part 6 — The Deportation of the Acadians, Ch. 04 – Introduction,    www.blupete.com/Hist/NovaScotiaBk1/Ch04.htm

  67. Wikipedia, Henry Box Brown,    en.widipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Box_Brown

  68. eSSORTMENT, Henry ‘box’ brown information,    va.essortment.com/henryhenry_rnls.htm

  69. Amistad Research Center,    www.tulane.edu/~amistad/amessays.htm

  70. Exploring Amistad at Mystic Seaport, Supreme Court Justices 1841,    amistad.mysticseaport.org/discovery/people/bio.justices.html#thompson.list

  71. Wikipedia, List of Presidents of the United States,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States

  72. University of South Florida, Florida Center for Instructional Technology, Exploring Florida, Key West: Civil War,    fcit.usf.edu/Florida/docs/k/keys15htm

  73. Keys Historeum, Presented by the Historical Preservation Society of the Upper Keys, History of Key West,    www.keyshistory.org/keywest.html

  74. The Floridians, A Social History of Florida, Florida Under Civil Strife, The Civil War and Reconstruction, The Road to Secession,    www.floridahistory.org/floridians/civilw.htm

  75. Florida National Guard Heritage Center, Civil War,    www.floridaguard.army.mil/history/CivilWar.asp?did=1305

  76. Fort Taylor.org, Key West, Florida, Fort Taylor Features    www.forttaylor.org/features.html

  77. Shotgun’s Home of the American Civil War, Chronology of the American Civil War    www.civilwarhome.com/timeline.htm

  78. New York Press, January 5, 2001, William Bryk, Mr. Wood Is Mayor, Volume 14, Issue 1    www.newyorkpress.com/print.cfm?content_id=3400

  79. Google Book Search, text of mayor wood’s message to council 1861, Harper’s Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A.D. to 1902, Page 435, by Benson John Lossing, John Fiske, Woodrow Wilson – United Staes – 1901,    books.google.com/books?q=text+of+mayor+wood%27s+message+to+council+1861&btnG=Search+Books

  80. Google Book Search, the national cyclopaedia of american biography fernando wood mayor of new york, page 388, by James Terry White – 1893    books.google.com/books?q=the+national+cyclopaedia+of+american+biography+fernando+wood+mayor+of+new+york

  81. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Online Exhibitions, The Dred Scott Decision and its Bitter Legacy,    www.gilderlehrman.org/collection/online/scott/index.html

  82. BBC, Long lost roots of Black Britons revealed by groundbreaking BBC TWO documentaryMotherland: A Genetic Journey,  www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2003/02_february/05/motherland.shtml    [Describes a BBC Documentary about the Motherland Project, The study took DNA samples from 229 volunteers, all of whom had four African-Caribbean grandparents. It was found that 13% of the ancestors of today’s Black Britons of Caribbean descent are of European origin. Analysis of the male and female lines showed that 27% have a Y chromosome passed from father to son that traces back to Europe (the male line), whereas only 2% have mitochondrial DNA that traces to Europe, passed from mother to child (the female line).]

  83. Science Museum (UK), Genetic Journey to the Motherland, www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/antenna/motherland/index.asp    [Information about the Motherland Project. Using DNA analysis, hundreds of British Afro-Caribbeans discovered the part of Africa their forebears came from. Some of the results are surprising.]

  84. U.S. Census Bureau, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056.html

  85. Waynet.org, Levi Coffin House State Historic Site,    www.waynet.org/levicoffin/default.htm

  86. Vicki Betts, University of Texas at Tyler, Files by Newspaper Titles, Atlanta Southern Confederacy, March 1861 – May 1863, F. Geutebruck    www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/southern_confederacy.htm

  87. Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Opinions, Amistad, Opinion of Justice Story    www.law.cornell.edu/background/amistad/opinion.html    [Opinion of the court in the Amistad case, delivered by Justice Story]

  88. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Sierra Leone,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sl.html

Selected Links & Sources

Image Collections

Map Collections

Songs, Narratives, Plays and Online Exhibitions

Museums, Libraries, Institutes, Databases

Genealogy

Resources for Teachers and Students

Miscellaneous


Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster
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Egyptians and Hebrews [Asiatic-Africans] in America before Christ/Columbus 1000-800 B.C. . (The Indigenous Americans)

Posted in African Diaspora, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, Ashkenazi Hebrews L2a1, Asiatic African, Blood type O, Blood Types Americas, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Egypt, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Habeshas, Indigenous people, North America / North Africa, O-positive blood, Semetic People, Semitic, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, The United States and the Arab World with tags on August 16, 2011 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Did ancient Hebrews reach the shores of the North and South American continents thousands of years before Christopher Columbus?

What evidence is there for Hebrew and Israelite occupation of the Western Hemisphere even a thousand years before Christ?

Was trans-Atlantic commerce and travel fairly routine in the days of king Solomon of Israel? Read here the intriguing, fascinating saga of the TRUE DISCOVERERS OF AMERICA!

A stone in a dry creek bed in New Mexico, discovered by early settlers in the region, is one of the most amazing archaeological discoveries in the Western Hemisphere. It contains engraved on its flank the entire Ten Commandments written in ancient Hebrew script! Hebrew scholars, such as Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis University near Boston, have vouched for its authenticity.

I visited the site of the huge boulder, near Las Lunas, New Mexico, in 1973 and photographed the Hebrew inscriptions. A local newspaper reporter guided me to the mysterious site, located out in the middle of the New Mexico desert. We watched for rattlesnakes, as we hiked in to the spot where the boulder lies, unmoved and in situ for who knows how many mysterious centuries. Who put it there? Who wrote the incredible inscription of the TEN COMMANDMENTS in an ancient Hebrew dialect?

In his new book The Origins and Empire of Ancient Israel, author-historian Steven M. Collins points out that the “Las Lunas Stone” inscription in archaic Hebrew was written in the Hebrew letters of the style of the Moabite Stone, dated to about 1,000 B.C. This would place the writing on the stone to the time of the kingdom of ancient Israel under its most affluent and powerful king, Solomon, who reigned from 1014 B.C. to 974 B.C.

Exactly how old the writing is, however, is not known. George Morehouse, a geologist, studied it and concluded it is between 500 and 2000 years old, based on the weathered patina on the rock. However, the inscriptions have received periodic scrubbings, says Collins, and therefore some of the ancient evidence of weatherization could have been removed in the process. Collins points out that the punctuation in the inscription matches that found in ancient Greek manuscripts of the fourth century.

Dr. Barry Fell states that separation points found in the artifact date to as early as 1200 B.C.

Evidence of Ancient Egyptians:

Literally hundreds of inscribed Phoenician, Celtic and Basque stone grave markers have been found in Susquehanna Valley of Pennsylvania, dated to 800-600 B.C., over 2,000 years before the fateful voyage of Columbus! It must be said, therefore, that Christopher Columbus did not really “discover” America. Rather, he and his intrepid sailors rediscovered the “New World”!

Incredible as it may seem, the presence of ancient Egyptians has been found in the writing system of the Wabanaki/Micmac Indians in Maine, a sub-tribe of the Algonquins. It has even been documented, says Collins, that the ancient Egyptians sailed the Pacific Ocean as far as Polynesia and Hawaii, searching for gold, about 1,000 B.C. – during the very time of Solomon’s Empire in Israel.

One proof of this fact is an inscription in ancient Ogam and Libyan – the language of Egyptian merchantmen – found near the Rio Grande River of Texas. The inscription states than an Egyptian-Libyan king by the name of Shishonq visited North America a number of times. It is translated as, “A crew of Shishonq the king took shelter in this place of concealment.” Says Dr. Barry Fell, several kings of this name ruled Egypt and Libya between 1000 and 800 B.C.

Interestingly, the Bible itself mentions a king of Egypt by the name of “Shishak” (“Shishonq”) who invaded the Kingdom of Judah during the time of Rehoboam, son of Solomon, after the kingdom of Israel separated from allegiance to the throne of David. Shishak was no doubt an ally of Jeroboam, the king of Israel, at that time. He was a mighty king and plundered the Temple and riches of the kingdom of Judah (see I Kings 14:25-26).

Steve Collins declares:

“It is significant that Dr. Fell noted the time period of ‘1000-800 B.C.’ as marking a period of significant Old World exploration of the New World. This time frame exactly parallels Bible records showing international travel and commerce flourished with fleets undetaking multi-year voyages and visiting other continents.

This time frame begins with the reigns of Kings David and Solomon, but continues through much of the history of the northern kingdom of Israel, the dominant partner in the Phoenician alliance until Israel fell circa 721 B.C. The conclusion is inescapable that the record of ancient history verifies the biblical accounts.

The Bible is not a detailed history of all that happened in the ancient world, but it confirms what archaeology and epigraphy have shown about the real state of commerce and travel in the ancient world”

(Collins, page 227, emphasis mine except boldface).

“A date of 800-700 B.C. for this stele confirms that the triple alliance of Israel, Egypt and Phoenicia lasted long after the lifetime of King Solomon. The Bible records that the ten tribes of Israel forsook worshiping the Creator God after Solomon’s death, and adopted the religious customs of Egypt, Tyre and Sidon. Biblical accounts show that Israel and Phoenicia were still very closely allied during the reign of King Ahab of Israel (circa 850 B.C.), and there is no evidence that their alliance suffered a breach until approximately 721 B.C., when Israel ceased to be a nation in the Mideast. . . .

Therefore the Iowa stele showing that these ancient nations were still working together around 800 B.C. in the New World is consistent with biblical accounts” (ibid., p.212).

In addition to these discoveries, another stele exhibiting the ancient Egyptian-Libyan script was unearthed on Long Island, New York. Dr. Barry Fell states that it also probably dates to around the ninth century B.C.

Still another amazing discovery was made in Oklahoma, where another stele was found which contained references to the gods Baal and Ra, with an inscription which was “an extract from the Hymn to the Aton by Pharaoh Akhnaton.” Although the dating of Akhnation is purported to be in the 13th century B.C., new Egyptian dynastic dating methods indicate he was much closer to 800 B.C.

Immanuel Velikovsky points out that Akhnaton was a member of the 18th dynasty in Egypt, which co-existed with the divided kingdoms of Israel and Judah during the 800s B.C. He was a contemporary of king Jehoshaphat in Jerusalem, and reigned from 870-840 B.C. (see Ages in Chaos, p.229). This Oklahoma stele is written in Iberian-Punic, a language descended from Phoenician-Hebrew, and Barry Fell declares that it is “scarcely older than 800 B.C.”

(see Collins, p.212, Fell, America B.C., p.159).

REFERENCES:

They Came Before Columbus – Dr Ivan Van Sertima, YouTube

Amazon.com: They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence .

Bryan Wilhite: Africa and the Pre-Columbian Contacts with America

When the Earth was called Muu Le Muria Washutaw Muurs 2/4 …

Before Columbus or the Egypt Pyramids Washitaw Muurs 1 of 4 …

 

 

Egyptians and Semitic People  in Ancient America

Egyptians and Hebrews in America Before Christ —

Islam and Muslims in America before Columbus

The African Civilizations in  Americas – Before BC

Pre-Columbian Muslims in the Americas

Once Reviled, Black Hebrews Now Fêted – Forward.com

Hispanic Muslims In America Before Coloumbus.  

African Hebrew  Slavery and Land of Israel  American Aliyah … –

Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

RaceandHistory.com -AFRICAN BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA

Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor

This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptianwith an M78Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita-Boyce Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://ingiagzennay.free.fr/Keita-Boyce.pdf

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Ychromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2%)Lower Egypt, (27.3%)Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)Lower Egypt, (24.2%) – Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

(Which group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the Bantu migrations?

But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site is dated, before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78 (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors” of  Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a Proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty “New Kingdom”

Ancient Y-DNA samples shows Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty belonged to Haplogroup  E1b1a/M2/E-V38:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2/E-V38, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

A genetic kinship analysis was done to investigate a possible family relationship between Ramesses III and Unknown man E, Who may actually be his son Pentawer. An ancient Egyptian Prince of the 20th dynasty, and son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. They amplified 16 Y-chromosomal, short tandem repeats (AmpF\STR yfiler PCR amplification kit; Applied Biosystems). Eight polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome were also amplified (Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits; Applied Biosystems). The Y-chromosomal Haplogroups of Ramesses III and unknown man E was screened using the Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor we determined the Y-chromosomal Haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal micro satellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2⇓). Although the mummy of Ramesses III’s wife Tiy was not available for testing, the identical Ychromosomal DNA and Autosomal half allele sharing of the two male mummies strongly suggest a Father-Son relationship.

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

http://www.academia.edu/2308336/Revisiting_the_harem_conspiracy_and_death_of_Ramesses_III_anthropological_forensic_radiological_and_genetic_study

Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M268%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on they-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000😉

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Y– chromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are8,000 B.P. and older)

The AfriAsiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arabmales are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

http://www.thegeneticatlas.com

E1b1a (V100) This population is one of two important populations to spring out of the Ethiopian Plateau, E1b1a effect became the most dominant population in Subsaharan Africa

E1b1a (M2) This population grew in enough numbers in the Ethiopian lowlands to be able to cross into the territories of Paleo Africans on their West in Sudan E1b1a (L576) This population represents an East to West thrust in Africa, only E1b1a lineage able to survive crossing the A1b1 territories E1b1a (L86.1) This mutation indicates that the population crossed the A1b1 dominated Grassland into the regions West of the great Lakes E1b1a (M58) Expansion between the Great Lakes & Midwest Africa E1b1a (M116.2) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M149) Very small minority in South Africa E1b1a (M155) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M10) Dispersed between Cameroon & Tanzania E1b1a (L485) An important lineage that emerged in the Eastern Benue valley in Central Nigeria E1b1a (L514) Marker for a strong lineage that played a major role in turning West Africa into their new territor E1b1a (M191) This marker indicates that the main body of (L485) reached the Benue River in Nigeria and Cameroon E1b1a (P252) A population that followed the Benue river South, an important marker of the Bantu expansion in Nigeria E1b1a (P9.2) The population that remained in the Benue region, expanded into West into Nigeria & South to Gabon E1b1a (P115) Eastern limit expansion population, reaching Southwestern Central Africa, with possible presence in other Fang regions E1b1a (P116) South of the Benue expansion in Southern Cameroon & Gabon E1b1a (U175) An important lineage that emerged in the Western region of Benue in Nigeria and Niger E1b1a (U209) This population represents the backbone of the Bantu expansion, emerged and expanded out of the Bantu Urheimat E1b1a (U290) A primary marker of African slavery in the USA, Important lineage in Southern Cameroon E1b1a (M154) Found in Western Cameroon & South Africa E1b1a (P268) Found in Gambia, could possibly indicate an early expansion out of Central Africa or late emergence out of an L86.1* that lived amongst (L485) or (U175) E1b1a (M329) The E1b1a population that remained in the Ethiopian lowlands.

_______________________

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

_

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

______________________________________________ Continue reading

Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples… Who are the indigenous ?

Posted in Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Human Rights with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubian lil Girl and Elder copy

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly during its 62nd session at UN Headquarters in New York City on 13 September 2007.

While as a General Assembly Declaration it is not a legally binding instrument under international law,

according to a UN press release, it does “represent the dynamic development of international legal norms and it reflects the commitment of the UN’s member states to move in certain directions”; the UN describes it as setting “an important standard for the treatment of indigenous peoples that will undoubtedly be a significant tool towards eliminating human rights violations against the planet’s 370 million indigenous people,  and assisting them in combating discrimination and marginalisation.

The Declaration sets out the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and other issues.

It also “emphasizes the rights of indigenous peoples to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions, and to pursue their development in keeping with their own needs and aspirations”.

It “prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples”, and it “promotes their full and effective participation in all matters that concern them and their right to remain distinct and to pursue their own visions of economic and social development”

Nubian Village along Nile

The Declaration was over 22 years in the making. The idea originated in 1982 when the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) set up its Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP), established as a result of a study by Special Rapporteur José R. Martínez Cobo on the problem of discrimination faced by indigenous peoples.

Tasked with developing human rights standards that would protect indigenous peoples, in 1985 the Working Group began working on drafting the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The draft was finished in 1993 and was submitted to the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, which gave its approval the following year.

The Draft Declaration was then referred to the Commission on Human Rights, which established another Working Group to examine its terms. Over the following years this Working Group met on 11 occasions to examine and fine-tune the Draft Declaration and its provisions.

Progress was slow because of certain states’ concerns regarding some key provisions of the Declaration, such as

indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination and the control over natural resources existing on indigenous peoples’ traditional lands.

The final version of the Declaration was adopted on 29 June 2006 by the 47-member Human Rights Council (the successor body to the Commission on Human Rights), with 30 member states in favour, two against, 12 abstentions, and three absentees.

The Declaration was then referred to the General Assembly,

which voted on the adoption of the proposal on 13 September 2007 during its 61st regular session.

The vote was 143 countries in favour,  4 against, and 11 abstaining.

The four member states that voted against were:

Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the “United States”, each of which have

significant “indigenous populations”.

Nubian Woman

The abstaining countries were:

Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine;

another 34 member states were absent from the vote.

The U.S. mission also issued a floor document, “Observations of the United States with respect to

the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples”, setting out its objections to the Declaration. Most of these are based on the same points as the other three countries’ rejections but, in addition,

the United States drew attention to the Declaration’s failure to provide a clear definition of exactly whom

the term “indigenous peoples” is intended to cover.

Nubian Bride copy

Nubian Merchants

ቢልልይ  ጋምበላ

What is a Sub-Saharan African or Sub-Artic American… a subtle racist classification

Posted in A Subtle Racist Classification, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Are you a U.S. citizen or a American National ?, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Nigeria, North Africa, Sahara, Supra-Sahara, The Sahel, What is a Sub-Saharan African ? with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

nubian-and-camel-retro-pic

Sub-Saharan Racial class 1956by Arabs/Western/Euro Cultures

ISSN: 1525-4488

Issue 11 (2007)

WHAT IS “SUB-SAHARA AFRICA?”

Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

The West’s leading news organizations (CNN, BBC, International Herald Tribune, Reuters, Associated Press, Fox News, Yahoo! News, etc….), the recent commemoration of 50 years of Ghana’s restoration-of-independence (after the British conquest and occupation) occasioned, once again, the increasing absurdity that underscores these agencies’ understanding of the fundamentals of political geography in describing Africa.

The very ritualized invocation of the misleading, if not meaningless, epithet “sub-Sahara Africa” was the choice of each of these media outlets in its description of Ghana in their respective anniversary coverage. Indeed all of Africa, except the five predominantly Arab states of north Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) and Sudan, which has an African majority population but an Arab minority that has wielded supreme political power since the country’s restoration-of-independence from Britain in 1956, is also frivolously labeled “sub-Sahara Africa” by these institutions in this outlandish classificatory schema.Nubian CaptainIt is not obvious, on the face of it, which of the four possible meanings of the prefix, “sub”, these agencies attach to their “Sahara Africa.” Is it “under” or “part of”/”partly”? Or, presumably, “partially”/”nearly” or even the very unlikely (hopefully!) application of “in the style of, but inferior to,” especially considering that there is an Arab nationality sandwiched between Morocco and Mauritania (northwest Africa) which calls itself Saharan? The example of South Africa is apt here. Crucially, this is a reference underlined in the relevant literature of the epoch, especially those emanating from Western states, The United Nations (principally UNDP, FAO, UNCTAD, ILO), The World Bank and IMF, the so-called NGOs/”aid” groups, and some in academia, who are variously responsible for initiating and sustaining the operation of this dogma.Nubian Queen ElderPrior to the formal restoration of African majority government in 1994, South Africa was never designated “sub-Sahara Africa” in this portrait unlike the rest of the 13 African-led states in southern Africa. South Africa then was either termed “white South Africa” or the “South Africa sub-continent”

(as in the “India sub-continent” usage, for instance) i.e. “almost”/“partially” a continent – quite clearly a usage of “admiration” or “compliment” employed by its subscribers to essentially project and valorise the perceived geo-strategic potentials or capabilities of the erstwhile European-minority occupying regime. But soon after the triumph of the African freedom movement there, South Africa became “sub-Sahara Africa” in the quickly adjusted schema of this representation! What suddenly happened to South Africa’s “geography” to be so differently classified?! Is it African liberation/rule that renders an African state “sub-Sahara”? Does this post-1994 West-inflected South Africa-changed classification make “sub-Sahara Africa” any more intelligible?Nubian Caramel BeautyJust as in its “continent” example (above), the application of the “almost”/ “partially” or indeed “part of”/ “partly” meaning of prefix “sub-” to “Sahara Africa” focuses unambiguously on Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, each of which has 25-75% per cent of its territory (especially to the south) covered by the Sahara Desert. It also focuses on Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan, which variously have 25-75% per cent of their territories (to the north) covered by the same desert. In effect, these 10 states make up the Sahara Africa.

Anwar Sadat

The five Arab North Africa states do not, correctly, describe themselves as Africans even though they unquestionably habituate

African Geography, the African continent. The West governments, press and the transnational bodies we referred to earlier

(which are predominantly led by West personnel and interests) have consistently “conceded” to this Arab insistence on racial identity. Presumably, this accounts for the West’s ludicrous non-designation of its “sub-Sahara Africa” dogma to these states as well as the Sudan, whose successive Arab-minority regimes in the past 51 years have claimed,

But incorrectly,that The Sudan “belongs” to the Arab World…

On this subject, the West does no doubt know that what it has been engaged in, all along, is blatant sophistry and not science. This, however, conveniently suits its current self-serving propaganda packaging on Africa, which we shall be elaborating on shortly.

It would appear that we still don’t seem to be any closer at establishing, conclusively, what the West media and allied institutions mean by

“sub-Sahara Africa.” Could it, perhaps, just be a benign reference to all the countries “under” the Sahara, whatever their distances from this desert, to interrogate our final, fourth probability? Presently, there are 53 sovereign states in Africa.

If the five north Africa Arab states are said to be located “above” the Sahara, then 49 are positioned “under.”

The latter would therefore include all the five countries mentioned above whose north frontiers incorporate

the southern stretches of the Desert, countries in central Africa (the Congos, Rwanda, Burundi, etc., etc),

for instance, despite being 2000-2500 miles away, and even the southern African states situated 3000-3500 miles away!

In fact, all these 49 countries, except Sudan (alas, not included for the plausible reason already cited!), which is clearly “under” the Sahara and situated within the same latitudes as Mali, Niger and Chad, are all categorized by the West as “sub-Sahara Africa.” To Replicate this obvious farce of a classification elsewhere in the world, the following random exercise is not such an indistinct scenario:

1. Australia hence becomes “sub-Great Sandy Australia” after the hot deserts that cover much of west and central Australia.

2. East Russia, east of the Urals, becomes “sub-Siberia Asia.”

3. China, Japan and Indonesia are reclassified “sub-Gobi Asia.”

4. Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam become “sub-Himalaya Asia.”

5. Europe is “sub-Arctic Europe.”

6. Most of England, central and southern counties, is renamed “sub-Pennines Europe.”

7. East/southeast France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia are “sub-Alps Europe.”

8. The Americas become “sub-Arctic Americas.”

9. South America south of the Amazon is proclaimed “sub-Amazon South America”; Chile could be “sub-Atacama South America.”

10. New Zealand’s South Island is renamed “sub-Southern Alps.

11. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama become “sub-Rocky North America.”

12. The entire Caribbean becomes “sub-Appalachian Americas.”

Rather than some benign construct, “sub-Sahara Africa” is, in the end, a bizarre nomenclatural code that the West employs to depict an African-led sovereign state – anywhere in Africa, as distinct from an Arab-led one. It is of course the West’s non-inclusion of the Sudan in this grouping, despite its majority African population and geographical location, which gives the game away! More seriously to the point, though, the West uses “sub-Sahara Africa” to create the stunning effect of a supposedly shrinking African geographical landmass in the popular imagination, coupled with the continent’s supposedly attendant geo-strategic global “irrelevance.” “Sub-Sahara Africa” is undoubtedly a Racist Geo-Political signature in which its users aim repeatedly to present the imagery of the desolation, aridity, and hopelessness of a desert environment.

This is despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of  “700” million Africans do not live anywhere close to the Sahara, nor are their lives so affected by the implied impact of the very loaded meaning that this dogma intends to convey. Except this increasingly pervasive use of “sub-Sahara Africa” is robustly challenged by rigorous African-centred scholarship and publicity work, the West will succeed in the coming decade to effectively substitute the name of the continent “Africa” with “sub-Sahara Africa” and the name of its peoples, “Africans,”, with “sub-Sahara Africans” or worse still “sub-Saharans” in the realm of public memory and reckoning.

It should be noted that this characterization of Africa comes in the wake of the virtual collapse of the continent’s economy in the 1980s. This was caused by the catastrophic failure of the so-called “economic structural adjustment program,” formulated by The World Bank/IMF and implemented on the ground by the infamous Afrikaan Kakistocratic regimes. The age long terms of the glaring asymmetrical Africa-West socioeconomic relations, that have always favored the West, worsened even further for Africans. Even though tagged a “developing continent,” Africa crucially became a net-exporter of capital to the West as a result, a cardinal feature of its economy since 1981. In these past 26 years, Africa has transferred the gargantuan sum of US$700 billion to the West. These exports do not include those routinely made by thieving heads of state and other state officials. The other stunning consequence of the economy’s collapse is the flight of its middle classes to the West and elsewhere. They are part of the 12 million Africans who have fled the continent in the past 20 years and who are now the principal external source of capital generation and transfer to Africa. In 2003, they dispatched the impressive sum of US$200 billion to Africa. These African émigrés also include the cream of the post-restoration of independence intelligentsia (scholars, scientists, writers, artists, journalists, doctors, nurses, other medical/health professionals, engineers, accountants, teachers, etc., etc), very talented men and women who presently enrich, quite ironically, the West’s intellectual and cultural heritage most profoundly.

It cannot be stressed too often that the extant (European-created) African states that are immanently hostile to the overriding interests of the African humanity have not ceased to be havens that continuously enrich the West most dramatically. The flip side of the coin that tells the tale of the extraordinary wealth which the West and its African regime-clients expropriate from Africa, day in, day out, is the emaciated, starving and dying child, woman and man that has been the harrowing image of the African on television screens and other publicity channels across the world. At stake, of course, is the case that the state in Africa demonstrates a glaring inability to fulfill its basic role to provide security, welfare and transformative capacities for society’s developmental needs and objectives.

It is still a conqueror’s and conquest state, precisely the way the Euro creator envisioned its ontology. It is virtually at war with its peoples, a genocide-state that has murdered 15 million in Biafra, Rwanda, Darfur and southern Sudan, the Congos and elsewhere on the continent in the past 40 years. It is the bane of African social existence. Africans now have no choice but to dismantle this state:

(“sub-Sahara,” “sub-sub-Sahara,” “proto-Sahara,” “quasi-Sahara,” “supra-Sahara,” whatever!) and create New-State/Country and/or terms that Emphatically serve their Interests and Aspirations. This is the most pressing African task of the contemporary era.

Notes and References

1 First published in The Guardian (Nigeria) online, http://www.guardiannewsngr.com/editorial_opinion/article04, May 28, 2007

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Nubian Cultures in crisis : The Aswan Dam… By: Dr. Georgianna Short

Posted in African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nubian Displaced @ Aswan/Egypt, Nubians with tags , , , , , , , , , on April 25, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

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Cultures in Crisis: Impact of Forced Relocation on Sustainability of Culture…

By: Dr. Georgianna Short

All cultures experience catastrophic events at some point in their history. Some cultures are able to survive these challenges,

ensuring traditional practice for future generations. Other cultures, overwhelmed by events, survive by adapting traditional

routine to immediate circumstance. Over time adaptations, once considered temporary, can override traditions and customs associated with daily life.

Sustainability of customs/traditions of daily life depend upon generational ability to safeguard tangible and intangible heritage.

Tangible heritage is “a descriptor [for] any and all human-constructed or human mediated objects…” the material goods of culture (Bolin & Blandy, 2003, p. 249).

Intangible cultural heritage consists of “practices, presentations, expressions,

Knowledge and skills that communities [and]…groups recognize as part of their cultural heritage” (UNESCO, 2005).

Catastrophic events place both tangible and intangible heritage at risk.

Post-crisis examination of tangible and intangible cultural indicators can provide insight into what is considered valuable by present

Members of a Cultural group, whether/how valuable possessions reflect traditional values, and to what degree ancestral heritage will be

Sustained for Future Generations.

This paper explores traditions and customs of three geographically  distinct cultures threatened by catastrophic water events and

Forced relocation during the last half-century; identifies how each event threatened cultural heritage of the effected group; and traces

consequences of aftermath conditions on group’s ability to sustain/maintain its cultural roots. Cultures examined include

the Nubian people evicted from their homeland during the Nubian Aswan Dam crisis (1965-1971),

Chinese peasant population uprooted by the Three Gorges Dam Project (1994-2009),

and plight of displaced poor in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina (2005).

Dr. Short is interested in studying factors affecting sustainability of tangible and intangible heritage of disenfranchised minority groups.

Dr. Short spent 20 years studying cultural sustainability of Guatemalan Highland peoples and subsequently became involved with UNESCO’s World Heritage sites in Egypt, Africa and China.

Dr. Short’s uses catastrophic events of recent history as a lens through which to view ways disenfranchised groups sustain cultural capitol in contemporary times.

bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109…

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