Egypt mtDNA and the Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ Dna DiversitY.. The Maternal Hamito-Semitic.. mtDna Haplogroup L


Meritaten Tasherit 18th Dynasty

egypts_awakening-mamoud

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Diversity of 58 individuals from

Upper Egypt, more than half (34 individuals) from Gurna,

Whose population has an Ancient Cultural History, Were studied by sequencing The Control-Region and screening diagnostic RFLP markers.

This Sedentary Population:

(meaning= inhabiting the same location through out life, non nomadic)

Presented similarities to the Ethiopian Population by the

Haplogroups L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the

West Eurasian component (defined by Haplogroups H to K and T to X) and Particularly by a High frequency (17.6%) of AfriAsiatic Haplogroup M1.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from Upper Egypt (Gurna)sedentary population …

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna

(of modern Upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I  5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 4.9%, L2a1* 20%,

L3* 11.0%, M1  14.9%, N1b  8.8%, T 5.9%, U  8.8%, L2* 2.0%

U4  5.9%, U6 2.9%, L3e* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L1c* 1.0%

L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%, L3f*6.9%. L3d*1.0%.

Percentages above are based on mtdna frequencies of

Southern Upper Egypt/Nile Valley collectively..

Percentages below are based onmtdna frequency in

Northern Alexandria/Lower Egypt ( Saunier July 2008)..

The Breakdown is predominantly European 67.5% followed by African @ 20.6% and Asian @ 11.9%.

European: R0 and subgroups (31.4%), I (3.2%), J (7.6%), K (4.7%), T (9.4%), U (9.0%), W (0.7%) X (1.4%)

African Haplogroups: L0 (2.2%), L1 (2.5%),  L2 (3.6%) and L3 (12.3%)..

Asiatic Haplogroups: M (6.9%) and N (5.1%)

Results:

The Egyptian Population Data set has a Low Random Match Probability..

The Egyptian Population also shows a Large number of Unique Haplotypes,

Therefore indicating a High mtDna Diversity within the Country

Overall 238 different haplotypes were defined by 228 variable positions.

Of the 238 different Haplotypes, 31 were shared within the database of 277 individuals.

The Haplotype most common in this dataset was observed in five individuals

There were 17 points of Heteroplasmy identified in 15 individuals (5.4% of the database)

At 16 positions: One Sample indicated three positions of point heteroplasmy>

(16519, 73 and 195)…

Other remarks: Egypt is distinctive Bio-geographically, as it is centrally located,

Among three surrounding continents its home Africa, Asia and Europe..

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are Nilotic and Indigenous and are typically Supra and sub Saharan..

Haplogroup L2a (mtDNA) has notable frequencies of 22% among the

Hebrew Affiliated Fulani of Nile Valley to Niger to The Gambia

They are at least 70,000-111,100 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !!

L2a1 also has (49%) MtDna collectively in,

Sudan, Nile- Valley/Nubia, Ethiopia, and Egypt

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the Nile Valley Civilizations)……

Queen Ahmose Nefertari/ New Kingdom 19th Dynasty

L2a is also in the Great Rift Valley regions @

16% Kenya/Sudan and 33% in Mozambique.

Today, the term is most often used to refer to

The Valley of the East African Rift,

The divergent plate boundary which extends from

The Afar Triple Junction southward

Across Eastern Africa, and is in the process of splitting

The African Plate into two new separate plates.

Geologists generally refer to these incipient plates as

The Nubian and Somalian subplates or protoplates.

East African-Asiatic: Plate of Nubia/Somalia and ArabiaAs for haplogroups M1 and U, they are African/Westasian/Eurasian haplotypes, at 30,000 B.P.

Other West-asian/Eur-asian, Haplotypes have been found in 12,000 year old bones in Morocco.

Haplogroups N and I Mtdna are possibly attributable to Arab ancestry, about 15% non-Arab in upper Egypt. But still, most of that would easily be attributable to the Neolithic input from “AsiA” very little of this would be attributable to Arabs.

To sum up, there doesn’t seem to be majority ‘Arab’ genetic component to the Egyptian DNA pool, 20% absolute maximum. A lot of the non African DNA is traceable to the Neolithic farming expansion that swept across North Africa, so it would be a lot lower in reality.

In upper Egypt a maximum of 20% of the Y chromosomes are Non –African.

{MMother’s mtDNA L2a1 has been shown to be prevalent in North Africa }..

{Since the Dynastic times, of Ethiopian-Nubian and Egyptian Kingdoms} …..

Sesostris the Ist 12th Dynasty from Altes Museum inBerlin

So how these people are supposed to have Magically Changed appearance in the past few thousand

years with so little foreign input I’d like to know

Egyptians are Indigenous “African-Egyptian”, Not Euro/Arabs.. They are in essence “African-Arabs”.

They are part African/Asiatics: (Hamito-Semitic) and are members of

The Nile Valley  and the Great Rift Valley , which could be equally known as

The East African Rift , Nile Valley Civilizations…

(“Nile Valley, “North Africa”, “Horn of Africa” and “West Asian Arab Africans”.)

{copy and paste national geographic link on egyptian mummies and dna}

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/080606-egypt-mummies.html

An important influence on the subsequent genetic landscape

Of the continent is likely to have been the LGM.

Paleovegetational studies have indicated that, between 30,000 and 11,000 years ago,

Much of the continent was extremely arid (Adams and Faure 1997).

The Sahara advanced hundreds of kilometers further south, and the Equatorial Rainforests

Were reduced to a small fraction of their present size, leaving open woodland and savanna in much of the Congo basin.

This may have formed a refuge area from which modern humans later dispersed:

Some with haplogroup L2a East and West, with L1b west;

Perhaps even some with L1a East and L1d Southward.

The origins of these expansions may lie earlier,

At the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ~40,000 years ago.

Queen Meryt-Amen the 19th Dynasty

The Valley of the Queens, is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. In ancient times, it was known as Ta-Set-Neferu, meaning –‘the place of the Children of the Pharaoh’, because along with the Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties (1550–1070 BCE) many princes and princesses were also buried with various members of the nobility. The tombs of these individuals were maintained by mortuary priests who performed daily rituals and provided offerings and prayers for the deceased nobility.

The distributions and ages of L1a, L1c/L3e, and L1d testify to the habitation of East, and Central, and southern Africa, respectively, by modern humans, ~40,000 years ago.

Similarly, L1b, L3b, and L3d imply that West Africa has been inhabited since at least 20,000–30,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L1b is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa

(particularly geographically adjacent areas, connected by the West African coastal pathway)

but little in East, southeastern, or southern Africa.

It is also common in so called African Americans

(~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

By contrast, the commoner haplogroup L3b (fig. 8c) is predominantly West African,

with a substantial representation again in today’s socalled African Americans.

It has also spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

And Its sister clade, Haplogroup L3d (fig. 9a), is also mainly West African and African American.

A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1), matching a Fulbe/Fulani lineage,

At considerable elevated Frequencies.

L3e (fig. 9b) is the most widespread, frequent, and ancient of the African L3 clades, comprising approximately one-third of all L3 types in sub-Saharan Africa.

This haplogroup has recently been dissected in some detail by Bandelt et al. (2001),

Who suggest an origin for the haplogroup in the Central Africa/Sudan region ~45,000 years ago.

As they recognized, L3e1 in particular is common amongst SouthEastern African Bantu speakers,

Along with some L3e2 and L3e3 lineages.

L3e also represents approximately one-third of all African mtDNA lineages in Brazil.

Alves-Silva et al. (2000)

Finally, there are two small sister clades, L3e3 and L3e4.

L3e3 is primarily West African,But with its root type present at elevated frequency in the

Southeast and with some southeastern African derivatives. There is also a Kenyan/Kikuyu derivative,

Again raising a possible connection with the Eastern stream.

L3e4 is present in East, Central, and West Africa, with One individual in the Southeast,

But is too rare to draw conclusions from.

The area occupied by Cameroon is not always considered as part of the geographic region known as West Africa.

Taking into account its haplogroup composition it could also be considered a genetic outsider.

There are numerous lineages

(L0a, L0a1a, L0a2, L2a1e, L4g, and L5)

that have a more CentralEastern than Western Assignation.

(Pereira et al. 2001Salas et al. 2002Kivisild et al. 2004).

The L4g haplogroupis most frequent in Eastern and

NorthEastern Africa and waspreviously Dated to ~40–45 kya

(Salas et al. 2002Go; Kivisildet al. 2004Go).

Haplogroup L4g (previously designated L3g) is present in both Eastern Tanzanian

Clickspeaking populations at high frequencies (60%Hadza, 48% Sandawe) but is Absent in the SAK.

History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDna …

The only L4 Saudi haplotype belongs to the L4a1 subclade defined by 16207T/C transversion.

Although it has no exact matches its most related types are found in Ethiopia [30].

Four L5 lineages have been found in Saudi Arabia but all have the same

Haplotype that belongs to the L5a1 subclade defined in the

HVSI region by the 1635516362 motif [30]. It has matches in Egypt and Ethiopia.

L6 was found the Most Abundant clade in Yemen [30].

BioMed Central |  Macro-Haplogroup L mtDNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula …

HAPLOGROUP L2A:

Haplogroup L2a is Nilotic and the most common and widely distributed sub- Saharan African Haplogroup and is also frequent in the Americas (~19%).

The wide distribution of L2a in Africa makes identifying geographical origins of lineages difficult.

(Excerpt from: The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182259/

The Main Puzzle is the almost Ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a,

North Africa Tunisian Bay : Golfe de Tunisia Port Saïd { Carthage}Which we suggest may have become”Prevalent “somewhere in

North-Central Africa  { Prehistoric Central North Africa }

Spreading East and West along the Sahel, during the Last Glacial Period or some what earlier..

Example: Modern day Sahel, Tunisia near Libya and Algeria..

Note: The Jerba Islands of Tunisia/Carthage is located in South Eastern Tunisia,

Tunisia, is inhabited by four ethnic groups: Berbers, Arabs, sub-Saharans, and Jews/Hebrews.

(click link below for isolated Sub/Supra Saharan mtdna of jerba/tunisia)

Isolated Haplogroups of Jerba Island Tunisia: L1b, L2a1L2a1c1, L2d2, L3b, L3b1, L3e1a, L3f, M and U

The Island of Jerba/Tunisia is said to be Inhabited First, by the Descendants of  the Mousterian Population

Between the 5th and 6thMillienia B.C. (Tlatli, 1967), Who were later replaced by Berbers of  the Ketama

and Lemata tribes ( Khaldoun 1852).

The First Arab settlement on the Island Occurred in the 7th Century A.D.

Another study shows results also point to a less Ancient western sub-Saharan gene flow to Tunisia, including Haplogroups L2a and L3b.

This conclusion points to an Ancient African gene flow to Tunisia before 20,000 BP.

These findings parallel the more recent findings of both archaeology and linguistics on the prehistory of Africa.

The present work suggests that sub-Saharan contributions to North Africa have experienced several complex population processes after the occupation of the region by anatomically modern humans.

Our results reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued to evolve in  supra-Saharan Africa.

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33) “African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins)

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309″} L2a1 samples.

EXCERPT FROM GENETIC STUDY 2012.

“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea. 10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes has African and American Origins, but the Haplogroup is 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transition @ np“16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)….

PCR AMPLIFICATIONS:

PCR amplification of (a) 27 selected NumtS in 4 healthy subjects from

Different ethnic groups ex..  L2a1-c1/16086C in (North Africa) Figure 2

Costa‘s link to mtDna diversity of Tunisia

Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian …

BioMed Central | Full text | The RHNumtS compilation:  North Africa L2a1c1…

Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers.pdf

Tunisia’s reproductive mtDna groups Isolates on Jerba Island.pdf

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] mtDNA sequences from Tunisian …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/Tunisia and Morrocan Haplogroup L

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA  L2a and L3a Variation in Mauritania and Mali

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] New Egyptian mtDNA sequences

European Journal of Human Genetics – Table 1 for article: The Canary Islands and North Central/NW Africa…

Haplogroup L2a has frequencies of 14% among Algerian Arab/Berbers and

10% among Bilād al-Sūs Morrocan Arab/Berbers in

The Sousse Valley North Africa..

We recognize, however, that the origins of these haplogroups may be more ancient than we can trace

(L2, for example, may be well >70,000 years old )….. and that, in such cases,

evidence of the earlier distribution of these clusters may have been erased by subsequent demographic processe.

We have attempted partly to disentangle the structure of L2a, retaining as irreducible on present evidence three major squares close to the root of the cluster. These reticulations link eight main clusters by single-step mutations.

We assume that the main reticulations of the network are due to the existence of rapid transitions at positions 16189 and 16192

(Howell et al. 2000), which approach saturation due to the high time depth of African lineages.

We also assume that position 16309 is more stable than the two known fast sites and therefore is not responsible for the main reticulations.

On these grounds, clusters α1-α2-α3, as well as β1-β2-β3, might be collapsed into two main clusters,

One of them with the basal motif of “(L2a)” and the other harboring the transition at “16309″ (L2a1).

Several instances in which 16309 must nevertheless evolve in parallel can then be read off the network..

Full report link below on genetic mtdna migrations:

Haplogroup L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309 (Salas et al. 2002).

The most extensive pan-African haplotype

(16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the L2a1 haplogroup.

This sequence is also observed in West Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in

North Africa among the Maure, Hausa, Fulbe, Tuaregs , Hebrews and others; in

Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the

Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in

East Africa among the Kenyan/KikuyuClosely related variants are observed among

The Tuareg in North and West Africa and among the

East African Dinka of Sudan and Eastern Somalians. (Ely et. al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997).

Also striking is the presence in Sakai, Mani of  Thailand of an unequivocal representative

With this  motif (16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309)

Of the sub-Supra Saharan African L2a haplogroup (Torroni et al. 2001),

Which again is compatible with the physical characteristics of this Negrito group.

Although the suggestion that the first spreading out of Africa of modern humans could have carried

some L2 lineages in addition to the L3 ancestors (Watson et al. 1997)…

(Note: my thoughts are the Sakai, and  Mani people of Thailand who genetically belong to the

Motif: 16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309 could very well belong to L2a1 by 16309 as according to the updated

Haplogroup Phylotree 2010 by Van Mannis) ex: Coding region 12693, 15784, and HVS1: (16309) for L2a1.

A compliation 0f 185 mtDNAs sampled across North Africa showed that about Half of the

Lineages belonged to the L Haplogroups otherwised observed mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa

And  that most of the rest fell into Haplogroup U6 (Sala et al. 2002) Which perhaps Originated

In the Near East and Spread into North Africa ~30 thousand years (KY) ago (KYA) (Maca-Meyer et. al. 2003).

A proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages, in higher frequencies as geographic proximity to sub-Saharan Africa increases.

The distribution of the main L haplogroups in North Africa somewhat reflects the known trans-Saharan slave routes:

West is dominated by L1b, L2b, L2c, L2d, L3b and L3d;

the Center by L3e and some L3f and L3w;

the East by L0a, L3h, L3i, L3x and, in common with the Center, L3f and L3w;

while, the ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a is almost everywhere.

Another major contribution to the pool of North Afri- can populations was the sub-Saharan one.

It is known that a proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages

(designated as haplogroups L0-L6)

Japan mtDna Genome Variation in  Sakai Eastern Asia from Thailand…

Joshua Project – Sakai, Mani of Thailand Ethnic People

The mtDna of the  trans-Saharan slave trade

HAPLOGROUP L2a

mtDNA phylo tree Build 10 (10 Aug 2010)

PhyloTree.org | sub-haplogroup |Haplogroup L

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Mitotool.org Macro-Haplogroup L  PhyloTree and Ethnic Groups..

Comparison of Craniofacial features of African-Asiatic Human Groups.

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in  Prehistoric Egypt”

Click link for Origin Date of mtDna>{TB5}

L1b 30,550 (16,250) B.P.
L2a 55,150 (19,350) B.P.
L2a1 33,700 (13,400) B.P.
L2d 121,900 (34,200) B.P.
L3e 49,250 (11,750) B.P.
L3e1a 26,750 (12,000) B.P.
L3e1 32,150 (11,450) B.P.
L3b 21,600 (6,850)  B.P.
L1c2 44,100 (10,650) B.P.
L3d 30,250 (8,450) B.P.
L3f 36,300 (12,800) B.P.

University College London 2004. mtdna study..

nile-valley-in-egypt

Afterword:

According to the profile of West African Dna study, on

Nilotic – Haplogroup L2a

The Percentages clearly shows an clear Eastern Distribution:

Eastern Africa 82%,

Western African 69%,

North-West African 27%,

South Africans 3% Kung Khwe

As well as Cabo Verde Islands 20% and

Fulani people from East-West, Central and North Africa at 22%

Chart on pg.5 (click counter clock-wise to view)

Shows Sahara, Horn of Africa and Congo regions as Well as Krings 1999. Nile Valley mtdna% ....

Click Link below:

http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers/MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

Egyptian Triad Statue. Menkaura The Goddess Hathor and Goddess BatNorth Africans tend to cluster with West Africans, suggesting that the sub-Saharan component of

North Africans Originates primarily from West rather than East Africa

(as expected, on geographical grounds).

Unlike other North Africans,Egyptians are closer to East Africans

than to West Africans. [Rando et al. 1999].)

PC2 has a large contribution from the Eastern lineage groups L3g and L3*;

However L2a, L1b1a, and L3e2* also make a similar contribution.

And though Egypt in the North as well, Egyptians tend to Genetically cluster with East Africans

mtDna Lineages of  Ethiopians, Egyptians and Hebrew Yemenis, Populations MDS plot (fig.3)

Clustered together with the Egyptian Population

In between the Near Eastern and West African as well as Southern African Clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic and Cushitic Speaking Populations of Ethiopia,

Were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182106/

A recent study on mtDNA suggested that modern Nubians and Egyptians are much more similar to one another than either is to southern Sudanese populations and that the divergence between the two northern populations may have occurred during the past few hundred or few thousand years (Krings et al. 1999).

Forensic Misclassification of Ancient Nubia:

http://www.cas.gsu.edu/anthropology/images/ANTH/Forensic_Misclassification_PDF.pdf

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NOTE: Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North-Central Africa with an  Origin Date of 55,150 B.P.

Would place L2a in the Upper Paleolithic era in North Africa beginning around 50,000 years before the present (ybp),

As well as the Mousterian Pluvial period circa 50,000 B.C. and  lasting 20,000 years, and finally ending around 30,000 ybp.

Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia or Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago

All the stone tools are very much alike and Unsophisticated.

However after 50,000 years ago there is “Sharp Increase” in the diversity of Artifacts.

For the First Time Bone Artifacts, and the First Art appear in the fossil record in Africa.

The First Evidence of Human Fishing is also noted from Artifacts in places like Blombos cave in South Africa.

After 50,000 years ago, Firstly in Africa, it was found that Human Artifacts could be placed into Many different categories,

such as {Projectile Points, Engraving Tools, Knife Blades, and Drilling and Piercing Tools}

All of the above are Found in (Al’kebu-lan) AFRICA...

Frequencies of  North West- East Asiatic Africans

(Haplogroup L, mtdna % chart)

Origin Population Number tested %
East Africa Somalia 26 Watson et al. (1997) 50.00%
East Africa Sudan 112 Afonso et al. (2008) 72.50%
East Africa Ethiopia 270 Kivisild et al. (2004) 52.20%
North Africa Libya (Jews) 83 Behar et al. (2008) 3.60%
North Africa Tunisia (Jews) 37 Behar et al. (2008) 2.20%
North Africa Morocco (Jews) 149 Behar et al. (2008) 1.34%
North Africa Tunisia 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 48.40%
North Africa Tunisia (Takrouna) 33 Frigi et al. (2006) 3.03%
North Africa Tunisia (Zriba) 50 Turchi et al. (2009) 8.00%
North Africa Morocco 56 Turchi et al. (2009) 26.80%
North Africa Morocco (Berbers) 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 3.20%
North Africa Algeria (Mozabites) 85 Turchi et al. (2009) 12.90%
North Africa Algeria 47 Turchi et al. (2009) 20.70%
Europe Italy (Latium) 138 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Italy (Volterra) 114 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.60%
Europe Italy (Basilicata) 92 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.20%
Europe Italy (Sicily) 154 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.00%
Europe Spain 312 Alvarez et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Spain (Galicia) 92 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.30%
Europe Spain (North East) 118 Pereira et al. (2005) 2.54%
Europe Spain (Priego de Cordoba) 108 Casas et al. (2006) 8.30%
Europe Spain (Zamora) 214 Alvarez et al. (2010) 4.70%
Europe South Iberia 310 Casas et al. (2006) 7.40%
Europe Spain (Canaries) 300 Brehm et al. (2003) 6.60%
Europe Spain (Balearic Islands) 231 Picornell et al. (2005) 2.20%
Europe Portugal 594 Achilli et al. (2007) 6.90%
Europe Portugal 549 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.83%
Europe Portugal (North) 187 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.21%
Europe Portugal (Central) 239 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.02%
Europe Portugal (South) 123 Pereira et al. (2005) 11.38%
Europe Portugal (Madeira) 155 Brehm et al. (2003) 12.90%
Europe Portugal (Açores) 179 Brehm et al. (2003) 3.40%
Middle East Yemen 115 Kivisild et al. (2004) 45.70%
Middle East Yemen (Jews) 119 Behar et al. (2008) 16.81%
Middle East Bedouins (Israel) 58 Behar et al. (2008) 15.50%
Middle East Palestinians (Israel) 117 Achilli et al. (2007) 13.68%
Middle East Jordania 494 Achilli et al. (2007) 12.50%
Middle East Iraq 116 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.48%
Middle East Syria 328 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.15%
Middle East Saudi Arabia 120 Abu-Amero et al. (2007) 6.66%
Middle East Lebanon 176 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.84%
Middle East Druzes (Israel) 77 Behar et al. (2008) 2.60%
Middle East Kurds 82 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.44%
Middle East Turkey 340 Achilli et al. (2007) 1.76%
South America Colombia (Antioquia) 113 Bedoya et al. (2006) 8.00%
South America Mexico (North-Central) 223 Green et al. (2000) 4.50%
South America Argentina 246 Corach et al. (2009) 2.03%

Funerary Boat from Egypt Middle Kingdom 12th Dynasty

Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population …

Mtdna Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt.

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins .

Ancient Egyptian Origins

ብልልይ።ጋምብለ

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33 Responses to “Egypt mtDNA and the Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ Dna DiversitY.. The Maternal Hamito-Semitic.. mtDna Haplogroup L”

  1. ቢልልይ ጋምብለ Billy Gambela Says:

    Salamm alaykum = ሳላአም አላይኩ , Hotep ! = ሆተፕ ! , Shalom ! = ስሃሎም ! and Greetings to All….

    There is much discussion of the ethnicities of the ancient Nile Valley civilzation.. (The White Nile down to the Blue Nile)

    This is a percentage breakdown of the Ethinicities with

    West- asian and Eurasian (Asia minor) migrational admixtures:

    also something to ponder…… Most so-called African-Americans, still would not qualify as a pure non-mutational African ..


    Mozambiquen- 0% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Khoisan Khoi Khoi- 0% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Ethiopian- 28% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Kenyan/Sudan- 6% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Egyptian- 70% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Nile Valley/Nubia- 41% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Senegalese- 1-4% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Fula/Fulani- 12% West-Asian/Eursasia

    Moroccans- 61-72% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Algerians- 37-60% West-Asian/Eursasia

    Nigerians- 4% West-Asian/Eurasia

    Cabo Verde- 3% West-Asia/Eurasia

    Most of these people mentioned above could be considered a

    African-American/Native-American/White/Mulatto or even Black if they were born in the western hemisphere. (The U.S.)…

    Further more , having a overstanding of this proximity , is there such a thing, as the So-called Races …...

    When all of thee above are inhabitants of Africa ...

    ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

  2. Shalom! my brother, it has been a while since I’ve visited your site.…..I love that fact that you are enlightening people from all over with this scientific data……….they can take it or leave it, but Facts are Facts......

    The last line in your statement is one of the most profound things one could add.

    Basically, that all of the individuals you mentioned along with their percentages, would be grouped into ONE Class,

    if born in the Western Hemisphere. Isn’t that something?

    Sadly, there are many of us who just accept this classification without question, and there are those who’ll fight you tooth and nail to be subscribed as this particular classification.

    (Not to mention that they may be as much “African” as another, who wouldn’t even consider to be “African”.

  3. ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

    Greetings to all… ግረእቲንግስ ቶ አልል…

    I would like to talk about North Africa Origins and Indigenous Populations

    I was asked by a Individual whom calls themselves Black, as to why there are

    No Black Africans from the South or West In North Africa?

    Two of the main reasons for this is:

    One.. the Subtle Racial Classification of the contemporary term

    “Sub-Saharan, which is Racial Device used to separate

    The Africans South of the Sahara from NOrth AFrica.

    https://billygambelaafroasiaticanthropology.wordpress.com/2009/04/26/what-is-a-sub-saharan-african-or-sub-artic-american-a-subtle-racist-classification/

    The Second reason is the United Nations and Human Rights Organizations,
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Declaration_of_Human_Rights

    Does Not recognize the following terms as “Nationalities” Under Human Rights

    The words/terms Necro/Nigro/Negro/Nigger are Social and Derogatory Ethnic terms..

    So called Blacks in the U.S. often refer to the “Erroneous”

    African American term (ie. Negro)
    Implemented by our then President Ronald Reagan 1988,

    Then In October of 1997 Under President Bill Clinton, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET,
    It was revised again..to assign the term Negro to socalled African Americans
    http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/fedreg/ombdir15.html

    The word Necro/Nigromancy derives from the Greek νεκρός (nekrós),

    meaning “Dead/Corpse”, and μαντεία (manteía), “prophecy”.

    Necromancy is used colloquially in Entertainment to mean raising the Dead

    However, since the Renaissance, Necromancy (or Nigromancy) has come to be associated more broadly with voodoo/black magic as well..
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necromancy

    The Word “BLACK/NEGRO” though was used in Contemporary times by Europeans/Spainards

    To Describe someone of African Descent, this term does not have a Nation/Continent called Negroe/Black Land.

    In addition to not having a nation, there is no such thing as a Black/Negro Constitution?

    Negroes are Slaves for Life as well as their Posterity (children) According to the Maxim,

    {Partus Sequitur Ventrem}
    http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Partus+sequitur+ventrem
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partus_sequitur_ventrem

    (127 years after Cristo Colubumbos arrival to the Caribbean, Slaves are brought to North Americas Virginia)

    In 1619 the first Africans to Virginia were brought to Jamestown.
    Their status is presumed to have been indentured servitude.
    Over the course of a few decades the enslavement of Black Africans/Negroes was established,
    In the individual English Colonies of, North America one law at a time and one colony at a time.

    During the very early period of Virginia’s history, Black Africans and Poor Whites shared a similar status.

    Blacks and whites, men and women often worked side-by-side in the fields.

    Anyone who broke their Servant Contract was Punished.

    In the turn of events leading to the legalized enslavement of Black Africans,

    The fact that Africans could not speak, read, nor write English upon their arrival.

    Africans had no concept what an Indentured Servant was, let alone and Indentured Servant Contract.

    Early colonial court records in Virginia concern “Antonio the Negro,” as he was named in the 1625 Virginia census. He was brought to the colony in 1621. At that time, English and Colonial law had not yet defined racial slavery; the census called Antonio a “Servant.”

    Later, Antonio changed his name to Anthony Johnson, married an African American Servant named Mary, and they had four children.
    Mary and Anthony became Free, and he soon Owned some Land and Cattle.

    He even engaged indentured servants to work for him.
    http://henryburke1010.tripod.com/id4.html

    Prior to the adoption of this doctrine in the American colonies in the 1660s,

    English Common Law had held that a child’s status was inherited from its father.

    The Law provided that only Livestock inherited Status through the Mother,

    Therefore the ‘partus doctrine could be said to have “set a Psychological Basis for
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

    Popular Culture’s seeing Slaves as Less than Fully Human” or at least to be an Obvious Symptom of this View.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human

    {Hence they are called Slaves in Respect of their Time of their Servitude, because its for LIFE.}

    {In direct Contrast Native Americans and Mulattoes were Servants for Time, or Custom of their Country/Nation}

    Chronology of African Slaves in the Americas:
    http://www.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/timelines/htimelinetoc.htm
    http://www.innercity.org/holt/slavechron.html

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indentured_servant
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery

    (see negroes, slaves, and 3/5th of person or sometimes called 3/5th compromise in virginia)

    (ex.. 13th and 14th ammend.terms. black, negroe, colored, mulatto, afro-american, african american and other)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-fifths_compromise
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution

    These terms above Instills your Civil Rights NOT Human Rights..
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_rights

    SEE OMB Directive (15) on Racial Classification
    http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/fedreg/ombdir15.html
    https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/

    To believe that Africans of the South or West is not in North Africa, is a complete farce along with the notion that,

    Europeans have Origins among the Indigenous population in North Africa, and Middle East and

    Africans within the Continent Does Not?

    Modern Genetics prove that North Africans actually cluster with West Africans and

    Egyptians mtdna cluster with their Nilotic Family from Eastern Africa and Yemenis.

    Haplogroup L2a also has a North African Origin and

    Migration from East to West,

    Spreading along the Sahel during the LGM or some what earlier..
    (the last glacial maximum period is around 20,000 B.P.)
    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=385086

    This Group is also said to be descended from the Mousterian Pluvial Population.
    (mousterian period last from 50,000 B.P.20,000 ending 30,000 B.P.)
    http://wysinger.homestead.com/jerba_island.pdf

    From North to South Three Successive Bands known as
    the Sahel, the Sudan and the Guinea move from the Desert through the Savannah to the Moist Forest.

    Past climatic fluctuations Modified the Transition Borders Widely, Forcing people to Migrate and to ReAdapt to New Places.

    A NonMicrolithic Culture related to the Pygmies is detectable on the Guinea fringe,

    And a More Elaborate Microlithic Industry,

    Associated with (African) Tall and Slender Types, appeared in
    the
    Sahel and the Sudan Bands (Newman, 1995).

    Laminar Microliths gradually arose during the Upper Paleolithic.
    (which coincides with 50000 BC: start of the Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Paleolithic

    According to J Guichard the Noilles Burins and «Microgravettes» indicate that microlithization had already started in the Gravettian.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sahel
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea_(region)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microlith#Laminar_and_non_geometric_microliths
    http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118548838/PDFSTART

    Haplogroups: L2a, L2a1, L2a1a, L2a1a1, L2a1c1, L2a1e, L2a1d, L3b1, L1b and Other Haplogroups have Notable

    Frequencies in North Africa in the 5-10 Saharan Countries such as:

    EGYPT, LIBYA, TUNISIA, ALGERIA and MOROCCO….

    {It should also be noted that the Sahara consist of 10 African Countries, the other 5 are:}

    MAUARITANIA, MALI, NIGER, CHAD and the SUDAN

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sahara
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macro-haplogroup_L_(mtDNA)

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Speaking of North Africa, here are some interesting facts about Tunisia/Carthage

      Nowadays the criterion used to distinguish the Berbers from the rest of the

      Tunisian population is a native language called Chelha..

      (not to be confused with the town chela of southern ethiopia)..

      The Chelha language are localized in 4 Villages located in the South..

      Haplogroups L1, L2, L3 make up 64.2% of Tunisia’s Southern population.

      A large African Saharan gene-flow was found among the 3 Berber Groups.

      1.Berbers of Sened/Sundia 26.6%

      2.Berbers of Matmata/Matmatia 24.3%

      3.Berbers of Chenini/Chenenaouia and Douiret 13.3%

      http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~genealogiadelamaza/PDF/Bereberes.pdf

      P.S. Berbers from Tunisia who speak Chelha are 1% of the Global Population..

  4. This Rite Here Was So Like Nice and I LEARNED A LOT !!

    • Bileh* Gambela Says:

      Thanks for your kind words Latisha!

      Please come back to Tour the Blog, I have around 30 articles and counting…

  5. goldie Says:

    This information is discussed in the Egyptology section of Egypt Search Forums

    thread title:

    AFRO-ASIATIC DNA of the Ancient Egyptians

    http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=006819

  6. Bileh* Gambela Says:

    Yes,
    My Blog has been referenced in Several forums Dealing with this subject matter on Ancient Egyptians more Elaborately on mtDna.

    I Appreciate the Support!!! 🙂

  7. NeferKemet Says:

    Salaam,

    I have new mtDNA results. Would you please help me in finding the frequencies in

    The Countries the Haplogroup L3b2 is found.

    Haplogroup L3b2

    HVR1 differences from CRS
    16124C 16223T 16278T 16355T 16362C 16527T

    HVR2 differences from CRS
    73G 263G 315.1C 522- 523-

    CR differences from CRS
    750G 1438G 2706G 3420T 3450T 4769G 5773A 6221C 7028T 8701G 8790A 8860G 9449T 9540C 10086G 10398G 10640C 10873C 11719A 12705T 13105G 13914A 14766T 15301A 15311G 15326G 15824G 15944-

    • Bileh* Gambela Says:

      I Can Not be Certain as to the Origin or Distribution for Haplogroup L3b2,

      However it has been noted that this particular haplotype was found in West Africa and
      Substantiates Haplogroup L3b West African Origin

      In Addition it was also noted that this West African clade shared

      Ancestry with North West Africans as well, so called African Americans...

      Haplogroup L3b2 was also homogenized among the Gullah Geechie Population.

      Excerpt: African-American mtDNAs often match mtDNAs

      When a sample of 74 Gullah/Geechee mtDNA sequences was compared with
      the Sub-Saharan database, approximately half of the mtDNAs were identical to two or more mtDNAs in the

      Database and only seven mtDNAs matched mtDNAs from a single Ethnic Group (Table 3).

      The remaining 28 mtDNAs were not identical to any sequence in the Expanded Database.

      Excerpt: The TransSaharan Slave Trade

      Most of these North African sequences share a recent Ancestry with sequences
      Observed in Other parts of Africa, in the Holocene Period (Table 3).

      This seems to point to a recent introduction of these lineages in North Africa from the
      Original locations in sub-Saharan and East Africa.

      A Moroccan sequence shares an Ancestry with One Sequence from
      Guinea-Bissau of around 13,370 ± 4,205 years old, inside Haplogroup L3b2.

      I have not found any reports or citations beyond these findings, perhaps in the near future we will..

      References:

      The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape:
      http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=385086

      Gullah/Geechee mitochondrial DNA – L3b2- HVS-I sequences: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618861/table/T9/

      African-American mtDNAs often match multiple African ethnic groups:
      http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/4/34

      The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade:
      http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-10-138.pdf

      Republic of Guinea-Bissau:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea-Bissau

      The Kingdom of Morocco:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morocco

      The Haplogroup L3 Phylotree:
      http://www.phylotree.org/tree/subtree_L3.htm

  8. NeferKemet Says:

    Salaam,

    Thank you for your help.

    I have found those already, and I’ve also found this new report of L3b2 found in Egypt
    (el Hayez oasis).

    This particular haplogroup seems like a rare one, and not found in too many places.

    http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2009-01/1231001427

    EU935440(Egypt) Kujanova Haplogroup L3b2

    • Bileh* Gambela Says:

      You are very welcome, I have not seen his study before, Great Work!

      The L3b2 found is very similar to your haplotype, with the exception of their 16189 and your 16355.

      This study is not yet published, however it is a excellent source to do comparative matches.

      L3b2 origin and distribution is still not published at this time,

      I am not surprised you found comparative matches in Egypt.

      There are smaller frequencies due to L3b2 in North Africans, as they share ancestry with Western Africans.

      In the near future they may have published citations and reports as they become available.

  9. NeferKemet Says:

    I just found that study, and it needs to be published. I’m amazed 🙂

  10. Bileh* Gambela Says:

    Hello There Nefer,

    Having taking a closer look…

    I have already posted that Egyptian Roots Web Link to my Blog a few months ago.

    Predominantly Neolithic contribution to the population history of
    the Egyptian Western Desert” See:

    RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] New Egyptian mtDNA sequences
    This link above was posted from this very article on Egypt Mtdna Diversity ..

    You will find it in this mtdna article above that was posted in EgyptSearch Forum.

    http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=006819

    Someone posted this from my Blog last month on May 31st 2010..

    (see comment from Goldie above On June 5th as per EgyptSearch Forums..)

    I have so much information, that i presume visitors will re-check the post,

    As i always update them as published information comes available..

    I will Add L3b2 Egyptian relation on Wikipedia as well, as soon as a Published Study in Done..

    Keep up the Good Work... 🙂

  11. Hi Billy,

    Stopped by right away to add my sons Y-DNA, he tested as part of the Roots Into the Future program. His YDNA is E2b1 and I have been further defined as L2a1a1. I know nothing about the the male dynamics of DNA and he is of course wanting to know all he can..

    If anyone is interested in testing in the future, sign up here and watch your email for the next open enrollment. They offered this free to 10,000 African Americans about a month ago and they say they intend to offer it again soon. The drawback is that you need to respond to a lot of surveys and seeing the health info can throw you back a bit if you are not expecting it. Visions of Tuskegee were running through my head but in the end they are not giving me anything other than my results on E-paper.

    https://www.23andme.com/roots/ <<<<SIGN UP HERE

    The companies website (www.23andme.com)

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Hey Sasa!!

      Thanks for stopping by and sharing your genetic information. Your mtdna Haplogroup L2a1a1 is defined by the markers 6152C, 15391T and 16368C

      16223T
      o
      16278T
      o
      16294T
      o
      16309G
      o
      16368C
      o
      16390A
      o
      16519C

      This mtDna Haplotype L2a1a1 is common among African-Asiatic in the Americas, as well as North Africans, East Africans and ethnic groups of SouthWest Asia (Middle East).

      Your Y-Haplogroup E2 is also common,in East Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, and West Africa. Such as the South African and Kenyan Bantus. Frequencies of this haplogroup being observed in samples from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gabon, Hutu and Tutsi from Rwanda, Malagasy from Madagascar, Fon from Benin, Iraqw from Tanzania,Sudan, and Senegal, as well as small frequencies in the Qatar, Oman, and Ethiopian Oromo samples. E2 was also detected amongst African Americans from Philadelphia at a frequency of 5% (11/217) and a sample of Senegalese men at a frequency of 6% (3/49)..

      Thanks again for sharing the information on free testing by 23andme..

      REFERENCES:

      Genetic Ancestry of Populations from Philadelphia and Dakar in the Context of Sex-Biased Admixture in the Americas:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776971/?tool=pmcentrez

      Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/

      Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1199379/

      Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11062480

  12. Lawrence Cato Says:

    According to Ancestry.com, my Y DNA haplogroup is E2 and MT DNA is haplogroup L.
    My closest Y DNA match is a male in Y DNA haplogroup L. I think this is a mix-up. How can we have different Y DNA haplogroups if we are two males with a close Y DNA match?

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Lawrence and thanks for stopping by and sharing your genetic information.

      I am not sure why you were told, your closest match was a male from Y-DNA Haplogroup L. This could be for various reasons, one could be migration routes and another could be through the geographic origin..

      Y-DNA Haplogroup L has as South Asia origin and is common among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

      Your Y-DNA Haplogroup E2 has East African Origin, however this particular haplogroup can be found as well in South West Asia’s Middle East and the Mediterranean..

      It is not uncommon to have different haplogroups share genetic ancestry among the same ethnic groups.

      According to Ancestry.com what is the geographic location and which ethnic groups do you have a close match with?

  13. egyptianprincex Says:

    Hello Im an Egyptian Arabian descent My halogroup belong in l2a1
    16362c 16390a 16223t 16192t 16294t 16278t

    I dont have the resource at this moment to do another testing but I considered myself Egyptian Arabian jewish Russian because my grandma was white and believed to be ashkenazi jew.

    Our Surname is Cook, the original surname spelling Koch..

    Where did my ancesters originate?

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome and thanks for your comments and sharing your genetic information

      Your Haplogroup seems to be L2a or L2a1 – 16192t 16223t 16278t 16294t 16362c 16390a.

      I cannot be certain about your Haplgroup or Ethnic group without HVR1/HVR2 or FGS testing.

      I will list some references and citations for Haplogroups L2a and L2a1.

      The surname Koch is Jewish and is very common among people of jewish descent..

      What part of Arabia and Egypt are your parents from and What Haplogroup did National Geographic assign to you?

      REFERENCES:

      Haplogroup L2 Wikipedia:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_L2_(mtDNA)

      The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC385086/?tool=pubmed

  14. Da Scar Says:

    Good…..
    Im not really sure, I feel like were descended from Egypt into Arabia in East Europe in Russia.

    So i dont know what part of Arabia and Egypt that they came from. I assumed she was from Upper Egypt Giza or Luxor Egypt My mom have has alot resembles as Meritaten Tasherit and she almost looks like her

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Let me know when you get a chance to do further testing (HVR1/HVR2 and FGS).

      There are a lot of studies and genetic citations concerning Haplogroup L2, L2a and L2a1,
      to be more precise as to what haplogroup and ethnic group you share ancestry with, your haplogroup has to have a definitive Haplotype.

      Phenotypes and physical appearances can be very deceiving, especially when dealing with DNA Ancestral Origins, which can go back at least 50,000 Years before present. One thing is for certain, If your grandmother belongs to L2a or L2a1 she would most definitely have a North African Origin..

      Best of Luck with everything...

      • Da Scar Says:

        Yeah I know… every one came from Africa LOL…… But Im of Egyptian Arabian descent.
        Thanks…. Have a nice day….Hey can you delete my comment on your website.

        Thanks alot

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        I beg your pardon?

        I did not say that everyone comes from Africa,
        I said that your Haplogroup L2a has an North African Origin.
        I simply asked what Haplogroup you were assigned to by National Genographic???

        You were very tenacious and determined in tracking me down on my Twitter and all of my Facebook pages, inquiring about your Genetic Origins.

        You showed me your HVR1 which are your low resolution results, and is not definitive enough to assign you to your final haplotype and to a specific ethnic group. I emphatically stated that National Genographic only offers the HVR1 test, which is not a full mtDNA test. This test can put in the macro-haplogroup such as L0,L1,L2,L3 etc..
        Just as i mentioned before, your Haplogroup seems to be L2a or L2a1..

        You are free to call yourself Egyptian Arabian or (any) Ethnic Group of your choice, but again you asked about your Ancestral Origins, and i gave you all plausible evidence pertaining your HVR1 sequence.

        My blog was created from an anthropology perspective dealing with genetics, languages, customs and religion. All my findings are back by citations and scientific reports.

        I do not tell people what they want to hear, I give them the facts that’s based off the information giving to me.

        I do not tell individuals what to call themselves based off DNA, it’s totally up to the individual

        The less information thats given to me, The less Im able to reciprocate.

        The More data and information given to me, the more it helps me to paint a clearer picture as to ones origins, ethnic group (tribe) as well as their genetic migrations.

        You have several comments on my Blog on two different articles, which comment is that you want me to delete from my blog?

      • Da Scar Says:

        I apologize if you felt offended….. I thank you for your information you gave me….. I was just wondering if you can delete my comments Pal 😉

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        I don’t feel offended… You have offended yourself and the genetic global community with your aimless rhetoric..

  15. Da Scar Says:

    Thank You 😉

  16. Greetings, Mr.Gambela

    I would like to know if you, would you be willing to walk me through step by step on the DNA testing process? I am very interested, excited and nervous all at the same time about understanding the findings. As soon as you say yes, I would like to begin the process.
    I am fully aware that it takes days and even sometimes weeks for your analysis. I am also aware you do this extensive work, without being compensated or paid. Me and my organization would like to make a generous donation through PayPal on behalf of all of the hard work and discoveries you have made thus far.

    We truly appreciate your hard work and dedication…

    Thanks
    Sun Davi

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Greetings, As-salām ˤalaykom, Shalom and Hotep

      Thank you Sun-Davi, and thank you in advance for your generous donations!
      Any amount would be greatly appreciated. Im glad that you understand how rigorous and meticulous this research is.

      It may take days and sometimes but rarely it may take weeks. You also have to take into consideration, that i have 7 comments in the cue. Soon as Im done with the analysis of their DNA results, I would be more than happy to assist you with your genetic journey..

      Please contact me once you’ve received your DNA results..

      • Good evening Bileh, thank you so much for your response.
        I tested with the National Geographic Genographic Project for HVR1 and tested with FTDNA for the Full Mega Sequence.

        My Dad’s haplogroup compliments of my brother was tested through National Geographic Genographic Project also for the first 12 STRS.

        His Y DNA haplogroup is E1b1a:

        393 390 19 391 385a -b
        14 21 15 10 16-16

        426 388 439 389-1 392 389-2
        11 12 12 13 11 NaN

        I am very grateful for any information you can provide. Your knowledge of the findings of DNA is very thorough and informative and greatly appreciated by me. Looking forward to your reply!

  17. Hello Bileh,
    I contacted you prevIously concerning my mtDNA Haplogroup L3b1a and my paternal Haplogroup E1b1a. I have not been able to determine if you have been able to respond at this time. What is the best way to contact you, and where do I need to look for a response? Do you need additional information concerning my maternal and paternal haplogroups? Thank you for your kind time and assistance! I am starting a WordPress Blog, but it is a slow progress for me, but I’ll keep at it! Asante!

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome back Imani, and thanks for sharing your genetic information.

      You belong to Haplogroup E1b1a is an African lineage, that has a Origin Date of 20,000-30,000 YBP.
      This haplogroup dispersed South from Northern Africa within the last 3,000 years with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is also the most common lineage among African Americans.

      It is an old, diverse haplogroup with many branches and is found distributed throughout Africa today. It is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East.

      Outside of Africa, E1b1a has been found at lower frequencies. In Eurasia, the clade has primarily been found in West Asia. There have also been reported a few isolated incidents of E1b1a in Southern European populations in Croatia, Malta, Spain and Portugal.

      I have not found any exact matches but i did find some 11 out of 12 marker matches within the FamilyTreeDna Groups for E1b1a which shows your haplogroup similarities with groups from Saudi Arabia, and
      there was also a 11 out of 12 marker match with the people of the Iberian Peninsula.

      Keep in mind these are comparative marker matches, you will need to test further markers to be absolutely positive of an ethnic group or geographic region.

      I have to stress without further testing such as 67 marker or SNP test, we cannot confidently discern your
      definitive haplogroup or ethnic group.

      REFERENCES:
      Haplogroup E1b1a Y-Dna on Wikipedia:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1a_(Y-DNA)

      Family Tree Dna Haplogroup E1b1a – Y-DNA Classic Chart
      http://www.familytreedna.com/public/E1b1a/default.aspx?section=yresults

      Family Tree Dna Iberian Peninsula DNA Project – Y-DNA Classic Chart:
      http://www.familytreedna.com/public/IberianDNA/default.aspx?section=yresults

      History of TaqI RFLP Y-Chromosome E Variation in Egypt North Africa:
      http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

      Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/?tool=pmcentrez

      Hope you find this useful
      Please contact me once you have done further testing for your Y-Chromosome results.

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