The Saga of Sepharda ሰፕሃርዳ .. by Debra Katz

Sephardic-Hebrew Tombstone


by Debra Katz

Working Theory in Progress  of
 How Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews, Blacks and  Whites  the “Caribbean”, 
 Roma Gypsies, and

African Americans all Sprung from the Same Well !

~180,000 years ago

A woman [womb-man]  walked through Olduvai Gorge

(in present day East Africa Tanzania)

with her small tribe of fellow Homo Sapiens. Her people were destined to be the only species of hominids that would survive, but right now they’re not the only “people” by far…Neanderthals and Homo Erectus still dominate most of the planet.  But this lady is special because of all the women walking with her, she alone will be the direct maternal line ancestor of every person alive on the planet today.  You may have read about her…“Mitochondrial Eve” and her haplogroup designation is “L”.

~75,000 years ago

In the heart of Central Africa a baby girl is born into Eve’s tribe …she is just like her mom, except that one letter in her mtDNA mutated.

She didn’t know it, but she was the beginning of a new haplogroup branch—L2—that would become the most common haplogroup in Africa.  About this time a small band from another branch of “mtDNA mutants”L3—decided to seek better weather and food by bravely crossing the Gate of Tears off the horn of Africa. They entered the Arabian peninsula—-and from there, this band of 200 or less people would go on to populate the rest of the World.

But their story is not ours…for the L2 baby girl and her descendants all stay in Africa.

~ 55,000 years ago

Among an L2 tribe living in West/Central Africa, another baby girl is born with a new mtDNA mutation…making her the start of a new haplogroup branch L2a.

Her descendant daughters remain without much mtDNA change for over 50,000 years!

Over that time, some of her people start to migrate across Central Africa to the East area now called EThiOpiA.

Others of her people started heading North along the nile coast, settling in North Africa and EgYpt and even reached the Levant

(now Israel, Syria, Jordan, Turkey).

~2,500 years ago (500 BCE)

Somewhere in North Africa, EgYpt or the Levant, a baby girl is born with yet another mtDNA mutation…starting the haplogroup line known as L2a1.

Some of her tribes people intermarry with the newly forming Hebrew tribes in the Levant and become Hebrews/Jews.

~ 2,200 years ago  (~200 BCE)

It is among this group of African Jews that our common ancestress was born!  For fun I’m going to call her Sepharda Fulanivich—a name that hints at our group’s main strains.

Sepharda had no special mutation that would create a new haplogroup,

but she was unique in the way we are all unique…and special because all our maternal lines would lead back to her.

Given how many of us have similar eye color, Sepharda may well have had green/blue eyes. This trait would have been recessive in her daughter descendants, dominated by their brown-eyed mates.

but always ready to appear again if and when a blue-eyed spouse came along.

~1900 years ago (~100 CE)

One of Sepharda’s descendant daughters was part of a group of Jews who fled the Roman invasions of Judea and headed back into North Africa. They formed a tribe that came to be known as the Fulani.

As they migrated across North Africa, they first settled in the Morocco/Mauritania area and over the next few centuries slowly spread throughout West Africa, converting to Islam, but retaining both the appearance and some traditional memories of their Hebrew origin in the Levant. (Their DNA held the memory as well.)

At about this very same time—give or take 100 years or so!—another of Sepharda’s descendant daughters also fled Judea, heading with her family to Spain (Sepharad, in Hebrew).  They may have gone up through Italy first or directly to Spain…we can’t know as yet.

But one way or another, they became Sephardic Jews.

~600 years ago (~1400 CE)

For many centuries, Spain was a place where Jews/hebrews flourished, but things started deteriorating after the Moors left and the Pope’s intolerant minions came to power. Many Jews left the country, heading for France and then Bavaria (Germany), where they mingled with the Ashkenazi Jewish populations already living there.

One of Sepharda’s descendants was among them and she is the common ancestor of all the

Ashkenazi Jewsin our groupthe set of 13 families who match HVR1&2 exactly.

More on their story in a couple of centuries…(-:)

~300 years ago (~1700 CE)

This was a lousy time period for almost all of Sepharda’s descendants.

First we go back to West Africa and find that some of her Fulani daughters are among the ones being captured by the British and sent to the Caribbean and the new colonies in America. 

Indeed, because we know most of these enslaved daughters of Sepharda were sent to North Carolina originally, we can predict that their common ancestress lived when the trade to that area was peaking—1720 to 1760.

These daughters are the ancestors of almost all of our African-American matches.

Then, over in Spain, things had gone from bad to worse, with a complete expulsion of Jews in 1492.  As noted above, some fled into Europe.  Many more went farther south into the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire and North Africa. However—-drum roll—a fair number headed for the

British West Indies and by ~1650 CE there was a whole bunch of Sephardic Jews settled in Jamaica and the Bahamas.  In 1691 another “auto de fe” (more “burning of Jews”) in Toledo Spain sent another wave of Spanish Jews to Jamaica.

Many of these Jews came as “singles” and ended up intermarrying with the population from the British Isles that had settled there.  And among those migrating Spanish women were Sepharda’s daughters, many of whom married non-Jewish Brits and lost the memory of their Jewish past.

Their lines led to our West Indies matches.

And I believe it also explains some “not-Jewish white” folks who trace themselves back to the 17th century in Rhode Island and New Jersey

By ironic coincidence, Jamaica was also a drop for slave traders and it looks very possible that some of our Jamaican matches are from the African slave branch of our line rather than the Sephardic Jewish branch!

~250-400 years ago (1600-1750 CE)

Getting back to those Ashkenazi Jews, we can spell out their story a little more.

Some stayed in Germany …but as the centuries passed and German anti-Semitism increased, other descendant daughters started moving east into Poland and then south towards Romania (where the ancestors of some of us joined up with other Jewish Romas (gypsies)…

interestingly, a very recent study found what was to them a startling level of “L2a” haplotypes among Roma gypsies in Slovakia!

About 1700 or so, some of the Polish daughters migrated north, where some lines settled in Belarus and others went up farther into Lithuania and Latvia .


Back in West Africa, right now, some of Sepharda’s daughters are living and don’t even realize all of us cousins elsewhere in the world are thinking of them. That is also true no doubt in Spain…and all the other places our lines have passed through. Some women moved on, but not all of them.

And imagine if Sepharda could come back to life and meet each of us and realize that without her existence….none of us would be here.

That’s the power of one.

Updated October 2008

Sephardic Tombstones 2

Author’s Note: This working theory will soon be greatly enhanced by new information as nine of the descendants above (including slave descendants and Caribbeans) get their currently pending Full Genome Sequence results…

Sephardic Jews cutting stones in Jerusalem - Kurdish Jews.
Sephardic Jews cutting stones in Jerusalem – Kurdish Jews.

Updated info on L2a1 Saga of Sepharda  by Debra Katz on link below:  (SOURCE  FOUND  ONLINE >

The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry:

Portrait of a Recent Founder Event

{Doron M. Behar1, Ene Metspalu2, Toomas Kivisild2,}

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ


36 thoughts on “The Saga of Sepharda ሰፕሃርዳ .. by Debra Katz

Add yours

  1. Shalom! = ስሃሎም !

    Thanks for the Article Sassa !!

    Very entertaining read with the incorporation of mtdna and migrations, narrated in Story form..
    Chronology and all ....

    The mtDna studies also corroborates Debra’s Theory of HV1/HV2 sequences

    Matches of the Ashkenazi L2a1 groups in 5 European Countries:

    1 in France, 1 in Germany, 5 in Poland, 2 in Romania and 1 in Russia

    (Who matches HVI and HVII Sequences Identically.)

    In addittion to Debra’s lovely interpretation, I would like to Add the 13 families from:

    The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event


    1. H
    2 . I
    3. J
    4. K
    5. L2a1
    6. M
    8. N
    9. T
    10. U
    11. V
    12. W
    13. X

    ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

  2. The motifs below demonstrates the diversity of

    Haplogroup L2a1(H052) motif in Europe and Hebrew/Jewish Ancestry..

    Excerpt from:

    Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Haplogroup L2a1: A Portrait of a Recent Founder Event
    {Doron M. Behar, Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild,}

    Serial Number Geographic Origin of Maternal Lineage

    HVS-I (16024-16383) Middle (16384-00056) HVS-II (00057-00300) Hg

    390 Russia 224 311 519 73 146 152 263 K2

    391 Russia 224 311 519 73 146 152 263 K2

    392 Russia 224 311 519 73 146 152 263 K2

    393 France 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    394 Germany 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    395 Poland 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    396 Poland 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    397 Poland 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    398 Poland 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    399 Poland 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    400 Romania 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    401 Romania 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    402 Russia 189 192 223 278 294 309 390 73 146 152 195 263 L2a1

    403 Byelorussia 111 223 235 362 519 73 263 M*

    404 Poland 111 223 235 362 519 73 263 M*

    405 Poland 111 223 235 362 519 73 263 M*

    406 Romania 111 223 235 362 519 73 263 M*

    407 Romania 129 223 230 233 304 344 519 73 199 263 M*

    408 France 051A/G 129 183C 189 223 249 289 311 359 519 73 195 263 M1

    409 France 129 183C 189 223 249 289 311 359 519 73 195 263 M1

    410 France 129 183C 189 223 249 289 311 359 519 73 195 263 M1

    411 Lithuania 129 183C 189 223 249 289 311 359 519 73 195 263 M1

    412 Netherlands A 129 183C 189 223 249 289 311 359 519 73 195 263 M1

    413 Poland 129 183C 189 223 249 289 311 359 456 519 73 195 263 M1

    Control HVR Region mtDna of Ashkenazi Jews: (Chart) ~ link below

    mtDNA Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event


    The Jewish/Hebrew community in the United States
    Is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews/Hebrews

    Who emigrated from Central and Eastern Europe, and their U.S.-born descendants.

    A minority from all Jewish ethnic divisions are also represented,

    Including Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and a number of Converts.


    Matrilineal Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora:

    Europeans Slavs with African mtDna study:

    Ethiopian,Yemenis and Hebrew mtDna study:

    Sephardim- Sepahrdic-Sepharad Names:

    Spanish-Latin-Portuguese related Names:
    NOTE: Haplogroup L2a1(H052) motif is the only African Haplogroup among the Ashkenazi population according to the

    mitochrondrial regions displayed, with the exception of african-asiatic M1..

    It should also be taken into consideration that

    E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Egyptians, Nubians, Fulani, Lemba, Tunisia Hebrews

    JudeoMoroccans, Yemenis and Some socalled African Americans, Mulattos and

    Whites also carry this same maternal Genetic

    Haplotype 223, 278, 294, 309, 390 (L2a1)..

    No Ancient DNA has so far been retrieved from African remains,
    With the exception of Haplogroup L2a1, which was found in two specimens from
    The Levant Pre-Pottery Neolithic B site at Tell Halula, Syria, dating from the period between ca. 9600 and ca. 8000 BP or 7500 6000 BCE.

  3. Great Information!
    I am a Hebrew with

    HVR1 -124c, 223t, 278t,362c,519c and HVR2-73g,263g, 315.1c.

    My Haplogroup is L3b.

  4. Greetings ግረእቲንግስ

    Welcome Jeryl, thanks for your comments..

    Your Haplogroup L3b is Predominantly West African,
    With a substantial representation again in so called African Americans.

    It has spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

    There is very little dispersal into either East Africa or even Central Africa, but several derived types are present in southeastern Africa.

    Taking further look at your HVR1, your sequence comes close to
    Haplogroup L3b1, which shares ancestry with Hebrews from the
    Sousse Valley in Morocco as well as Hebrews from Tunisia and the
    Surrounding Jerba Islands. with relation to Fulani, Songhai and Hausa.

    In addition your west african distribution also shows relation to inhabitants of the Santiago Islands (cape verde).

    May ask you, in which country are you located?

    Which Genetic company did you use for mtdna?

    Did you tests for the Ychromosome or plan to?

    Shalom ስሃሎም Shalom ስሃሎም

  5. Shalom,

    I am from the United States.

    My genetic testing was done thru Family Tree DNA and

    African Ancestry.

    I also tested with DNAPrint Genomics, Inc. ,

    Ancestry By DNA 2.5 which gave me these resuts: Sub-Saharan African-88%, European-9%, and East Asian 3%.

    My name sounds like a boy. I’m a girl.

    Hope to hear from you soon!


    1. Shalom ስሃሎም,

      Welcome back Jeryl!

      I am from America as well,

      Virginia, North Carolina….

      I used Genographic for my HVR1 and FTDNA for my FGS…

      May i ask, were you pleased with your results, and

      Have you found any hebrew or non-hebrew matches?

      Do plan to take the final FGS (full genome sequence) test for a more

      Definitive Haplogroup and TMRCA ?

      I will paste some additional studies on L3b and L3b1 below:

      The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma
      (Canary Islands):

      The Canary Islands, and from
      Northwest and North central Africa

      P.S. ( Jeryl sounds like a womans name)


  6. Shalom,

    Thank-you for your quick response!

    I think I will take the other test in the near future.

    Yes, I have found matches.

    Tunisia (Sephardic), Spain (Canary IslandsSephardic),

    Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Sephardic), Israel (Libyian Jew).

    I have many more HVR1 matches which also include L3b1a from Chad and Gambia.

    I am pleased with my results but I would love to find out more!

    From African Ancestry, the following tribes were given:

    The Mende and Temne from Sierra Leon, the

    Kru from Liberia, the Fulani from Guinea Bissau.

    Yes, you are correct and I am from North Carolina.

    1. Shalom ስሃሎም,
      Jeryl, I see you have done a lot of testing and research yourself.

      My Mother and Grandmother is from Danville,Virginia they were Native AmericanSara/Cheraw, variously spelled

      (Sara, Saraw, Saura, Suali, Sualy, Xualla, or Xuala, Charaw, Charraw), were a tribe of Siouan-speaking Amerindians first encountered by Hernando De Soto in 1540.

      The name they called themselves is lost to history but the Cherokee called them Ani-suwa’ii and the Catawba Sara (“place of tall weeds”).

      The Spanish and Portuguese called their territory Xuala (or Xualla). The later English colonists spelled their name Saraw, Saura, Suali, Sualy…

      They were last noted as a Distinct Tribe among the Catawba in 1768, when they numbered only 50-60 individuals. During the Revolutionary War, they and the Catawba removed their families to the same areas near Danville, Virginia where they had lived earlier.

      Our family was listed as Mulattos prior to 1924 Racial integrity Act of Virginia

      She belongs to Haplogroup L2a1

      My Father is from Robeson County North Carolina

      The state-recognized Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina and the Sumter Band of Cheraw Indians of Sumter County, South Carolina claim descent from the Sara/Cheraw.

      He belongs to Y-chromo Haplogroup E3a/M2/IV

      Our Haplogroup E1b1a/E3a/M2 is also prevalent among the Lumbees Y-chromosomes:

      I see myself as a Native as well as a Kushite Nubian-Egyptian American

      My HVR1 and HVR2 are among Nubian, Egyptian and Sephardic Hebrews,

      As well as Ashkenazi Jewish Population of L2a1

      (ex. my mothers HVR2: 73G, 146C, 152C, 195C, 263G)

      This is a very interesting subject of Anthropology

      Combined with the Diversity of the Human Family.

      I will stay in touch, and keep me informed of your discoveries along the way..

      As for your future plans for mtDna testing, I am sure you may already know that,

      The FGS is an upgrade to the mtDNA full sequence test for customers
      Who have previously taken the basic

      mtDNA test for HVR1(16001-16569).

      It adds HVR2(0000100574) if you have not taken one,

      {Control Regions HVR1 and HVR2}

      And lastly the Coding Region (0057516000).

      The Entire Mitochondrial Genome is tested and this is

      The last mtDNA test that a person would need to take.

      A Perfect match indicates a common ancestor in recent times.

      Placement in Current Haplogroups and

      Subclades is provided with this test.

      As i mentioned your HVR1 comes close to L3b1,

      Without the Coding Region we cannot be certain..

      Feel free to email or contact me, for any further inquiries…

      1. Between 1502 and 1518,

        Spain exiled hundreds of socalled Black Slaves
        Who had spent time in Castille and had been Christianized

        Meanwhile in SouthAmerica/Brazil around 1870,

        With the development of the exploitation of rubber, cocoa and sugar in Northern Brazil, Belem and Manaus again focused the bulk of the Emigrants.

        Then was RecifePernambuco’s capital and site of the first AmericanJewish community in America

        And then the Capital, Rio de Janeiro.

        Since 1880,

        Hispanic America was a very attractive location for Moroccan-Jews.

        Thus did the immigration to Argentina to Venezuela,

        The Amazon jungle of Peru and Colon in Panama.

        Other groups settled in Paramaribo (Suriname) and in U.S. cities like New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.

        Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, was a popular destination and many of the new settlers were from Brazilian and European companies in the Exploitation of Rubber.

        In Argentina, meanwhile, the Moroccans were the first group of

        Sephardic Jews arrived in the country and almost a decade ahead to the great wave ashkenazim.

        Says Diana Epstein, University of Buenos Aires:

        MoroccanJewish migration to South America has numerous singularities.

        They are the only significant population movements from

        North Africa and the first in the Arabic world to the Southern Cone. Besides,

        The Homeland of this Community is a distinctive feature that allows us to shed light to the primary forms of contact between Latin America and the Arabic world.

        They speak the language commonly referred to as

        Ladino, and known locally as Judezmo, Djudeo-Espanyol, Djudezmo, DjudeoKasteyano, Spaniolit and other names,
        Is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.

        Black Ladinos were Spanish-speaking Black Africans born in Latin America, or Exiled to the Americas after spending time in Castile.

        They were often referred to as Negros Ladinos (“cultivated” or “latinized Blacks“), as opposed to Negros Bozales
        (i.e., those captured in Africa).

        As a Jewish language, it is influenced heavily by Hebrew and Aramaic, but also Arabic, Turkish and to a lesser extent Greek and

        Other languages where Sephardic exiles settled around the world, primarily throughout the Ottoman Empire.

        Time-Line of Expelled Hebrews:

        250 C.E. Canhage Expulsion
        224 C.E. Italy Forced Conversion
        325 C.E. Jerusalem Expulsion
        351 C.E Persia Book Burning
        357 C.E. Italy Property Confiscation
        379 C.E. Milan Synagogue Burning
        415 C.E. Alexandria Expulsion
        418 C.E. Minorca Forced Conversion
        469 C.E. Ipahan Holocaust
        489 C.E. Antioch Synagogue Burning
        506 C.E. Daphne Synagogue Burning
        519 C.E. Ravenna Synagogue Burning
        554 C.E. Diocese of Clement (France) Expulsion
        561 C.E. Diocese of Uzes (France) Expulsion
        582 C.E Merovingia Forced Conversion
        612 C.E. Visigoth Spain Expulsion
        628 C.E. Byzantium Forced Conversion
        629 C.E. Merovingia Forced Conversion
        633 C.E. Toledo Forced Conversion
        638 C.E. Toledo Stake Burnings
        642 C.E. Visigothic Empire Expulsion
        653 C.E. Toledo Expulsion
        681 C.E. Spain Forced Conversion
        693 C.E. Toledo Jews Enslaved
        722 C.E. Byzantium Judaism Outlawed
        855 C.E. Italy Expulsion
        876 C.E. Sens Expulsion
        897 C.E. Narbonne Land Confiscation
        945 C.E. Venice Ban on Sea Travel
        1009 C.E. Orleans Massacre
        1012 C.E. Rouen, Limoges & Rome Massacre
        1012 C.E. Mayence Expulsion
        1021 C.E. Rome Jews Burned Alive
        1063 C.E. Spain Massacre
        1095 C.E. Lorraine Massacre
        1096 C.E. Northern France & Germany 1/3 of Jewish Population Massacred
        1096 C.E. Hungary Massacre
        1096 C.E. Ralisbon Massacre
        1099 C.E. Jerusalem Jews Burned Alive
        1100 C.E. Kiev Pogrom
        1140 C.E. Germany Massacres
        1146 C.E. Rhine Valley Massacre
        1147 C.E. Wurzburg Massacre
        1147 C.E. Belitz (Germany) Jews Burned Alive
        1147 C.E. Carenton, Ramenu & Sully (France) Massacres
        1171 C.E. Blois Stake Burnings
        1181 C.E. France Expulsion
        1181 C.E. England Property Confiscation
        1188 C.E. London & York Mob Attacks
        1190 C.E. Norfolk Jews Burned Alive
        1191 C.E. Bray (France) Jews Burned Alive
        1195 C.E. France Property Confiscation
        1209 C.E. Beziers Massacre
        1212 C.E. Spain Rioting and blood bath against the Jews of Toledo.
        1215 C.E. Rome Lateran Council of Rome decrees that Jews must wear the “badge of shame” in all Christian countries. Jews are denied all public sector employment, and are burdened with extra taxes.
        1215 C.E. Toulouse (France) Mass Arrests
        1218 C.E. England Jews Forced to Wear Badges
        1231 C.E. Rome Inquisition Established
        1236 C.E. France Forced Conversion/Massacre
        1239 C.E. London Massacre & Property Confiscation
        1240 C.E. Austria Property confiscation. Jews either imprisoned, converted, expelled, or burned.
        1240 C.E. France Talmud Confiscated
        1240 C.E. England Book Burning
        1240 C.E. Spain Forced Conversion
        1242 C.E. Paris Talmud Burned
        1244 C.E. Oxford Mob Attacks
        1255 C.E. England Blood libel in Lincoln results in the burning / torture of many Jews & public hangings.
        1261 C.E. Canterbury Mob Attacks
        1262 C.E. London Mob Attacks
        1264 C.E. London Mob Attacks
        1264 C.E. Germany Council of Vienna declares that all Jews must wear a “pointed dunce cap.” Thousands murdered.
        1267 C.E. Vienna Jews Forced to Wear Horned Hats
        1270 C.E. Weissenberg, Magdeburg, Arnstadt, Coblenz, Singzig, and Erfurt Jews Burned Alive
        1270 C.E. England The libel of the “counterfeit coins” – all Jewish men, women and children in England imprisoned. Hundreds are hung.
        1276 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion
        1278 C.E. Genoa (Spain) Mob Attacks
        1279 C.E. Hungary & Poland The Council of Offon denies Jews the right to all civic positions. The Jews of Hungary & Poland are forced to wear the “red badge of shame.”
        1283 C.E. Mayence & Bacharach Mob Attacks
        1285 C.E. Munich Jews Burned Alive
        1290 C.E. England King Edward I issues an edict banishing all Jews from England. Many drowned.
        1291 C.E. France The Jewish refugees from England are promptly expelled from France.
        1292 C.E. Italy Forced conversions & expulsion of the Italian Jewish community.
        1298 C.E. Germany The libel of the “Desecrated Host” is perpetrated against the Jews of Germany. Approximately 150 Jewish communities undergo forced conversion.
        1298 C.E. Franconia, Bavaria & Austria Reindfel’s Decree is propagated against the Jews of Franconia and Bavarai. Riots against these Jewish communities, as well as those in Austria, result in the massacre of 100,000 Jews over a six-month period.
        1306 C.E. France Expulsion
        1308 C.E. Strasbourg Jews Burned Alive
        1320 C.E. Toulouse & Perpigon 120 Communities Massacred & Talmud Burned
        1321 C.E. Teruel Public Executions
        1328 C.E. Estella 5,000 Jews Slaughtered
        1348 C.E. France & Spain Jews Burned Alive
        1348 C.E. Switzerland Expulsion
        1349 C.E. Worms, Strasbourg, Oppenheim, Mayence, Erfurt, Bavaria & Swabia Jews Burned Alive
        1349 C.E. Heilbronn (Germany) Expulsion
        1349 C.E. Hungary Expulsion
        1354 C.E. Castile (Spain) 12,000 Jews Slaughtered
        1368 C.E. Toledo 8,000 Jews Slaughtered
        1370 C.E. Majorca., Penignon & Barcelona Mob Attack
        1377 C.E. Huesca (Spain) Jews Burned Alive
        1380 C.E. Paris Mob Attack
        1384 C.E. Nordlingen Mass Murder
        1388 C.E. Strasbourg Expulsion
        1389 C.E. Prague Mass Slaughter & Book Burning
        1391 C.E. Castille, Toledo, Madrid, Seville, Cordova, Cuenca & Barcelona Forced Conversions & Mass Murder
        1394 C.E. Germany Expulsion
        1394 C.E. France Expulsion
        1399 C.E. Posen (Poland) Jews Burned Alive
        1400 C.E. Prague Stake Burnings
        1407 C.E. Cracow Mob Attack
        1415 C.E. Rome Talmud Confiscated
        1422 C.E. Austria Jews Burned Alive
        1422 C.E. Austria Expulsion
        1424 C.E. Fribourg & Zurich Expulsion
        1426 C.E. Cologne Expulsion
        1431 C.E. Southern Germany Jews Burned Alive
        1432 C.E. Savory Expulsion
        1438 C.E. Mainz Expulsion
        1439 C.E. Augsburg Expulsion
        1449 C.E. Toledo Public Torture &. Burnings
        1456 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion
        1453 C.E. Franconia Expulsion
        1453 C.E. Breslau Expulsion
        1454 C.E. Wurzburg Expulsion
        1463 C.E. Cracow Mob Attack
        1473 C.E. Andalusia Mob Attack
        1480 C.E. Venice Jews Burned Alive
        1481 C.E. Seville Stake Burnings
        1484 C.E. Cuidad Real, Guadalupe, Saragossa & Teruel Jews Burned Alive
        1485 C.E. Vincenza (Italy) Expulsion
        1486 C.E. Toledo Jews Burned Alive
        1488 C.E. Toledo Stake Burnings
        1490 C.E. Toledo Public Executions
        1491 C.E. Astorga Public Torture & Execution
        1492 C.E. Spain Expulsion
        1495 C.E. Lithuania Expulsion
        1497 C.E. Portugal Expulsion
        1499 C.E. Germany Expulsion
        1506 C.E. Lisbon Mob Attack
        1510 C.E. Berlin Public Torture & Execution
        1514 C.E. Strasbourg Expulsion
        1519 C.E. Regensburg Expulsion
        1539 C.E. Cracow & Portugal Stake Burnings
        1540 C.E. Naples Expulsion
        1542 C.E. Bohemia Expulsion
        1550 C.E. Genoa Expulsion
        1551 C.E. Bavaria Expulsion
        1555 C.E. Pesaro Expulsion
        1556 C.E. Sokhachev (Poland) Public Torture & Execution
        1559 C.E. Austria Expulsion
        1561 C.E. Prague Expulsion
        1567 C.E. Wurzburg Expulsion
        1569 C.E. Papal States Expulsion
        1571 C.E. Brandenburg Expulsion
        1582 C.E. Netherlands Expulsion
        1593 C.E. Brunswick Expulsion
        1597 C.E. Cremona, Pavia & Lodi Expulsion
        1614 C.E. Frankfort Expulsion
        1615 C.E. Worms Expulsion
        1619 C.E. Kiev Expulsion
        1635 C.E. Vilna Mob Attack
        1637 C.E. Cracow Public Torture & Execution
        1647 C.E. Lisbon Jews Burned Alive
        1648 C.E. Poland 1/3 of Jewry Slaughtered
        1649 C.E. Ukraine Expulsion
        1649 C.E. Hamburg Expulsion
        1652 C.E. Lisbon Stake Burnings
        1654 C.E. Little Russia Expulsion
        1656 C.E. Lithuania Expulsion
        1660 C.E. Seville Jews Burned Alive
        1663 C.E Cracow Public Torture &. Execution
        1664 C.E. Lemberg Mob Attack
        1669 C.E. Oran (North Africa) Expulsion
        1670 C.E. Vienna Expulsion
        1671 C.E. Minsk Mob Attacks
        1681 C.E. Vilna Mob Attacks
        1682 C.E. Cracow Mob Attacks
        1687 C.E. Posen Mob Attacks
        1712 C.E. Sandomir Expulsion
        1727 C.E. Russia Expulsion
        1738 C.E. Wurtemburg Expulsion
        1740 C.E. Liule Russia Expulsion
        1744 C.E Bohemia Expulsion
        1744 C.E. Livonia Expulsion
        1745 C.E. Moravia Expulsion
        1753 C.E. Kovad (Lithuania) Expulsion
        1757 C.E. Kamenetz Talmud Burning
        1761 C.E. Bordeaux Expulsion
        1768 C.E. Kiev 3,000 Jews Slaughtered
        1772 C.E. Russia Expulsion
        1775 C.E. Warsaw Expulsion
        1789 C.E. Alsace Expulsion
        1801 C.E. Bucharest Mob Attack
        1804 C.E. Russian Villages Expulsion
        1808 C.E. Russian Countryside Expulsion
        1815 C.E. Lubeck & Bremen Expulsion
        1820 C.E. Bremes Expulsion
        1843 C.E. Austria & Prussia Expulsion
        1850 C.E. New York City 500 People, Led by Police, Attacked & Wrecked Jewish Synagogue
        1862 C.E. Area under General Grant’s Jurisdiction in the United States Expulsion
        1866 C.E Galatz (Romania) Expulsion
        1871 C.E. Odena Mob Attack
        1887 C.E. Slovakia Mob Attacks
        1897 C.E. Kantakuzenka (Russia) Mob Attacks
        1898 C.E. Rennes (France) Mob Attack
        1899 C.E. Nicholayev Mob Attack
        1900 C.E. Konitz (Prussia) Mob Attack
        1902 C.E. Poland Widespread Pogroms
        1904 C.E. Manchuria, Kiev & Volhynia Widespread Pogroms
        1905 C.E. Zhitomir (Yolhynia) Mob Attacks
        1919 C.E Bavaria Expulsion
        1915 C.E. Georgia (U.S.A.) Leo Frank Lynched
        1919 C.E. Prague Wide Spread Pogroms
        1920 C.E. Munich & Breslau Mob Attacks
        1922 C.E. Boston, MA Lawrence Lowell, President of Harvard, calls for Quota Restrictions on Jewish Admission
        1926 C.E. Uzbekistan Pogrom
        1928 C.E. Hungary Widespread Anti-Semitic Riots on University Campuses
        1929 C.E. Lemberg (Poland) Mob Attacks
        1930 C.E. Berlin Mob Attack
        1933 C.E. Bucharest Mob Attacks
        1938-45 C.E. Europe Holocaust

        Jewish persecution source:

        P.E. Grosser & E.G. Halperin, Anti-Semitism: Causes and Effects, New York: Philosophical Library, 1978

      2. Hello Mr. Gambela

        My final results are: Haplogroup L3b1a with the following:

        Control Region:
        HVR1 -16124C, 16223T, 16278T,16362C,16519C and HVR2-73G, 263G, 315.1c.

        Code Region:
        750 G, 1438 G, 2706G, 3450T, 4659A, 4769G, 5773A, 6221C, 7028T, 7859A, 8701G, 8860G, 9449T, 9540C, 10086G, 10373A, 10398G, `10873C, 11002G, 11719A, 12705T, 13105G, 13914A.

        Can you explain these numbers. Thanks!

      3. Welcome back Jeryl, and Congratulations..
        You belong to the subclade L3b1a.

        The Number 11002G in your Code Region designates your haplogroup to L3b1a.

        Your Control Regions HVR1 and HVR2 are among West and North Africans as well…

        The recent high-resolution mtDNA studies are offering the possibility of shedding light on ancient and recent human migration events, allowing to inferring more precisely about the geographical origin of lineages observed nowadays in a certain region.

        In fact, the characterization of the full mtDNA sequence is being used to investigate local events as
        The Chadic Expansion from East Africa towards Chad Basin in the last 8,000 years or historic movements as the Diaspora of Jews, which could not be approached in previous more limited mtDNA surveys.

        I have not found any exact matches on your sequence of numbers, however i did find some information on these ethnic groups related to your clade.

        Excerpt from: The trans-Saharan slave trade – clues from interpolation analyses and high-resolution
        characterization of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

        Most of these North African sequences share a recent Ancestry with sequences
        Observed in other parts of Africa, in the Holocene period

        Pg.10 of 18

        Three Egyptian, Four Tunisian, One Libyan and One Moroccan sequences share a most recent common ancestor of 13,537 ± 1,058 years old with Seven West African,

        Two South African, Six Americans (most probably African-descents), Two East Africans, Two Central Africans, Five Near Eastern and Two South Asians, being affiliated in Haplogroup L3b1a.

        REFERENCES: The trans-Saharan slave trade mtDna Lineages

        Phylogenetic Tree Haplogroup L3 2010

        Haplogroup L3b1a Mitochondrial Sequence for U.S. Hispanics

        Haplogroup L3b1a Mitochondrial Sequence for Egyptians

        These findings confirm our earlier discussion of your related ethnicities..

        Thanks for stopping by sharing your results…

        Bileh Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ

  7. Hello

    I had my sample tested in the Genographic project a few years ago.

    Since then I have done an upgrade for HVR1 & HVR2 on FTDNA.

    My results are as follows;

    L2a is my haplogroup

    HVR1; 16223T 16278T 16286T 16294T 16309G 16390A 16519C
    HVR2; 73G 146C 152C 195C 207A 263G 315.1C

    In the top three matching countries I had 36 matches of recent ancestral origins from

    Mozambique (8.6%), 2 from Sao-Tome/Principe (1.6%) and 2 from Angola (1.2%).

    I had matched persons from 14 different countries

    (8 African 4 European and 2 Middle east).

    I have not yet gathered all the funds to to a FGS…

    But I am searching to see through my sequences what ethnic affiliation I am..

    1. Welcome, thanks for stopping by…

      Your HVR1 sequence with 16286 is associated with the subclade L2a1a or L2a1a2.

      Haplogroup L2a1a is further defined by the Coding Region by this marker np 3918a.

      There are two L2a clusters well represented in South Eastern Africans, L2a1a and L2a1b,

      Both defined by transitions at quite stable HVS-I positions.

      Both of these appear to have an Origin in West Africa or North West Africa.

      And to have undergone Dramatic Expansion either in SouthEastern Africa or in a
      Population Ancestral to present-day Southeastern Africans.
      (ex. Mozambique/Bantu-Mozambique)

      The very recent starbursts in subclades L2a1a and L2a2 suggest a signature for the

      Bantu Expansions, as also suggested by Pereira et al. (2001).

      L2a1a occurs at its highest frequency in South Eastern Africa (Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

      Both the frequent founder haplotype and derived lineages (with 16092 mutation)

      Found among Yemenis have exact matches within Mozambique sequences (Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

      In Addition your Haplotype L2a1a223 286 278 294 309 (sp37)

      Is found among: Mbundu, Cabinda, Hide, Futa Fula, Papel,

      Bantu-Mozambique, Chwabo, Makonde, Ndau, Nyanja, Nyungwe,

      Ronga, Sena, Shona, Tswa, Songhai, Tongas, Bambara, Mende..


      Without a (FGS) Full Genome Sequence test, we can not be certain of your
      definitive haplogroup, migration and related ethnicities.


      Mtdna Control Regions for L2a1a (sp37) report via Brasil.

      Making of the African mtDna Landscape

      mtDna Citations for North West Saharans Mali and Mauritania

      Ethiopian mtdna Report for L2a1a in Mozambique and Yemen

      Haplogroup mtdna L2 In Southwest Asia/ Yemen/ Oman

      Haplogroup mtdna L in the Arabian Peninsula

      Gullah- Geechee Population In North West Africa:

      Haplogroup L2a1 and L2a1a in North African Tunisian Berbers:

      My Updated Edited Version of Wiki’s Haplogroup L2

      (P.S. These Wiki Articles on Haplogroup L was Edited and Updated by Myself, View the History Tab)

      Yemenis article from my Blog:

      My Mom mtdna Migrations and further info on L2a1a, See comments:

  8. Thank you for your quick and thorough reply!

    You accidentally transposed one of the numbers in my sequences

    it is supposed to be 16286T instead of 16268…..

    I don’t think it would make that much of a difference in your response
    I hope!

    You have been most helpful! I will be reading all of the links that you provided..

    I am so Excited!!

    1. Welcome back,

      I am glad that i could help.

      Yes that should be 16286T not 16268

      As for your marker 16286T, it would not make a difference to my response.

      If you had a mutation 16286C, that would probably make a difference as to migration and ethnic groups.

      For Example:

      The HpaI site at np-3592 is associated with L1 and L2 haplogroups with a T at positions 16223 are related to
      African Haplotypes.

      To have a letter C and the end of 16223C or 16286C are mutations from the T transitions.

      In African populations sometime these nucleotides are not displayed,

      However they are sometimes used to Distinguish African populations from Out of African Populations.

      The Asiatic Eastern Indian from Haplogroups M and N have a 16223C instead of the 16223T

      Most African mtdna studies on Haplogroup motifs may not always display these T/C Nucleotide Base Mutations.

      Please feel free to tour the blog and ask questions, I will be updating information as it comes available..

      1. Greetings Billy!!

        I had my FGS done!

        Here are my results!






        Coding Region


      2. Welcome back, and congratulations on your new found results!

        My estimation of your haplogroup was right on point, Your HVR1 sequence with 16286 is associated with the subclade L2a1a or L2a1a2. Your Haplogroup L2a1a is further defined by the Coding Region by this marker np 3918a.

        Haplgroup L Phylotree updated Aug 2010: for L2a1a

        ( L2a1a- coding region -3918 5285 15244 15629) by Dr.Behar 2008b

        You may refer to my comments on L2a1a from June 21, 2010 at 12:14 pm

        Thanks Again!

  9. Shalom,
    I am from Sarajevo(Bosnia).
    We have one of the oldest sephardic cemeteries in Europe.
    I think that nobody didn’t make serious researching about it.
    There are many special ornaments on tombstones and we have no right explanations for it.

    Can you help our small Jewish community to preserve this very rare and rich cemetery?

    Thank you at advance.

    Sincerely yours,

    Eli Tauber

    1. Hotep, Shalom and Welcome Eli,

      I have not heard much about the sephardim cemeteries in Sarajevo, however i have found some articles that i will list below.

      This particular article is about the relation and broad spectrum of ethnicities related to Sephardic Hebrews and Hebrews alike.

      This article also deals with the mitochondrial relation (mtDna) of the maternal Sephardic Hebrews from North Africa, the Levant, Asia, Asia Minor and Europe as well as the Americas and Caribbean.

      This article above ” The Saga of Sepharda” is by Debra Katz, I have also commented on this related subject matter.

      I am not well versed in the Hebrew text, that you mentioned as well as the ornaments on the tombstones,
      Perhaps, you can display the ornaments on the tombstones that you speak of, as i will direct some of my research into the Sarajevo Sepharic Hebrews to further conclude this article.

      Furthermore i will continue to disseminate information on Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas, and Awareness on this Subject matter as well as Others..

      Shalom Shalom

      The Saga of Sepharda by Debra Katz

      Tombs and TombStones of Hebrews in History:

      Vitrual Jewish Tour of Sarajevo Sephardic Jews:

      Sarajevo Rose, A Balkan Jewish Notebook
      by Stephen Schwartz

      Sarajevo, Center of Sephardism:

      Sephardic Studies and Culture Foundation

      A Blog on International Jewish Cemeteries and Preservation

      Jewish Cemeteries of Bosnia Sarajevo and Herzegovina
      by Esther Benbassa

  10. Hello R.Coleman:

    My mtdna results are nearly identical to yours!
    My HVR1 are indentical to yours. that is amazing!!

  11. I have Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

    My HVR1 :16189C, 16192T, 16223T, 16294T, 16309G, 16390A

    My HVR2: 73G, 143A, 146C, 152C, 195C, 198T, 263G, 315.1C, 534T

    My Haplogroup is L2a1.

    My testing was done by AncestrybyDNA.

    My mother is Caribbean American.

    1. Welcome Jacqueline, and thanks for sharing your genetic information.

      This is article by Debra Katz, elaborates a great deal of Ashkenazi-Hebrews as well connecting other Hebrew Ethnic Groups from around the World.

      Please subscribe to my blog to be informed of the latest information as it becomes available..

      1. Thanks for your response. I am learning about Ashkenazi-Hebrews and Hebrew Ethnic Group with my genetic information. I was curious about my DNA. I read interesting article on this site, especially about Saga of Sepharda.

      2. No problem at all,

        Please have a look at my previous discussions and comments, articles with other individuals about the Hebrew and African-Asiatic Diaspora.

        There are plenty of Hebrew Ethnic groups in Africa, (West, North, Central, East and South). These groups are spread out in Asia, Europe and the Americas.

        I try my best to educate people that one cannot always tell ones ancestry through phenotype or by the erroneous use of race classification..

        I invite you to have a look at my articles listed below:


        Thanks Again..

  12. Thank you for educating me about Hebrew Ethnic groups. I will read the blog articles. I have not tested my Paternal side yet. I plan to do it this year. Thanks for the blog articles.


  13. Hi Billy again,

    I would like to learn more about my mt DNA migration in Africa. I already have my test results. Can I have it done with Genographic Project?

    1. Welcome back Jackie,
      There is further testing that you can do as well. There is a test called the FGS (full genome sequence) which is a test to the entire genome.
      Genographic only adminsters the HVR1, Famiy Tree Dna provides testing for the FGS test. This is a process in which your haplogroup get placed in its updated Haplogroup.
      This determines the complete DNA sequence of an organism’s genome at a single time. This also entails sequencing all of an organism’s chromosomal DNA as well as DNA contained in the mitochondria.

      Unlike full genome sequencing, DNA profiling only determines the likelihood that genetic material came from a particular individual or group; it does not contain additional information on genetic relationships, origin or susceptibility to specific diseases. In general, knowing the complete DNA sequence of an individual’s genome does not, on its own, provide useful clinical information, but this may change over time as a large number of scientific studies continue to be published detailing clear associations between specific genetic variants and disease

      For example you belong to the macro-haplogroup L2 which has its sub-haplogroups L2a, L2b, L2c, L2d etc. Your Haplogroup is L2a, and you belong to the subclade L2a1 which can be processed further to a FGS haplogroup.

      Haplogroup L2a, as far as its migration became prevalent in North Africa around 50,000 years before present, Spreading North Eastern and North West along the Sahel, during the Last Glacial Period or some what earlier..

      Example: North Central Africa such as Modern day Sahel, Tunisia near Libya and Algeria..

      Note: The Jerba Islands of Tunisia/Carthage is located in South Eastern Tunisia,

      Tunisia, is inhabited by four ethnic groups: Berbers, Arabs, sub-Saharans, and Jews/Hebrews.

      Your Haplogroup L2a1 date of origin is around 33,700 years before present. which is prevalent in the Sahara and North Africa as well..

      You can also join other DNA forums to share and also acquire new information as it becomes available.


      Full Genome Sequence:

      Making of African mtdna:

      Profile of African mtDna:

  14. Hi Billy,

    Thanks for responding to me. Thanks for the wonderful information you had given me. You are the best. I will take the FGS test soon. I had been reading links and blogs. I will be in touch when I update my haplogroup.


  15. Hi Bileh Gambela,
    I am Fulani (pullo singular) from Guinea Conakry born in the highland of
    fouta djalon i found this subject very interesting.our grandfathers always tell us that we are some how related to the jews/hebrews.and we are predominantly nomads also the West/East African Fulani migrated from Egypt, Somalia and Ethiopia…

    1. Welcome Mamadou,
      Thanks for sharing your information about your Fulani Heritage. The Fulani are very diverse and are found through out West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa and North Africa.
      The countries in Africa where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Niger, Chad, Togo, the Central African Republic, Liberia, and as far as Sudan and Egypt in the East. Fulani are considered to be nomadic.. The Fulani also shares genetic ancestry with some hebrew ethnic groups as well.

      This article by Debra Katz also elaborates on the hebrew relation and origin…

  16. I am Haplogroup H10 which is European and my brother is Haplogroup E1b1a which is African. We have the same parents and my HVR: 16221T, 16519C , HVR2: 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C and both my brother and I are showing indications of Ashkenazi Jewry and my brother has a Sephardic match. Most of my brothers matches are with Haplogroup G, G2a (Germany) ,I2b1 (Germany, Netherlands, Germany, Demanrk and Wales) and T1(Iran), H1 (India, I (Norway). My Haplgroup H10 is Finland, Italy, Spain, khazankistan, Ireland, Demark, Germany, British Isles, France, Belarus). My geographical ancestry is Finnish, Russian and Yoruba. Our great grandfather was German and our mother’s mater lineage is European. .

  17. Hi! I just received my results on a full-sequence mt-DNA test and I am having difficulty understanding if I am a descendant of Jews or not. If I am, how do I know how far back I need to look to find my most recent ancestor so I can be affirmed?

    Haplogroup: H

    HVR1: 16519C

    HVR2: 263G, 315.1C

    Coding Region: 750G, 1438G, 4769G, 8860G, 9545G, 11152C, 13500C, 15326G

    Thank you for any insight you may provide.


    1. Hey Nivcharah,
      Thanks for stopping by and sharing your information..

      Your Haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA haplogroup in Europe. About one half of Europeans are of mtDNA haplogroup H. The haplogroup is also common in North Africa and the Middle East. The majority of the European populations have an overall haplogroup H frequency of 40%–50%…

      Your Haplogroup H is a descendant of haplogroup HV. The Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), the human mitochondrial sequence to which all other sequences are compared, belongs to haplogroup H2a2a. Several independent studies conclude that haplogroup H probably evolved in West Asia c. 30,000 years ago. It was carried to Europe by migrations c. 20-25,000 years ago, and spread with population of the southwest of the continent.

      Regions or Populations H1 No. of subjects


      Libyan Tuareg 61 129
      Tuareg (West Sahel) 23.3 90
      Berbers (Morocco) 20.2 217
      Morocco 12.2 180
      Berbers (Tunisia) 13.4 276
      Tunisia 10.6 269
      Algeria 9.8 80
      Berbers (Egypt) 1.1 184
      Western Sahara 14.8 128
      Mauritania 6.9 102
      Senegal 0 100
      Fulani (Chad-Cameroon) 0 186
      Cameroon 0 142
      Chad 0 77
      Buduma (Niger) 0 30
      Nigeria 0 69
      Ethiopia 0 82
      Amhara (Ethiopia) 0 90
      Oromo (Ethiopia) 0 117
      Sierra Leone 0 155
      Guineans (Guiné Bissau) 0 372
      Mali 0 83
      Kikuyu (Kenya) 0 24
      Benin 0 192


      Central Asia 0.7 445
      Pakistan 0 100
      Yakutia 1.7 58
      Caucasus (north) 8.8 68
      Caucasus (south) 2.3 132
      Northwestern Caucasus 4.7 234
      Armenians 2.3 175
      Daghestan 2.5 269
      Georgians 1 193
      Karatchaians-Balkarians 4.4 203
      Ossetians 2.4 296
      Andalusia 24.3 103
      Basques (Spain) 27.8 108
      Catalonia 13.9 101
      Galicia 17.7 266
      Pasiegos (Cantabria) 23.5 51
      Portugal 25.5 499
      Spain (miscellaneous) 18.9 132
      Italy (north) 11.5 322
      Italy (center) 6.3 208
      Italy (south) 8.7 206
      Sardinia 17.9 106
      Sicily 10 90
      Finland 18 78
      Volga-Ural Finnic speakers 13.6 125
      Basques (France) 17.5 40
      Béarnaise 14.8 27
      France 12.3 106
      Estonia 16.7 114
      Saami 0 57
      Lithuania 1.7 180
      Hungary 11.3 303
      Czech Republic 10.8 102
      Ukraine 9.9 191
      Poland 9.3 86
      Russia 13.5 312
      Austria 10.6 2487
      Germany 6 100
      Romania 9.4 360
      Netherlands 8.8 34
      Greece (Aegean islands) 1.6 247
      Greece (mainland) 6.3 79
      Macedonia 7.1 252
      Albania 2.9 105
      Balkans 5.4 111
      Croatia 8.3 84
      Slovaks 7.6 119
      Slovak (East) 16.8 137
      Slovak (West) 14.2 70

      Middle East

      Arabian Peninsula 0 94
      Arabian Peninsula (incl. Yemen, Oman) 0.8 493
      Turks 3.3 360
      Druze 3.4 58
      Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 0.4 249
      Iraq 1.9 206
      Jordanians 1.7 173
      Lebanese 4.2 167
      Syrians 0 159

      Upon further investigation it would seem you also share ancestry with these famous haplogroups as well..

      Marie Antoinette’s DNA taken from a lock of Marie Antoinette’s hair, cut from her as a child, matched DNA believed to be from her son, King Louis XVII. A detailed discussion on the DNA analysis of Marie Antoinette, the putative heart of Louis XVII, and Carl Wilhelm Naundorff is available.

      Name mitochondrial DNA sequence Haplogroup H
      DNA attributed to Marie Antoinette 16519C, 152C, 194T, 263G, 315.1C

      Christian Cardell Corbet
      The Canadian portrait artist Christian Cardell Corbet belongs to mtDNA Haplogroup H.

      Name mitochondrial DNA sequence Haplogroup H
      Christian Cardell Corbet 16519C


      List of Famous Haplogroups and Haplotypes of Historical and Famous Figures:

      Marie Antoinette Queen of France:

      Haplogroup H from Wiki:

      The Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA from RootsWEb:

      The mtDNA Haplogroup H Project:

      Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA Haplogroup:

      Differences in mtDNA haplogroup distribution among 3 Jewish populations:

      FTDNA Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Haplogroup H & HV:

      Hope you find these references useful….

  18. Its interesting that your research suggests an Italian, Spanish migration route of these L2a off-springs, this was the migration location finding of my ancestors, the data also points to Fulani ancestry, we now reside in Jamaica, by way of the Spanish Slave trade, we are Jamaican Maroons.

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