Archive for Haplogroups E3a and E3b

Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Familia: PN2= M78, M35 , M2 the Egyptian triad..

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor


This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptian with an M78 Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Y-chromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2% )- Lower Egypt, (27.3%) -Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)-Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)- Lower Egypt, (24.2%) - Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.


(W
hich group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt

and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’?

but their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-,Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78- (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors”

of Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan,which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, "Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Ancient Y-Chromosomes Samples shows Ancient Pharoah Ramesses III belonged to E1b1a/M2:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.[28]


Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M2-68%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on the y-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000 ;)

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Ychromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are 8,000 B.P. and older)

The Afri-Asiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arab males are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

Although Haplogroup R1* has an African-Asiatic Origin and Migration, It has Notable frequencies through out Africa as well..

Haplogroup R1*-M173 is the pristine form of Haplogroup R. In Africa researchers have detected frequencies as high as 95% among Sub-Saharan Africans.

The phylogenetic profile of R-M173 supports an ancient migration of Kushites from Africa to Eurasia as suggested by the Classical Writers. In Fig. 3, we outline the spread of Haplogroup R from Nubia into Asia and West Africa.

This Expansion of an African Kushite population probably took place Neolithic period.

The Accumulated Classical literature, Archaeological, Craniometric, Genetic and Linguistic evidence suggest a Genetic relationship between the Kushites of Africa and Kushites in Eurasia that cannot be explained by Micro Evolutionary Mechanisms.

The phylogeographic profile of R1*-M173 supports this Ancient Migration of Kushites fromAfrica to Eurasia as suggested by the Classical writers.

This expansion of Kushites into Eurasia probably took place over 4kya.

The present studies on Y-chromosomes M78 , M35 , M2 shows the  Egyptian Dynasties has Northern and Southern inhabitants.

The migration difference from North to South mimics the Nubia, Upper Egypt and lower Egypt  Kingdoms of ancient times.

While Kashta of the 25th dynasty ruled Nubia from Napata, which is 400 km north of Khartoum, the modern capital of Sudan,

He also exercised a strong degree of control–over Upper Egypt by managing to install his daughter, Amenirdis I,

as the presumptive God’s Wife of Amun in Thebes in line to succeed the serving Divine Adoratrice of Amun,Shepenupet IOsorkon III’s

Daughter.

This Development was “the Key moment in the process of the extension of

Kushite power over Egyptian territories” under Kashta’s rule since iofficially legitimized the Kushite takeover of the Thebaid region.

The Hungarian Kushite scholar László Török notes that there were probably already Kushite garrisons stationed in Thebes itself during

Kashta’s reign both to protect this king’s authority over

Upper Egypt and to thwart a possible future invasion of this region from    Lower Egypt.

Going back to E1b1a and the discovery of two SNPs (V38 and V100) according to Trombetta et al. (2011) this significantly redefined the E-V38 phylogenetic tree. This led the authors to suggest that E-V38 may have originated in East Africa with an East African Origin. V38 joins the West African-affiliated E-M2 and the Northern East African-affiliated E-M329 with an earlier common ancestor who, like E-P2, may have also originated in East Africa. It is possible that soon after the evolution of E-V38, trans-Saharan migrants carried the E-V38 marker to Northern and Central and/or West Africa where the more common E-M2 marker later arose and became prolific within the last 20,000-30,000 years.[1][3]

Outside of Africa, E1b1a has been found at low frequencies. In Eurasia, the clade has primarily been found in West Asia. There have also been a few isolated incidents of E1b1a/M2 in Southern Spanish Europeans populations in Spain[26] and Portugal.[2

Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Tânout, Niger 44.4% (8/18 subjects) [14]
Tuareg from Gorom, Burkina Faso 16.6% (3/18) [14]
Tuareg from Gossi, Mali 9.1% (1/9) [14]
Cape Verde 15.9% (32/201) [15]
Maasai 15.4% (4/26) [7]
Luo 66% (6/9) [7]
Iraqw 11.11% (1/9) [7]
Comoros 23.46% (69/294) [16]
Merina people (also called Highlanders) 44% (4/9) [17]
Antandroy 69.6% (32/46) [17]
Antanosy 48.9% (23/47) [17]
Antaisaka 37.5% (3/8) [17]

Incidence of E1b1a in Eurasia
Population group frequency References
Saudi Arabians 7.6% (12/157) [28]
Omanis 6.6% (8/121) [10]
Emiratis 5.5% (9/164) [29]
Yemenis 4.8% (3/62) [29]
Majorca 3.2% (2/62) [27]
Qataris 4.2% (3/72) [29]
Southern Iran 1.7% (2/117) [30]
Iraq 1.4% (2/139) [31]
Pakistan 1.4% (9/638) [32]
Istanbul, Turkey 1.2% (1/81) [33]
Incidence of E1b1a
Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Al Awaynat and Tahala, Libya 46.5% (20/43) [Note 1] [19]
OranAlgeria 8.6% (8/93) [20]
Berbers, southern and north-central Morocco 9.5% (6/63) [21][Note 2]
Morrocan Arabs 6.8% (3/44) [21]
Saharawis 3.5% (1/29) [21]
Egyptians 8.33% (3/36), 1.4% (2/147), and (0/73) [10][22][23]
Tunisians 1.4% (2/148) [23]
Sudanese Hausa 12.5% (4/32) [24]
Sudanese Nubian 39.1 % (10/274) [25]
Somalis 1.5% (3/201) [18]
Ethiopians 3.4% (3/88) [26]
Oromo 2.6% (2/78) [13]
Amhara 0% (0/48)[Note 3] [13]
Incidence of E1b1a in populations of the Americas
Population group frequency References
African Americans, US 7.7%-7.9% [Note 4] [9]
Bahia, Brazil 19% (19/100) [34]
Nicaraguans 5.5% (9/165) [35]
Alagoas, Brazil 4.45% (11/247) [36]
Cubans 9.8% (13/132) [37]



 The Indigenous Carioca from Rio de JaneiroBrazil  tested positive for the E1b1a1a M58 SNP.[38] 

The Place of Origin and Age is Unreported, (hmmmpt I wonder why)

What would that mean to have indigenous Africans in Pre-Columbian America? 

A long and hard re-write of His-Story….

The Egyptian Y-Chromosome  variation links below:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ Ramesses E1b1a 23247979

HapgroupE.2011.tree.

www.Kemetology.com

Ancient Egyptian Origins

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pd

Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia

Y-chromosomal diversity in West Africa of Guinea-Bissau:

Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa

Preliminary Results of Sephardic -Hebrew Y-DNA  Haplogroup M2/E3a

Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and relationship with nearby regions”

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share Deepest Clades of the  Y -Chromo- E- Phylogengy:

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in North Africa Prehistoric Egypt”

Y-Chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians, Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

Sahure ሽሁረ and the 5th Dynasty the Old Kingdom of Egypt/KMT ኽምጥ 2487-2474 B.C.

Posted in Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Ethiopia, Indigenous people, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, Sahara, Semitic, Sudan, Supra-Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

Egyptian Sahure from the 5th Dynasty @ the Metropolitan Museum

Sahu’re/Sa-hu-Rah was the Second King of ancient Egypt‘s 5th Dynasty.

Sahure’s birth name means “He who is Close to Re /Rah, his Horus name was Nebkhau,

It is believed he ruled Egypt from around 2487 BC to 2475 BC .

He was a son of Queen Neferhetepes, as shown in scenes from the causeway of Sahure’s Pyramid Complex in Abusir.

His father probably was Userkaf. He was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt ..Userkaf Founder of the 5th Dynasty

The First pharaoh to start the tradition of building Sun Temples at Abusir.

Userkaf’s name means “his Ka (or soul) is Powerful.” He ruled from 2465-2458 BC

And constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara.

Sahure’s consort was Queen Neferetnebty. Reliefs show Sahure and Neferetanebty with their sons Ranefer and Netjerirenre.

He was succeeded by Neferirkare, the first king known to have used separate names.

Verner speculates that Prince Ranefer took the throne as Neferirkare and

Prince Netjerirenre may have later taken the throne as (Shepseskare)

Continue reading

Was the Egyptians Caucasoid or Mixed African-Asiatic Race ? pt. 2 Unedited.. May 28, 2009 2:29-3 P.M. ( yet she erased my evidence once again…) Wonder why ?

Posted in afri asiatic, Egypt, Egypt was Caucasoid Debate, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Nubians with tags , , , , , on April 24, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

May 28, 2009 8:30 AM

Blogger AndelimaSephirioth said…

I will not discuss this further.
If you wish to debate this, there are far more and better people than I who are both motivated, interested and willing to spend their time, debating with you on this issue.

Although I dislike the site myself.
There is a site called;

Stormfront, full of people you surely can enlighten.

If you wish to continue, this is not the place.

We try to post an article a day and simple dont have the time, debating back and forth while having a life outside of CFL, as well as trying to enlighten people on philosophy, history, science etc.

If this is your area of expertice there’s forums with much bigger “audience” like Stormfront, as mentioned.

I will not participate any further and any comment made by you after this one is unecessary and useless.

May 28, 2009 8:36 AM

Blogger Saint Michael said…

good bye Billy

May 28, 2009 9:06 AM

Blogger AndelimaSephirioth said…

Comment deleted due to;

*You ignore to go to the links I have provided and you ignore to read them.

*You are being a sophist and an eristic.

What you seek I’ve provided. 
You can find it, this is how I know you are ignoring them.

Comment also deleted due to:

(See my previous comment)

May 28, 2009 2:29 PM

Blogger Billy said…

What u mentioned is a Cosmic reflection of 

yourself..

You said that I am a (Sophist) defintion below:

( a person who reasons with Clever Yet Fallacious arguments) 

Yet you have Not shown any studies to disprove me .. 

I Have your Study

I Have Read Your Study

It does Not provide the Caucasoid Egyptian you 

Mention Nor does it provide irrefutable Dna Evidence 

(Haplogroup B.P. date)

You also said that i was (Eristic )definiton below:

(one who aims at a argument rather than reach the truth)

Lets be Unequivocally Clear….

I Want the Truth!! 

so one more time heres my Studies 

show me Yours:

Northern Egyptians are a bit more cosmopolitan in their ancestry 64.8% indigenous African. About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R , Y- chromosomes. However, some of these Near Eastern and European Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa (G, K2, R1a, R1b are 8,000 B.P. and older) and any historical contribution from foreign men is more likely to be in the 15% area. Divided by two (no recent female contribution to speak of). This makes non-dynastic Egyptian population around the 7% mark in Lower Egypt; and only some of this is Arab.

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna (of modern upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I 5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 5.9%, L2a1* 19.9%, M1 14.9%, N1b 8.8%, T 5.9%, U 8.8%, 

U4 5.9%, U6 2.9%, L1c*1% L3e1* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%. L3f*6.9%. L3d*1%.

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are indigenous and are typically supra and sub Saharan (23.7%),

They are at least 70,000-109,000 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !! 

L2a1 has (49%) MtDna collectively in, 

Sudan, Nile- Valley, Ethiopia, Nubia and Egypt 

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the nile valley civilization)……

Thanks again for your time…

May 28, 2009 3:00 PM

Delete

Here is a direct link to her Blog Below: ( click or copy and paste )

 

http://cordeliaforlear.blogspot.com/2009/05/egypt-was-caucasoid.html

 

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