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Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor

This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptianwith an M78Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita-Boyce Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://ingiagzennay.free.fr/Keita-Boyce.pdf

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Ychromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2%)Lower Egypt, (27.3%)Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)Lower Egypt, (24.2%) – Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

(Which group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the Bantu migrations?

But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site is dated, before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78 (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors” of  Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a Proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty “New Kingdom”

Ancient Y-DNA samples shows Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty belonged to Haplogroup  E1b1a/M2/E-V38:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2/E-V38, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

A genetic kinship analysis was done to investigate a possible family relationship between Ramesses III and Unknown man E, Who may actually be his son Pentawer. An ancient Egyptian Prince of the 20th dynasty, and son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. They amplified 16 Y-chromosomal, short tandem repeats (AmpF\STR yfiler PCR amplification kit; Applied Biosystems). Eight polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome were also amplified (Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits; Applied Biosystems). The Y-chromosomal Haplogroups of Ramesses III and unknown man E was screened using the Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor we determined the Y-chromosomal Haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal micro satellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2⇓). Although the mummy of Ramesses III’s wife Tiy was not available for testing, the identical Ychromosomal DNA and Autosomal half allele sharing of the two male mummies strongly suggest a Father-Son relationship.

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

http://www.academia.edu/2308336/Revisiting_the_harem_conspiracy_and_death_of_Ramesses_III_anthropological_forensic_radiological_and_genetic_study

Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M268%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on they-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000😉

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Y– chromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are8,000 B.P. and older)

The AfriAsiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arabmales are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

http://www.thegeneticatlas.com

E1b1a (V100) This population is one of two important populations to spring out of the Ethiopian Plateau, E1b1a effect became the most dominant population in Subsaharan Africa

E1b1a (M2) This population grew in enough numbers in the Ethiopian lowlands to be able to cross into the territories of Paleo Africans on their West in Sudan E1b1a (L576) This population represents an East to West thrust in Africa, only E1b1a lineage able to survive crossing the A1b1 territories E1b1a (L86.1) This mutation indicates that the population crossed the A1b1 dominated Grassland into the regions West of the great Lakes E1b1a (M58) Expansion between the Great Lakes & Midwest Africa E1b1a (M116.2) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M149) Very small minority in South Africa E1b1a (M155) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M10) Dispersed between Cameroon & Tanzania E1b1a (L485) An important lineage that emerged in the Eastern Benue valley in Central Nigeria E1b1a (L514) Marker for a strong lineage that played a major role in turning West Africa into their new territor E1b1a (M191) This marker indicates that the main body of (L485) reached the Benue River in Nigeria and Cameroon E1b1a (P252) A population that followed the Benue river South, an important marker of the Bantu expansion in Nigeria E1b1a (P9.2) The population that remained in the Benue region, expanded into West into Nigeria & South to Gabon E1b1a (P115) Eastern limit expansion population, reaching Southwestern Central Africa, with possible presence in other Fang regions E1b1a (P116) South of the Benue expansion in Southern Cameroon & Gabon E1b1a (U175) An important lineage that emerged in the Western region of Benue in Nigeria and Niger E1b1a (U209) This population represents the backbone of the Bantu expansion, emerged and expanded out of the Bantu Urheimat E1b1a (U290) A primary marker of African slavery in the USA, Important lineage in Southern Cameroon E1b1a (M154) Found in Western Cameroon & South Africa E1b1a (P268) Found in Gambia, could possibly indicate an early expansion out of Central Africa or late emergence out of an L86.1* that lived amongst (L485) or (U175) E1b1a (M329) The E1b1a population that remained in the Ethiopian lowlands.

_______________________

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

_

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

______________________________________________ Continue reading

Afri-Asiatica Familia de Afrika-Ifriqiya* and West Asia (Nubian teens from pic / Aswan Egypt)

Posted in anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., DNA, Egypt, Levant, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Supra-Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

nubian-young-men-in-aswan-egypt1The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about

375 living language (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout

North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southwest Asia, and parts of the Sahel

(including some 300 million speakers) of (Arabic Dialects).

Afro-Asiatic also includes several ancient languages, such as

Ancient Egyptian, Biblical Hebrew, and Akkadian.

The term “Afroasiatic” was coined by Maurice Delafosse (1914). It did not come into general use until it was adopted by Joseph Greenberg

(1950) to replace the earlier term Hamito-Semitic, following his demonstration that Hamitic is not a valid language family.

The Hamitic family is located in Nile Valley’s Land of Ham, example. (Cush/ Nubia/ Egypt and West Asia).


afro-asiaticmap2

The name is now most often spelled “Afro-Asiatic”, though both spellings are in use. Some replace “Afro-Asiatic” with “Afrasian”.

I myself often utter plain “ol’ Asiatic !”

Though i sometimes prefer,  Afri-Asiatic-West Asian Individual scholars have called the family

Erythraean(Tucker 1966) and “Lisramic” (Hodge 1972).

The term “Hamito-Semitic” remains in use in the academic traditions of some European countries.

Afro-Asiatic is one of the four language families of Africa identified by

Joseph Greenberg in his book The Languages of Africa (1963).

It is the only one that extends outside of Africa, via the Semitic branch.

There are no generally accepted relations between Afro-Asiatics and any other language family.

Tunisia

The name  “AFRICA came into Western use through the Romans…   it is not the native name.

The “Original people of AfRICA” never referred to it by that name.

Africa/Egypt was called:

” Ta-Meri/ Ta-mery = ታመርይ,”…  “Kampt /Kemit/kmt = ክምት ,”… or  “Sais = ሳኢስ“… by  Ancient Asiatic inhabitants…

The Romans used the name Africa terra “land of the Afri” (plural, or “Afer” singular) — for the northern part of the continent,

“The North Africa Sahara” as the province of “Africa” with its capital “Carthage”, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia.

The origin of Afer may either come from:

Phoenician `afar, dust; 
-the Afri, a tribe—possibly Berber—who dwelt in North Africa in the Carthage area;

The Greek word aphrike, meaning without cold; 
-or The Latin word aprica, meaning sunny.

The Moorish historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the origin to the

Greek word phrike (φρικε, meaning “cold and horror”),

combined with the negating prefix a-, so meaning, a land free of cold and horror.

But the change of sound from ph to f in Greek is datable to about the first century,

so this cannot really be the origin of the name

Egypt was considered part of  “ASIA” by the “Ancients,” and first assigned to “Africa” by the geographer Ptolemy (85 – 165 AD)

, who accepted Alexandria as Prime Meridian and made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the “boundary” between Asia and Africa.

As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge.

Afri (singular, Afer) was the Latin name for an ancient people located on the shores of the

Southern Mediterranean Sea near the city of Carthage, nowadays Tunisia.

The first record of their existence was made during the Punic Wars (264-146 BC) between ancient Rome and Carthage.

The name may be connected with Phoenician `afar, dust (also found in other Semitic languages), or with Berber `ifri, cave.  Back in medieval historyIfri-qi-ya or Ifriqiyah (Arabicإفريقية‎) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western LibyaTunisia, and eastern Algeria. This area included what had been the Roman province called Africa, whose name it inherited. (North Africa)

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italy, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia. Its capital was Qayrawan (Kairouan) in central Tunisia.

The classical historian Flavius Josephus asserted that the region had been invaded by

Descendants of Abraham‘s grandson Epher, who gave it their name.Imhotep

Nubia_pyramids1

Phoenicians:

The name Africa has been connected with the Phoenician word afar, which means ”dust.” It has also has been connected to two Phoenician terms friqi or pharika, which means “land of corn or fruit.” It has also been hypothesized that Africa may have derived from a Phoenician root faraqa or faraq, meaning “separation or diaspora.”

Romans:
The Romans have been given credit for popularizing the name Africa in the West. They used the name Africa terra meaning “land of the Afri” (or singular version “Afer”) for the northern part of the continent. Its capital was Carthage, which is modern-day Tunisia.
The story told by some historians is that the Romans got the term from the Carthaginians, as a native term for their country. The Latin suffix “-ica” can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar).
Another theory is that the continent was named after the Roman general “Scicipio Africanus,” but his name meant “Sicipio of Africa,” which would mean the general was named for being from Africa.
Some say the term is drawn from the Latin adjective aprica (sunny).

Greeks:
The historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the origin of “Africa” to the Greek word aprikē or aphrike. Phrike means cold and horror, when combined with the negating prefix a-, it means a land free of cold and horror.

Jewish:
The 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that Africa was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham, according to the Bible’s Genesis 25:4, whose descendants invaded Libya. The Hebrew name for the continent, Auphirah is supposedly written as Ophir in many Jewish records.

Arabic:
Some have attributed the name to the later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya (sunny place) in modern-day Tunisia. However, the Arab version is considered by most historians to be a derivative of the Latin version.

Hindi:
Another theory is that the word might stem from Sanskrit and Hindi in which the root Apara or Africa denotes that which, in geographical terms, “comes after” or to the west — in which case Africa is the western continent.

Yemeni:

Some have postulated that it is the name of a Yemenite chief named Africus who invaded North Africa in the second millennium B.C. and founded a town called Afrikyah.

Berber:
A number of historians believe the Romans got the name from a corruption of what the Berbers called the region in which they lived. The theory asserts that “Africa” stems from the Berber ifri (plural ifran), the word for “cave,” in reference to cave dwellers. The same word is found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran (also known as Ifrane) in northwestern Libya.

Egyptian:
A few historians argue that the word “Africa” is indigenous to the continent, and the idea that the Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Hindus or any Caucasoid group created the name Africa is absolutely inaccurate.
This theory asserts that Romans and Greeks began using the term only after coming in contact with African people, such as the Greek conquest of Egypt and the Roman conquest of North Africa and Egypt.
The term “Afru-ika” means “birthplace” or “Motherland,” according to historian Ivan Van Sertima. Af-rui-ka means “to turn toward the opening of the Ka, womb or birthplace.”
Another hypothesis is that the name of the 4th dynasty pharaoh, Kh-afre, reveals that an early Egyptian king had the name “Africa.” It’s believed by some that because modern Egyptologists and others often mix the order of the hieroglyphs that the ancients wrote Kh-afre is supposedly written as Afre-Kh or Africa.

Phylogenesis of African mitochondrial DNA lineages in European Slavs (slavic people).

Posted in A-positive blood, AB-Postive blood, African mtdna in Europeans, anthrolpology, Ashkenazi Hebrews L2a1, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, B-postive blood, Euro-Asiatic African, Europeans wit African mtDna, O-positive blood, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

In the present study,

we completely sequenced eight African haplotypes of mtDNAs revealed previously in 2018 individuals from Slavonic populations of Eastern and Central Europe by means of mtDNA control region sequencing and coding region RFLP analysis (Table 1).

All individuals with African variants of mtDNA identified themselves as ethnical Slavs (ie ‘indigenous’ Russians, Slovaks, Czechs or Poles) and were unaware of their African Ancestry until Molecular Genetic Studies.

Figure and tables index

Whole mitochondrial genomes were amplified and sequenced by means of the procedures described in Torroni et al.21 Sequencing reactions were run on Applied Biosystems 3130 Genetic Analyzer.

Sequences were edited and aligned by SeqScape v. 2.5 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA), and mutations were scored relative to the rCRS.20 The eight complete mtDNA sequences have been submitted to GenBank (accession numbers EU200759–66).

For comparative purposes, a large number of published African and Eurasian mtDNA HVS I sequences and any available HVS II or RFLP data were used (see references1, 18, 19, 22, 23). In addition, complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences pooled in MitoMap mtDNA tree24 were taken into analysis.

The complete mtDNA tree was reconstructed manually and verified by using median-joining algorithm with NETWORK 4.1.0.9.25

For phylogeny construction, the length variation in the poly-C stretches at nts 16180–16193 and 309315 were not used.

Haplogroup divergence estimates ρ and their standard errors were calculated as average number of substitutions in the mtDNA coding region from the ancestral sequence type.26, 27

To estimate the time to (tmrca) the most recent common ancestor of each cluster,

The evolutionary rate corresponding to 5140 years per substitution in the coding region was used.28

Haplogroup L1b lineage detected in Russian individual is characterized by the transition at position 16175 that is a

Marker of ‘Europeanspecific’ L1b-subcluster revealed also in Germany and medieval Spain (Table 1).

Comparison of its complete genome sequence with the data presented in MitoMap mtDNA tree24shows that

Russian sample belongs to L1b1a subcluster defined by mutations at positions 2768 and 5393 (Figure 1).

This subcluster is widespread in Africa being found in 22 individuals presented in MitoMap mtDNA tree.

A coalescence time estimate of subcluster L1b1a

(calculated from the average sequence divergence and its standard error according to Sailard et al27)

Corresponds to 8943±1400 years, suggesting a relatively recent (post-Neolithic or later) arrival of the L1b1a lineage into Europe.

Note, that it is only the approximate lower time boundary of the actual arrival of this mtDNA lineage.

Haplogroup L2a samples were found in three individuals, two of whom are Slovaks and one comes from the Czech Republic.

It is noteworthy that among them there is L2a branch defined by mutation at 16218 that is absent in published HVS I L2a data from Africa and Eurasia (Table 1).

Complete Genome Sequencing demonstrates that these two individuals are characterized by two coding region mutations

(at positions 6722 and 12903) and

Represent a branch that is absent among 50 individuals from the L2a macro haplo family collected together in

MitoMap mtDNA tree  (Figure 1).

A coalescence time of this branch is estimated as 10, 280±5140 years, though inferred only from two complete genomes.

Slovak L2a1 Haplotype characterized by transition at 16051 also seems to be very scarce.

This control region sequence type has been recently detected in different parts of Eurasia only twice – in France31 and in Eastern Iran.32

Based on coding region variation data and comparison with MitoMap tree,

This Haplotype L2a1c belongs to a specific subcluster defined by mutations at HVII positions 3010 and 6663.

Aforementioned subcluster seems to be ancient, with an estimated coalescence time of 24 ,672±3561 years for 10 mtDNA genomes analyzed.

Therefore, the present data do not allow us to infer exactly when the African mtDNA lineages were introduced into Gene Pool of

Eastern EuropeansBoth Prehistoric and more Recent gene flows...

(for instance, such as the potential Jewish L2a1 contribution42)

Might have led to African mtDNA admixture into Slavonic gene pools.

AFTERWORD:

All individuals with African variants of mtDNA identified themselves as Ethnical Slavs

(ie ‘indigenous’ Russians, Slovaks, Czechs or Poles)

and were totally unaware of their

African Ancestry until molecular Genetic Studies.

Population (sample ID) HG HVS I sequence HVS II sequence Frequency and references
Russians (Tu_67) L1b 126 175 189 223 264 270 278 311 400 73 182 185GT 195 247 263 315iC 357 1/68311, 12, 13
Slovaks (Slv_222) L2a1 172 189 192 218 223 278 294 309 390 73 143 146 152 195 263 309iC 315iC 1/20716
Czechs (Cz_2972) L2a1 189 218 223 247 278 294 309 390 73 143 152 195 263 309iC 315iC 1/27915
Slovaks (Slv_191) L2a1 51 223 278 294 309 390 73 143 146 152 195 263 309iC 315iC 1/20716
Russians (Ka_69) L3b 124 223 278 294 362 59 73 152 217 263 315iC 1/68311, 12, 13
Poles (Pl_B_69) L3d 124 223 73 151 152 195 263 315iC 1/84912, 13
Russians (Vo_6) M1 129 182AC 183AC 189 249 311 73 195 263 309iC 315iC 2/68311, 12, 13
Russians (Vl_78) M1 183AC 189 249 311 73 195 263 315iC 1/68311, 12, 13

PhyloTree.org | tree | L

African admixture in Europe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Full figure and legend chart of African mtdna is Euro Slavic people(71K)

European Journal of Human Genetics – Reconstructing the phylogeny mtDNA report.doc …

Table 1 Chart- mtDNA control region seq. of  African-specific haplogroups detected in Slavs .


Modern Human Variation: Distribution of Blood Types Americas, Africa, Asia and Europe..

Posted in A-positive blood, AB-Postive blood, Africa, Asia and Europe.., B-postive blood, Blood type O, Blood Types Americas, O-positive blood with tags , , , , , on April 23, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Distribution of Blood Types


Blood provides an ideal opportunity for the study of human variation without cultural prejudice.  It can be easily classified for many different genetically inherited blood typing systems.  Also significant is the fact that we rarely take blood types into consideration in selecting mates.  In addition, few people know their own type today and no one did a century ago.  As a result, differences in blood type frequencies around the world are most likely due to other factors than social discrimination.  Contemporary Japan is somewhat of an exception since there are popular Japanese stereotypes about people with different blood types.  This could affect choice in marriage partners for some Japanese.

All human populations share the same 27 known blood systems, although they differ in the frequencies of specific types.  Given the evolutionary closeness of apes and monkeys to our species, it is not surprising that some of them share a number of blood typing systems with us as well.

When we donate blood or have surgery, a small sample is usually taken in advance for at least ABOclick this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced and Rh click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced systems typing.  If you are O+, the O is your ABO type and the + is your Rh type.  It is possible to be A, B, AB, or O as well as Rh+click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced or Rhclick this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced.  You inherited your blood types from your parents and the environment in which you live can not change them.

We have learned a good deal about how common each of the ABO and RH blood types is around the world.  It is quite clear that the distribution patterns are complex.  Both clinal anddiscontinuous distributions exist, suggesting a complicated evolutionary history for humanity.  This can be seen with the global frequency patterns of the type B blood allele (shown in the map below).  Note that it is highest in Central Asia and lowest in the Americas and Australia.  However, there are relatively high frequency pockets in Africa as well.  Overall in the world,B is the rarest ABO blood allele.  Only 16% of humanity have it.

map of the world showing the frequency of the B blood allele among indigenous populations--it was absent in Australia, New Zealand, and most of the New World except for western Alaska; it was present throughout the Old World with its highest frequencies in Central and East Asia
Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world

The A blood allele is somewhat more common around the world than B.  About 21% of all people share the A allele. The highest frequencies of A are found in small, unrelated populations, especially the Blackfoot Indians of Montana (30-35%), the Australian Aborigines (many groups are 40-53%), and the Lapps, or Saami people, of Northern Scandinavia (50-90%).  The A allele apparently was absent among Central and South American Indians.

map of the world showing the frequency of the A blood allele among indigenous populations--it was absent in Central and South America, but present throughout the rest of the world; it was at its highest frequency in Western Europe, Australia, and the sub-arctic regions of North America and Greenland
Distribution of the A type blood allele in native populations of the world

The O blood type (usually resulting from the absence of both A and B alleles) is very common around the world.  About 63% of humans share it.  Type O is particularly high in frequency among the indigenous populations of Central and South America, where it approaches 100%.  It also is relatively high among Australian Aborigines and in Western Europe (especially in populations with Celtic ancestors).  The lowest frequency of O is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where B is common.

map of the world showing the frequency of the O blood allele among indigenous populations--most regions were 50% or higher in frequency; it was highest in the New World (90-100%) and lowest in Central Asia (50-60%)
Distribution of the O type blood in native populations of the world

The distribution patterns for the Diego click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced blood system are even more striking.  Evidently, all Africans, Europeans, East Indians, Australian Aborigines, and Polynesians are Diego negative.  The only populations with Diego positive people may be Native Americans (2-46%) and East Asians (3-12%).  This nonrandom distribution pattern fits well with the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for Native Americans.


Conclusion

These patterns of ABO and Diego blood type distributions are not similar to those for skin color or other so-called “racial” traits.  The implication is that the specific causes responsible for the distribution of human blood types have been different than those for other traits that have been commonly employed to categorize people into “races.”  Since it would be possible to divide up humanity into radically different groupings using blood typing instead of other genetically inherited traits such as skin color, we have more conclusive evidence that the commonly used typological model for understanding human variation is scientifically unsound.

The more we study the precise details of human variation, the more we understand how complex are the patterns.  They cannot be easily summarized or understood.  Yet, this hard-earned scientific knowledge is generally ignored in most countries because of more demanding social and political concerns.  As a result, discrimination based on presumed “racial” groups still continues.  It is important to keep in mind that this “racial” classification often has more to do with cultural and historical distinctions than it does with biology.  In a very real sense, “race” is a distinction that is created by culture not biology.


This page was last updated on Sunday, February 01, 2009.
Copyright © 1998-2009 by Dennis O’Neil. All rights reserved.

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Modern Human Variation: Distribution of Blood Types


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