MtDna Migration Map of (Haplogroup L2a1 North Africa and South West Asia)



This is Highlighted feature Map of the migrational route of Haplogroup L2a1 mtDNa

Haplogroup -L2a1 @ positions HVR1

16223T16278T16294T16309G, 16368C and 16519C.

(Note: mtDna results above from Genographic is HVR1 sequence only. Definitive results are acquired from FGS (full genome sequence) Test.

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Middle East and North Africa Related Ethnicites

Part of the “AfrI-Asiatic-Semitic Family”.   The process was very simple and pain-less.

This Map shows my L2a1 Northern Nile Valley migration as well as West Asia from  Nat’l Genographic

It took all of 3 minutes to extract saliva from my inner cheek.   place the swab back in the container that’s enclosed in the package with

(instructional dvd included..)

I then sent off my package “anonymously” with a “generated ID” number to follow the process “Online”…   4 weeks later results are in to check securely online in the privacy of your home.

At completion you will be assigned a (Paternal) YDNA or (Maternal) mtDNAHaplogroup (from the Greek word: ἁπλούς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Once this process is done you will recieve a Genetic Migration Map of Whatever Region your DNA Originates...

The Americas, Africa, Madagascar , Asia, Europe , Australia etc..

My Parents‘s Ethnic Ancestral Origins and Migrations

“The Americas” and “North Africa” (NileValley)(West Asia)”

(Indigenous American) and (Nubian-Egyptian)  

My Nationality from my parents genetic origins would be stated as 

Nubian-Native American or Indigenous American Kushite

BAM   !! U now have an Ethnic Origin The cost are from $79-$149 and takes about 4-6 weeks to process.

Excerpt from Genetic – Ethiopian Study : copy and paste the link below in your web browers to view:


All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33“African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a1}  complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps  None of those sequences, (shown below) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309”} L2a1 samples.


Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins) 

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.




5. L2a1a2- has (PAKISTAN) (ITALY), (MOZAMBIQUE), (YEMEN), (USA) Origins

6. L2a1a3- has (GABON), (CHAD), (PORTUGAL) Origins

7. L2a1c1- has (TUNISIA), (USA) Origins

8. L2a1c6- has (SPAIN), (PORTUGAL) Origins

9.  L2a1d1- has (ETHIOPIA), (EGYPT) Origins

10. L2a1c8- has (CAMEROON), (ISRAEL) Origins

11. L2a1m- has (OMAN), (YEMEN), (ARABIA), (ISRAEL) Origins

12. L2a1k- has (CZECH REP.), (SLOVAK REP.) Origins

13. L2a1c4- has (SPAIN) (ANDALUSIA) Origins

14. L2a1c4a- has (TUNISIA), (BURKINA FASO), (USA) Origins

15. L2a1a2a1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (TUNISIA), (EGYPT), (USA) Origins

16. L2a1c1a- has (PORTUGAL), (USA) Origins 

17. L2a1n- has (USA), (ISRAEL) Origins

18. L2a1o- has (LIBYA), (ISRAEL) Origins

19. L2a1p- has (USA) Origins

20. L2a1b- has (EGYPT) Origins

21. L2a1b1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (MOZAMBIQUE), (KUWAIT), (KENYA) Origins

22. L2a1c- has (CHAD), (GABON), (SPAIN), (USA) Origins

23. L2a1c5- has (USA), (GABON), (EGYPT) Origins

24. L2a1c2- has (BURKINA FASO), (DOMINICAN) Origins

25. L2a1c3- has (ISRAEL), (SPAIN), (GUINEA BISSAU) Origins




“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea.  10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and  multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes have an African and or American Origin, but as a Haplogroup remains to be 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transitionnp16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)....

(NOTE): You have to do extra research such as,

Dna data Bases or Forums for comparative matches as well as ,

Public record Genetic studies, to pin-point the Highest Frequencies !! of your Personal DNA number sequence).


THE  GOVt  in all countries and Monarchs alike .. WorldWide have DNA DATABASES

They know who you are ..   but do you know who you Are ?

(With the Scare tatics and  Biological Threats and

Exotic Flu Viruses this Science is Imperative !

(ex. the swine flu and vaccine ready H1N1 companies)

To know who You are)...

Something to ponder on ...

(the term “African-American” is a

(Corporate Constitutional definition/term:

that was implemented in December of 1988,

to hide your True Ethnic Nationality..)


Federal Register Notice on Oct.30, 1997

Revisions to the standard for the Classification of Federal Data On Race and Ethnicity

Copy and paste link into your web browser to view site:


1. Morgan Freeman mtDna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara

2. Oprah Winfrey – Haplogroup L3b Kpelle

3. Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone  his (moms)- Angola.

4. Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

5. Dr. May Angelo (R.I.P.) the Mende people of Liberia and Sierra leone who migrated from Western Sudan..

6. Dr. Mae Jemison L1a listed as West Africa via African Ancestry…

7. Tina Tuner Haplogroup L2a Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Niger, South Sudan, Kenya.

8. AfricaNews – Exclusive: Isaiah Washington mtdna on Dual citizenship – Sierra Leone

9. India Arie- Nigeria  

10. Chris Tucker- Y-Dna is  E3b Mbundu from Angola  and his Mtdna is L1c* Bamileke of Cameroon

11. Don Cheadle has Afro-Asiatic male Y-chromosomes R1b was found in Cameroon

12. Chris Rock has Central African-Asiatic Y-chromosome B21a  has notable frequencies in North Cameroon from Uldeme tribe.

13. Forest Whittiker-  from  Igbo Nigeria

14. Danny Glover- Nigeria, Igbo

15. T.D. Jakes – are mtDna L1c and Y-chromo E3b Nigerian (Igbo-people)

16. Judge Hatchett is from NigeriaYoruba/Hausa...

17. John Legend’s mtDna belongs to the Mende from Sierra Leone and his Y-Dna belongs to the Fula of Guinea Bissau..

18. Wanda Sykes from the hit show Curb Your Enthusiasm belongs to the Tikar and Fulani  from Cameroon.

19. Erykah Badu  maternal ancestry is from Cameroon with the Bamileke who migrated from Egypt.

20. Q-Tip from Tribe called Quest maternal ancestry belongs to the Jola People of Guniea-Bisaau.

21. Michael K. Williams who played Omar from the Wire maternal ancestry is Mende from Sierra Leone.

22. Quest Love from the Roots is Mende from Sierra Leone.

23. Black Thought from the Roots maternal ancestry goes back to Senegal with the Mandinka.

24. President Barack Hussein Obama -American-Kenyan.

25. Issac Hayes- Ghana..  R.I.P.

26. Whoopi Goldberg – Guinea Bissau Kpelle

27. Blair Underwood –  is a descendant of the Babungo people of Cameroon.

28. Marcus Garvey – Maternal Dna traces back to Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal his Paternal DNA traces to Iberia (Spain & Portugal).

29. Martin Luther King Jr. – Maternal DNA traces back to Mende from Sierra Leon his paternal is from Ireland.

30. Samuel L. Jackson – Benga People from Gabon 

31. Condoleeza Rice- Tikar Tribe from Cameroon

Most of the individuals that were tested with African Ancestry had West African Ancestry?

* Gamble…

Genetic Genealogy and the Ancestries of African Americans by Dr.Rick Kittles.pdf

Lets Go people .. What are u waiting for ?


Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian Ancestry,

First-generation Egyptian immigrants, or Descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the United States.

In the 2007 U.S. census, the number of people with Egyptian Ancestry was estimated at 195,000,

Although some estimates range from 700,000 to 2 million.

The large majority of Egyptians in the U.S. are Coptic Orthodox

Some Christians in Egypt are increasingly marginalized.


One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

Northeastern Virginiaand theWashington, DC, Metropolitan area.

Other Egyptian American communities are concentrated in

Jersey City, New Jersey, Levittown,

New YorkSteinway Village in Queens, and

New YorkBay Ridge in Brooklyn, New York,

As well as in California, mainly in and around the

Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas,

And parts of Florida and, increasingly, Philadelphia.

African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora.

It is estimated that the current population of recent

African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.

Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S.

EthiopiaEritreaEgypt,  Somalia,

NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone, and South Africa.

Title: Reconstructing ancient L2a1 mitochondrial DNA links between Africans and Europeans

Authors: Cerezo M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Perego UA, Gómez-Carballa A, Brisighelli F, Lancioni H, López-Soto M, Carracedo Á, Capelli C, Torroni A, Salas A / Click link below: Europe_manuscript_Supplemental_Data_S2_final_version.pdf

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  Egyptian population Haplogroup L link below …

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA and  Study of Human Evolution

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins

Investigation in the mtdna genetic structure of  Barbadians Haplogroup L …

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  U.S. “Hispanic Haplogroup L…

BioMed Central | Additional Files | The RHNumtS compilation ..

.Figure 2

Africa | Africa Map | Travel Africa | African Safari

Africa the Continent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Evidence of the Early Penetration of Negroes into Prehistoric Egypt”

African diaspora – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Egyptian American – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of  the newly 53 African colonized countries

“The socalled Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau”

NJ State Police  mtdna Micro-Chip Technology called Gene-Chip..

Revisions to the U.S. OMB Standards for Negro Racial Classification of Federal Data …


Terracotta Goddess Isis from 18th Dynasty Collections



159 Responses to “MtDna Migration Map of (Haplogroup L2a1 North Africa and South West Asia)”

  1. Sasa Says:

    I want to ask you if you could help me trace my ethnic origins. I have tried for years but unable to really pinpoint them. Any help would be appreciated. (I believe I am the same as you L2a1 but since I am African born in America it probably is not from East African origins, My sequences are:

    Haplogroup – L2a1

    HVR1 differences from CRS
    HVR2 differences from CRS

    Thank you for any help you can extend to me and I really want to explore the Northern African indigenous origins because their seems to be a movement to separate North Africa both physically and genetically from the rest of Africa.

    • Billy Gambela Says:

      I would be more than welcome to assist you!!

      Your HVR1 numbers match my mother’s sequence 7 out of 8.

      Your HVR2 sequences matches my Mother’s Exactly as well as the EgyptianHebrew Population…

      Your numbers Start with a East African Haplotype 223T, the number 519C is Eurasian as well as 368C these are mutations that share similarities to West Asia and Eurasia haplotypes.

      The number 309 is definitely Horn of Africa it is also 28% /WestAsian and has

      A Migration Northernly down the Blue Nile, from lake tana in Ethiopia,

      Merging with the White Nile @ Khartoum Nubia which goes through

      Egypt finally, spilling into the Meditteranean Sea.

      I have plenty of genetic studies to do a further analysis on your haplogroup.

      Where were u from in Africa ?

      I also would like to know, what service did you use for your results, and what was the final outcome ?

      (haplogroup/related ethnicities/regions.)

      I will email you as well.

      Thanks for you comments.

  2. Shez the Algerian Maure Says:

    Now this is a beautiful thing….There IS someone else who wants to find out what the deal is. Congrats, you’ve come to the right place to have the right person to assist you. In the meantime you can have humble discussions about your personal journey to find out where you come from.

    No matter what company you’ve used, you know that they’ll give you “general” information. They won’t tell you too much. The rest is up to you. Which is somewhat a change for the better. I mean, I’d rather be in control and tell you who I AM as opposed to someone telling me to pick from a list of descriptions. lol

    I myself recently had my DNA tested. Not to go into grave detail, but my mtDNA results stated that my haplogroup is L3e1. My sequence is as follows:


    L3’s age is roughly 70k-80k yrs old originating in Central or East Afrika.

    The L3 ancestors were one of the earlier haplogroups to leave Afrika, Although high frequencies are found in populations across
    North-Central Afrika. and various parts of the Sahara as well as Central-East and South East Africa.

    L3e1 also has high frequencies in South-West Asia , Oman, Saudi Arabia etc..

    Yo Gamb, a guy at work said all of this searching is nonsense. He asked, What does this do for you?” He said not to worry about all this History stuff, because it doesn’t make a difference…..I just looked at him and smiled……..All I could say was WOW!!!

    • Nice Blog!

      I belong to L2a1c2

      There will ~always~ be those out there for whom *ignorance Is Bliss* !!{^_~}!!

      Jiveoree-/-from the _group.ancestry.com_ site

      • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Welcome Jiveoree! Thanks for stopping by…

        You are an exact match for L2a1 by Position 16309

        Your FGS sequence:

        (L2a1c2) 513A, 10903T, 15924G, 16193T, 16213A, 16239T

        (The Mannis Van Oven 2010 mtdna L tree chart)

        Your HVR1 Sequence:

        193T, 213A, 239T are also an Exact Match for

        Haplotypes associated Exclusively to Futa/Fulani and the Forros. (sp36)

        (The Forro people, an ethnic group in São Tomé and Príncipe)

        The Fulani inhabit countries in Africa where they are present include

        Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea,

        The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire,

        Niger, Chad, Togo, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Liberia, and as far as Sudan in the North East.

        I also belong to L2a1, However I do not have your (sp36) 193T, 213A, 239T (fulani/torros)

        I fit the Motif for L2a1 (sp40) 223T, 278T, 294T, 309G, 390A
        (nubian/ethiopians/tuareg/fulani/somali/moroccan/tunisians etc..)

        So though we do not share the exact motif we are still part of the L2a/L2a1 Family.

        There are at least 14 or More Different motifs for the L2a/L2a1 Family

        The L2a1 motif that we belong to has Spread both East and West along the

        Sahel belt ~20,000 years ago at The peak of the Last Glacial Maximum

        (or somewhat earlier).

        Fulani are also said to have Shared Ancestry with Hebrew/Jewish people…

  3. Keep on doing what your doing. This is fascinating information. I love the way you incorporated the celebrity profiles. You know how celeb obsessed We Americans are. Its personal gratification to know where your roots are. To finally get the Big Picture. It’s moronic to question someone on the validity of wanting to research their respective historic roots.

    • Billy Gambela Says:

      I unequivocally agree with you babe, But what do I Know ?

      Billy Gambela
      ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

  4. Deena Says:

    Hello Billy,

    Could you check my mtdna sequences for me? L2a1

    HVR 1 sequence:


    • Billy Gambela Says:

      Hello Deena, Thank you for stopping by,

      Your sequence matches my Mom’s 5 out of 8..

      Your number 16260T shares similarities to North Africa, West-Asia and Eurasia haplo-types.

      16278T East/Central and 16294T West/Central and

      16309G is East and in the Horn of Africa.

      Your number 16390A has migrations with Southeastern Africa. Your sequence ends with a mutation 16519C which is found in Eurasia and West asia haplo-types alike..

      I would also like to know what service did you use ?

      What was the analysis of your haplogroup ?

      What Country, Nation or City were you born in ?

      You can email me your info and i will send you the genetic studies i have pertaining to your

      personal haplogroup.

      Thanks again… spread the word !

      Billy Gambela
      ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

  5. Deena Says:

    Thank you for the info.

    I was tested with National geographic.
    I indentify myself as a Native Black American since
    I was born here. However, I have always had a stong spritual connection to Ethiopia, Mozambique, Egypt,
    Jerusalem, Sudan, Libya
    and others. Since maternal
    mtdna is said to go back 1000 to 10,000 years prior to the
    trans atlantic slave trade then our female ancestors at some point in time probably migrated to the same area.

    Thanks again Billy!

    • Billy Gambela Says:

      No problem at all.. I will email the studies as promised.

      You mentioned you have a spiritual connection to


      These countries shown above has notable frequencies of our L2a1 Haplogroup.

      Your very migration is mainly Horn of Africa, North Africa and Southwest Asia.. ( the Afri-AsiaticSemetic Family )

  6. A.Deckard Says:

    Lovely web site!!! I never quite know what to make of Afro-Asiatics !!

    I checked the links i found them very Useful…

    Thanks for everything Billy !!

  7. Migration in west africa ?

    • Billy Gambela Says:

      These 2 groups L2a and M2 are almost Ubiquitous in there migrations.

      So though they may have an Eastern or Northern origin,

      They may appear in the West as well as some Southern parts of Africa....

  8. This is a fine blog.


    • Billy Gambela Says:

      Thank you very much, were just trying to spread

      information !

      Thanks again for your support !

  9. Jeroleen Smith Says:

    Hi Billy.

    Could you check my mtdna sequence also? L3*

    My HVR 1 sequence:






    I’d greatly appreciate it !!

    • ቢልልይ ጋምበላ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep ሆተፕ and Shalom ስሃሎም

      Welcome Jeroleen,

      Your sequences for L3* comes very close to L3b and L2a

      Your Number 16223T has relation to East African Haplotypes…

      16278T is related to Central and East African Haplotypes…

      16362C mutation is related to West Asia and Eurasia Haplotypes..

      16519C mutation is related to West Asia and Eurasia Haplotypes..

      16390A is related to South East African Haplotypes..

      Your Haplogroup has relation to various ethnicities from:

      Mozambiquen, Nubian, Kenyans, Somalians, Ethiopians, and Peoples from the Nile Valley...

      I would also like to ask, What company did you use ?, and what was Your assigned Haplogroup ?

      I would also like to know if you have taken a Y-chromosome test and Haplogroup ?

      Lastly, I would like to know what country are you from ?

      I have some genetic citations and reports on the related people mentioned above.

      I will email them today ...

      Thanks for Stopping by..

      P.S. ( how did you find my Blog ? )

      Billy Gambela
      ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

      • Jeroleen Says:

        The company I used to get this data was through National Genographics.
        My assigned Haplogroup is L3.
        I havn’t taken a Y-chromosome or haplogroup test, and I am African-American from the United States.

        I was googling haplogroups and came across your site just by chance.
        Also, thank you very much for the information provided in your e-mail.

        I appreciate it.

  10. Hey Billy!

    L1b in the house! LOL

    I started a Blog, y’all check it out. It’s in the early stages:

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Udo ኡዶ !

      Hey Laura!

      I Love your Blog being that your NigerianIgbo and sharing that Oral Tradition as well as the

      International Experience of our African People is a Beautiful thing.

      I would also like to add

      Haplogroup L1b is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa

      (particularly geographically adjacent areas, connected by the West African coastal pathway)

      As well as some in East, Southeastern, or Southern Africa.

      It is also common in so called African Americans

      (~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

      By contrast, the commoner haplogroup L3b (fig. 8c) is predominantly West African,

      With a substantial representation again in today’s socalled African Americans.

      It has also spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

      Haplogroup L1b motif (sp07) related peoples

      Nigerian Igbo, Mauretanians, Moroccans, Fulani, Limba, Hebrews and Egyptians, as well as people from El Hierro, Gran Canaria etc…

      I look forward to visiting your Blog for upcoming information…

  11. NeferKemet Says:


    How can an “African American” sum up his/her Ancestral Identity,

    When it points to Ethiopian-NubianEgyptianWestern Asian?

    Where would the Point of Origin or Nationality be?

    I would really like to know the answer to this!

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      As Salamm alaykum = ዐስ ሳላአም አላይኩ , Hotep ! = ሆተፕ , Shalom ! = ስሃሎም and Greetings ግረእቲንግስ

      I will Personally answer this Question, Being That i Have Ancestry in the 4 Locations mentioned Above among Others.

      One who is a so called African American Could Have Origins in West Asia From Having a West Asia Origin

      That has Migration into Africa or From Africa migrating to West Asia‘a Middle East

      The Haplogroups L2a1, L3* have an African Origin and West Asia migrations..

      The Haplogroups M1, U are Considered to be Asiatic with Migrations Into Africa from West Asia..

      Now to respectfully answer your inquiry, what would my Origin be under theses circumstances..

      I belong to mtDna Haplogroup L2a1 which has Migrations from Ethiopia, Nubia, Egypt and Yemen @ 33,700 B.P..

      My Father belongs to Haplogroup M2, which has Migrations from Africa to Asia back into Africa Over 30,000 B.P.

      Both of my Haplogroups have an African Origin..

      They Both have the Highest Frequency between Nubia/Egypt..

      Haplogroup L2a1 has 13% Among Ethiopians, 20% Egypt/Nile Valley Nubians and 6% Among Yemenis

      Haplogroup M2 has a frequency of 39.1% in Nubia and 27.3% Egypt and 3.7% in Lebanon, 3.4% Ethiopia and 5% in Oman.

      Both of these Haplogroups are almost Ubiquitous in their Migrations from East to West or North to South…

      With Notable frequencies

      (excerpt from ethiopian mtdna study)

      mtDNA lineages of “Ethiopian, Egyptian, and Yemeni” populations, the MDS plot (fig. 3) Clustered, Together with Egyptians,

      So My Origins in this case is Africa, and my Extended Migrations Includes my Asiatic African Brothers and Sisters..

      (Hebrews, Arabs, the Sabaeans, Yemenis and Omani)

      My Ethnicity would be Asiatic-African and Nationality is Nubian-Egyptian American.

      Note: Nubia’s/Kush or Cush that I belong to shares the Same Genetic Ancestry and Markers

      HVR1– Migration of Haplotypes (sp40 L2a1)

      086C-West Asia/ North Africa

      223T-Eastern Africa

      278T-Central East Africa

      294T- Central Western Africa

      309G- Horn of Africa/North Africa/West Asia

      368C- South West Asia, Asia

      519C – West Asia/North Africa/Eurasia

      HVR2 differences from CRS

      NOTE: MY HV1 AND HV2 sequences are ethnic matches for

      The Mitochondrial Control Region of Nubians, Egyptians and Hebrews

      The Egyptian Population Data set has a Low Random Match Probability..

      The Egyptian Population also shows a Large number of Unique Haplotypes,

      Therefore indicating a High mtDna Diversity within the Country…

      Overall 238 different haplotypes were defined by 228 variable positions.

      Every person Born from 2 Parents, in a sense Inherits 2 Nationalities from 2 Nations; if applicable..

  12. NeferKemet Says:

    Maybe I should pose the question this way.

    If you have ancestry in 4 locations/nations, what nationality would you be?

    Or, what nation/country do you belong to for citizenship?

    I hope this is more clear.

    Thank you!

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      This is the Case for me…

      As for you.. you have to find out what your Origins are

      The African-Asiatic people are so Diverse, only your Hidden Dna can truly tell your Origins

      Whether it Be Africa, Asia, Europe or the Americas...


      Where are you located? What is your Nationality?

      Are you Interested in taking a DNa test?

      I have Plenty of Genetic Studies, and I would love to Interpret your Results.

  13. NeferKemet Says:

    As Salaamu Alaikum,

    Thank you for your Informative responses.

    I am located in the U.S..

    I have just recently taken my DNA tests for my maternal, and paternal line.

    I am waiting for the results as I am writing this (very anxiously waiting).

    I can’t say for sure when I will receive the results. It’s only been a week since I’ve returned the swabs.

    The approximate time for the results to come back, is about 4-6 weeks. 😦

    As soon as the results arrive, I will definitely come here to let you know what they are!

    • Hello Everyone! just a little word of Advice…

      You will Not always be able to put your

      Ethnicity into a neat package, that is okay too.

      As people migrate to Distant lands the Ethnicity of Many Overlap, Sometimes Dramatically, Sometimes Not.

      Such as those who are so-called AfricanAmerican today, might be people from many nations in Africa or Asia..

      (some Originate in the Americas too),

      Then that is Another Story, see the Olmec,

      With DNA testing It is possible to determine what those Ancestral Origins are.

      Even though some of those who were kidnapped from Africa came from Western Africa,

      It does not always mean that is the Ancestral Origins because there was/is migration WITHIN Africa,

      As well OUT of Africa.

      Hope this helps.


      • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Shalom ስሃሎም Shalom ስሃሎም

        Welcome back Sasa !

        I do appreciate your comments, as we both belong to the (sp40) Halpgroup L2a1

        And we both share the same HVRII Coding Region as the Egyptian and Hebrew Population

        (73G, 146C, 152C, 195C, 263G)

        Thank you for your Migrational input and as always Valuable Information…

        In addition you were the very first person to connect with me and to leave me a comment

        That was almost 7 months ago when I first put up my Blog !!

        So thanks for the Saga of Sepharda by Debra Katz and Other articles as well...

        I will continue to give my colloquial interpretations of Our Genetic African-Asiatic Migrations as they become available…..


        The word “Gambella” came from the EthiopianAnuak language, meaning “catching a male tiger with bare hands.”

        Gam means to catch and “bella” means male tiger.

        The “Anuak” are from the family of Nilotes.

        They have lived in the area of the Upper Nile for hundreds of years and consider their land to be their Tribal Land.

        The Anuak are ethnically, culturally, linguistically, historically and religiously different from most other Ethiopians.

        Their indigenous land is totally different from anywhere else in the country in both climate and geography..

        Gambella state (Anyuak country) was situated between

        Southwestern Ethiopia to Pibor River and to the West up to Nyium the present day Nasir in NiloticSudan.


      • NeferKemet Says:

        Greetings Sasa,

        Yes, I do truly understand that we may not be able to package up our diversity so precisely.

        Sometimes I do wonder why I am trying to.

        But, my most important reason for doing this DNA test, is to be able to connect to my true Ancestral Nation or, Nations.

        I honestly don’t believe it began here in America.

        My Grandmother insists that there were No Slaves in our family on My Mother’s side but, I’m not totally convinced of that.

        Although, she can trace the line back to my great, great, great grandmother, which was Not a Slave.

        We cannot be sure if she was a product of a slave.

        So, this is the reason why I feel that I need to take this journey.

        I appreciate your input regarding this issue that most so- called African Americans have.

        I am also well aware of the race and history website 🙂

        I have found that website to be very valuable, and visit there frequently.

        I’m also very pleased to have found a Wonderful Blog here

        With very Informative information,

        And a very helpful person (Billy), and others, to help me along the way!

        Thank you.


      • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Thanks for your kind words Nefer,

        Here is some insight on the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade and mtDna

        My mtDna L2a1 by position 16309 (sp40 motif):(H054 motif)

        is NOT among the mtDna listed..

        There are 27 Haplogroup motifs listed

        From Slavery out of about 114 motifs from Chart on pg.10

        You may find this useful once you have obtained your results..


        The associated mtdna listed below have Origin Dates that

        Pre-dates Columbian America and Slave Trade

        The African-Asiatic People the Homosapien sapien goes back to 174,300 B.P.
        (173,700 ybp before slave trade)

        In Addition only 4.4% of Africans were imported to North America
        ex..united states 2.2 and canada 2.2 combined 4.4%)

        The remaining 93.8% of the Africans were spread through out

        Central and South America including The Caribbean Islands

        Lastly with Europe and surrounding Islands with 1.8% of imported slaves

        Despite widespread public interest and the rapidly growing involvement of

        Private companies in genetic ancestry testing, the only published attempt to date to assign African Geographical

        Ancestry to socalled African American lineages by use of genetic data has been by (Salas et al. 2004).

        This latter work suggested a majority contribution of West Africa to the mtDNA pool of North and Central Americans of recent African descent, with a slightly smaller component from west- central Africa,

        Whereas African Americans from South America (Brazil) reversed the picture, with a largest west- central African component.

        Africa is the most Genetically Diverse Continent

        The African Diaspora:

        Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade

        The 27 mtDNa Haplogroups motifs involved with the Trade

        HVS-I Sequence Motifs Used for Haplogroup Classification
        Haplogroup HVS-I Sequence Motif (np−16,000)

        L1* 187-189-223-278-311
        L0a* 129-148-172-187-188G-189-223-230-311-320
        L0a1 129-148-168-172-187-188G-189-223-230-311-320 (sp02) motif
        L0a2 148-172-187-188G-189-223-230-311-320 (sp05) motif
        L0d 129-187-189-223-230-243-311
        L1b 126-187-189-223-264-270-278-311 (sp07) motif
        L1c* 129-187-189-223-278-294-311-360
        L1c1 129-187-189-223-278-293-294-311-360 (sp27) motif
        L1c2 129-187-189-223-265C-278-286G-294-311-360
        L1c3 129-189-215-223-278-294-311-360
        L1e 129-148-166-187-189-223-311
        L2a 223-278-294-(390) (sp34) motif : (H046) motif
        L2b 114A-129-213-223-278-(390) (sp43) motif : (H069) motif
        L2c 223-278-(390)
        L2d 223-278-(390)-(399)
        L3* 223 (H074) motif
        L3b1 124-223-278-362 (sp49) motif : (H079) motif
        L3d 124-223 (sp54) motif
        L3e1 223-327 (sp56) motif
        L3e1a 185-223-327 (sp59) motif
        L3e1b 223-325D-327 (H103) motif
        L3e2* 223-320 (sp60) motif
        L3e2b 172-189-223-320
        L3e3 223-265T (sp65) motif
        L3e4 223-264
        L3f 209-223-311 (H114) motif
        L3g 223-293T-311-355-362

        Those positions that fall outside the common HVS-I segment used in this article are in parentheses. D = deletion.

        This picture can be quantified by fitting a linear model to the frequency profiles,
        as done by Salas et al. (2004).

        Our analysis (table 2) indicated, as before, that North Africa, East Africa, regions of Southern Africa, and even SouthEastern Africa (Mozambique) show

        No significant contribution to the African American mtDNA pool in the United States.

        Am J Hum Genet. 2004 March; 74(3): 454–465.
        Published online 2004 February 10.
        Copyright © 2004 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

        Excerpt from:
        The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade mtDNA lineages

        Nonetheless, Some Authors Affirm that the Arab Slave Trade of Black Slaves was not the same in total to the Atlantic Slave Trade, and Interestingly Far Longer in the Time Scale.

        It began in the Middle of the Seventh Century (650 A.D.) and Survives still Today in Mauritania and Sudan, Summing up 14 Centuries rather than Four Centuries as for the Atlantic Slave Trade.

        Although estimates are very rough, figures are of 4,820,000 for the Saharan trade between 650 and 1600 A.D., and, for Comparison purposes, of 2,400,000 for the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean trade between 800 and 1600 A.D. Notwithstanding the thousands of kilometers along the edge of the Sahara, the Red sea and the East

        African coast, from where Slave Exports came, there were relatively few export points, concentrating geographically the impact of the trade.

        Black Slaves were brought by Berber and Arab Merchants mainly to actual Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Egypt through six main routes that crossed the desert (Figure ​(Figure1):1):

        (Map of Trans Saharan Slave Routes through North Africa:)

        One went North to Morocco from ancient Ghana (at present southeastern Mauritania and Western Mali); a second brought slaves to Tuwat (southern Algeria) from ancient Timbutku (Mali);

        A Third passed from the Niger Valley and the Hausa Towns through the Air Massif to Ghat and Ghadames;

        A Central route linked Lake Chad region to actual Libya (Murzuk), being one of the most important in slave commerce as it offered oases at regular intervals that could satisfy the caravan’s needs; in East Africa, the slave caravan followed mainly the Nile River from actual Sudan (Dar Fur) to Egypt (Assiout);

        And a Sixth passed North from the confluence of the Blue and the White Nile to Egypt.

        Some of these Routes were Interconnected: the Routes North from Timbuktu went to Morocco, Algeria, and Libya; while the Dar FurEgypt Route connected with the route North from the Upper Nile Valley.

        {Haplotypes (for HVRI, HVRII ) in El Jadida and Neighboring Populations} populations

  14. NeferKemet Says:

    Thank you for this information. It will definitely be helpful once I receive my results.

    • Greetings,

      I have just re-read this study, and have not found my mtdna haplgroup listed in this study. You told me my motif was (sp37). What does this mean if my haplogroup and motif is not included in this study?

      From Slavery out of about 114 motifs from Chart on pg.10

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Welcome Back Nefer,

        The study that i was referring to was the Brasil Study which shows the related ethnic groups to your motif. You will find this motif listed under sp37 L2a1a, though this is not your exact motif, you share relation to this haplogroup L2a1a.

        The other study that i mentioned was the The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Your exact motif is not listed in this study as well. Your HVR1 haplogroup matches sp37 with the exception of your mutation/marker 16519C, which is often excluded from HVR sequences as insignificant.

        This means that your Haplogroup does not fit for an exact match for SP37, yet still could be relative as far as the related ethnicities and Haplogroup.


        Brasil Study of mtdna Haplgroups and Ethnic Groups:

        The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade (see table 1 pg.3)

        Hope this answers your questions..

      • Hmmmm…Ok,
        I wonder how do I find my motif, and why 16519C would be considered insignificant.

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Dear Nefer,

        Let me be unequivocally clear, You may not find your exact motif, until more peer reviewed mtdna studies are available, or until additional African-Asiatic mtDna Databases are constructed.

        You should not be discouraged by this, most Americans of African-Asiatic descent only matches about 50% of Africans from African ethnic groups mtDna Databases.. However, the finding that 40% of the African-American mtDNAs analyzed had No Match in the Database indicates that only a small fraction of the total number of African Haplotypes has been Identified

        In addition, the finding that fewer than 10% of African-American mtDNAs matched mtDNA sequences from a single African region suggests that few African Americans might be able to trace their mtDNA lineages to a particular region of Africa, and even fewer will be able to trace their mtDNA to a (single ethnic group).

        However, no firm conclusions should be made until a much larger Database is available.

        As for the statement i made about the Mutation 16519C, which i share as well, this
        is from the 2011 Haplogroup L Phlyotree by Dr Van Mannis and it reads as follows for the following mutations:

        Mutation motifs in italic are preliminary and are likely to be further refined as additional sequences become available.

        The mutations 309.1C(C), 315.1C, 523-524d (aka 522-523d), 16182C, 16183C, 16193.1C(C) and 16519 were not considered for phylogenetic reconstruction and are therefore excluded from the Tree.

        Many authors (Finnila 2001, Kivisild 2002, Macauley 1999) have explicitly ignored this locus, sometimes sounding mildly vexed when they could construct a network diagram “free of reticulations” only when 16519C was excluded (Maca- Meyer 2001).

        Later studies confirmed the ubiquitous appearance of 16519C in additional populations, intruding on multiple branches of phylogenetic trees for African and Asian samples
        (Allard 2004, Allard 2005).


        Haplogroup L Phylotree:

        The Case of the Ubiquitous 16519C:

        African-American mtDNAs found in African ethnic groups:

        Hope you find these citations, advantageous to your inquiries..

  15. My MtDNA Haplogroup is L3f.

    I keep hearing that it ir rare for African Americans to have this Haplogroup.

    Could you help me?

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep ! = ሆተፕ , Shalom ! = ስሃሎም and Greetings Jamal

      Both L3f and L3g are rare and also appear to have an East African origin.

      L3f* and L3g are virtually restricted to East Africa

      (with some dispersal into Central Africa, Southeastern Africa, and the Near East).

      The subclade L3f1 appears to have spread at an early date into West Africa and is

      Correspondingly also better represented in African Americans.

      To be absolute sure of this migration, I would have to see you HVR1/and or HV2 sequences.

      It would give me further information as to your Haplogroups motif as well as the Ethnic groups involved..

      P.S. what genetic company did you use for your results?


    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Welcome back Jamal

      Your HVR1 Sequences comes very close to L3f1

      via position 16292T (H115) motif (sp.66,68) motif

      Haplogroup L3f/L3f1 shows relation to following people:

      Bantus from Mozambique, Cabinda from Angola as well as the Mende/Sierra leone

      This subclade also shares genetic ancestry with the Turkana people from Eastern Kenya.

      Though this clade has a strong Southeastern affiliation,

      There may be smaller percentages of L3f in Ethiopia, Egypt/Nile Valley..

      (chart is on page 5, click counter-clock wise to view)

  16. NeferKemt Says:

    Greetings Billy!

    I was wondering why you don’t add the West into your ethnicity.

    It shows origin/and or, migration in the West on your Map?

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Greetings Nefer!

      I beg to differ, I unequivocally stated my Ethnicity as Asiatic-African,

      Which includes by the way, West Africa and West Asia among others..

      (FYI) i colored the map myself)…

      North Africans which are Saharans, were and are still called Asiatics.

      The Map shows the regional migrations based on My Haplogroup.

      This particular group is Haplotype motif L2a1 (sp40) Which is North African Saharan..

      According to mtdna North Africans cluster with West Africans and the

      Egyptians cluster with Ethiopians/Nubians and Yeminis

      I have already stated the diversity of my Haplogroup L2a1 (sp40).

      See my prior comments on this page to another individual who also belongs

      to L2a1, However does not share my HV1 nor my Haplotype motif.

      See comments Dec. 6 2009 3:39 p.m. @ Jiveoree who is also L2a1 (sp36)

      Also see my prior comments to (You) Dec. 11, 2009 12:46 p.m. where

      I explained My HVS1 migration markers in addition to the Highest Frequencies

      Among Nubians and Ethiopians and Yemenis as well as others.

      There is plenty of information about my

      Family, Geneology, ABO (bloodtype) and Dna and Nationality (jus sangunis/jus soli) etc…

      Please have a TOUR of the BLOG and READ

      There are 34 articles and 142 comments…

      As well as Citations to substantiate my findings….


  17. NeferKemet Says:

    I’m sorry I asked.

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hello Nefer!

      Do not take my Words Offensively.

      Do not be Sorry, Be Patient..

      I have been doing Geneology and Ancestry for over six years…

      Though, I have known my results for a short time, i have done

      Extensive research in this field and Anthropology itself..

      Once you have obtained your personal DNA results,

      You may begin this Path, that i continue as well...

      Best of luck..

  18. Hi Billy:

    Laura suggested I check out your Blog.

    I have been able to test for two maternal lines.

    My own L1c* with additional mutations at 086C, 311C and 519C and my paternal grandmother’s L2a which is 223T, 278T, 294T, 309G, 390A and 519C.

    I tested with two different companies and have spent time in East Africa which feels

    Very” familiar to me but I am still looking for more information.

    Can you shed any light on these mutations?


    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hello Dee, Welcome and Thanks for stopping by..

      Your Haplogroup L1c* is less starlike than L1a and L1b,

      With three major well-defined subclades and high internal diversity.

      The Geographic Distribution of L1c is “Especially Interesting”.

      More than one-third of L1c haplotypes in our database belong to so called

      African Americans, and few of them show matches with Continental Africans”.

      The Great majority of the remainder of L1c comes from Central Africans, with a few in the West and the Southeast.

      There are Virtually None in the East or South; of the “Pygmy” groups sampled, only the western group (the Biaka) have L1c.

      Representatives in West Africa are restricted to two derived subclades, suggesting an expansion westwards relatively late in the evolution of the haplogroup.

      It is notable, however, that the SouthEastern representatives tend to be most closely related to

      Central African types and include types in clusters not present in West Africa.

      Haplogroup L1c* shows relations to the following African Groups:

      Mozambique 5%, Egypt 1%, Cabo Verde 7%, Senegal 5%, Niger/Nigeria 3%,

      Fulani 6% , Moroccan Arabs/Berbers 2% and the Biaka pygmies as well..

      Your Haplgroup L1c* comes very close to L1c1 which has 086C as well,

      And has notable frequencies in North Africa Tunisia…

      Your mutation 086C is found in North Africa-West Asia and Europe.

      Your mutation 311C is found in North Africans and West Africans..

      Your mutation 519C is found North Africa-West Asia and Europe..


      Your Paternal Grandmothers L2a is a match for L2a1 (sp40/H054) motif which is prevalent in North Africa,
      East Africa and West Africa. barely in the South..

      We also assume that position 16309 is more stable than the two known fast sites and therefore is not responsible for the main reticulations.

      On these grounds, clusters α1-α2-α3, as well as β1-β2-β3, might be collapsed into two main clusters, one of them with the basal motif of “(L2a)” and the other harboring the transition at “16309G″ (L2a1).

      Haplgroup L2a has the highest 20% frequency collectively in Egypt 5%, Nile Valley 15% (Krings.1999), and 13% among Ethiopians.(Salas 2002)

      L2a is 33% Mozambique and (49%) MtDna collectively in,
      Sudan/Kenya, Nile-Valley, Ethiopia, Nubia and Egypt…

      (From the White Nile to the Blue Nile, The Nile Valley Civilizations).

      Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North Central Africa,

      Has notable frequencies among Algerian Arabs 14%/Berber 3%, Moroccan Arabs 5% and Moroccan Berbers 5% as well as Tunisia Berbers and Hebrews.

      Haplogroup L2a is the most common and widely distributed Sub and Supra Saharan Africans.

      Lastly Haplogroup L2a and is also frequent in the Americas (~19%).

      I hope you find this information useful….


  19. Thank you Very Much!

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Not a Problem, Dee!

      Email me if you have any questions about the Studies..

      • I did some additional testing with FTDNA and I think that part of the family may be Mandenka.

      • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Welcome back Dee!

        What kind of additional testing did you use with FTDNA and what was the outcome?

        As i mentioned previously, your haplogroup belongs to L1c, however it comes very close to L1c1 which is common among the Sahara and parts of North Africa.

        (FGS test would determine this subclade)

        This would be very plausible for the Mandenka, Mandingo, Mandinka or Malinke as well,

        The Mandinka in turn belong to West Africa’s largest ethno-linguistic group, the Mandé, who account for more than twenty million people

        (including the Dyula, Bozo, Bissa and Bambara).

        Today, over 99% of Mandinka in Africa are Muslim.

        The Mandinka live primarily in West Africa, particularly in

        The Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Guinea Bissau, Niger, Mauritania and even small communities in the central African nation of Chad.

        Although widespread, the Mandinka do not form the largest ethnic group in any of the countries in which they live except The Gambia.

        Between the 10th and 15th century a migration of Hamitic-Sudanese people from the Nile River Valley arrived and then settled and intermingled with the Mandinka.

        In 1235, Sundiata founded the Empire of Mali. Between 1312 and 1337,
        Mali reached its greatest prominence during the reign of Mansa Musa.

        By the end of the 1700s, 18th century the western savanna was colonized by the French, British, and Portuguese.


        Kingdoms of Senegambia

        Mandinka-Hamites from the New International Encyclopedia

        The Mandinka Legacy in the New World

        Mandingo, Mandinka, Malinke’ of West Africa Kingdoms

        The Study of Haplogroup L1c with Mitochondria

        Thanks for sharing your results..

    • I did the Family Finder test because I was unable to get any males on the paternal side to test. I do not know all the populations they have in the FTDNA database but the info showed a 100% match with Mandenka and Yoruba. African Ancestry already identied my mtDNA as Yoruba so I am assuming the Mandenka is the paternal side.

      I also read on the pilgrimages the Mande made to Mecca and other groups they may have incorporated so it makes sense.

      • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Thats Great News! Thanks for sharing your information!

      • No problem! The maternal side is L1c/Yoruba. Perhaps that paternal grandmother would be included with the Mandenka. She was the L2a.

      • Just received some updated matches on my Paternal Grandmother (L2a). The subjects were tested in Senegal and there were 8 matches out of 157 people. 2 of unknown origin, 2 Somali, 2 Wolof, 1 Taureg and 1 Mandenka.

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Welcome Back Dee! Congratulations on your most recent findings… Your matches confirms the ethnic groups that would fall under Haplogroup L2a1.
        L2a and L2a1 have notable frequencies in North Africa from East to West as well as East Africa. I still truly believe that you belong to L2a1 by the marker 16309G.

  20. yolanda banks Says:

    This is fascinating!

    I especially was interested in the Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity.

    Trans-Atlantic Slave Imports by Region and The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape,

    That has always been my belief that humans originated in Africa.

    All though, I have only read up to page 7,

    I will continue to chip away each day,

    I have not fully come to comprehend all of the codes and HVS-I Sequence Motifs Used for Haplogroup Classifications,

    But i am absolutely sure that you would help me to understand this anthropology.

    This is a Great Blog and Fully Informational, it broadens the mind towards a curiosity.

    This is not my first time visiting your site, you have posted it before.

    I would like to thank you Mr. Gamble for sharing your Insights and Sharing apart of Your History with me.

  21. I just happened upon your website;

    I was trying to find out what my father’s DNA report means.
    Do you folks deal with that?

    I thank you for your reply.

    Paula Watts

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hello Paula,

      I would love to assist you...

      First may i ask which test did your Father have?

      mtdna or y-chromosomes

      The Full mtdna test is a FGS (full genome sequence) Final test

      The Y-chromosome offer 12, 25, 37 and 67 marker test…

      I would also like to ask your current country/location or origins?

      Also which company did you use to administer these test?

  22. Zadina Kadima Says:


    I wanted to know if you could help me explain my Haplogroup of L3g from my mtDNA Test from

    Family Tree DNA.

    1st Segment:
    16093G, 16223T, 16287A, 16293T, 16301T, 16311C, 16355T, 16362C, 16399G

    2nd Segment:
    73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 195C, 200G, 244G, 263G, 315.1C. 513A

    Thank you in advance!

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Thanks for Stopping by Zadina!

      Your Haplogroup L3g has TMRCA date 45,100 ybp (12,500) and it derives from the L3A Lineages remaining within L3* and represents ~20% of all L3A types in Africa.

      We here define three sublineages of L3g: L3g1, characterized by 16051-16114-16189-16316;

      L3g2, characterized by 16093G16287A

      And L3g3, which lacks transition 16355 from the root.

      Although they are distributed throughout the continent, they reach the highest frequencies in East Africa, where they account for about Half of all types from this region.

      This frequency profile suggests an
      Origin for L3 in East Africa (Watson et al. 1997).

      This is supported by the evidence that the out-of-Africa migration, which took place from a source in East Africa 60,000–80,000 years ago, gave rise only to L3 lineages outside Africa.

      Both L3f (fig. 8a) and L3g (fig. 8b) are rare and also appear to have an East African Origin.

      L3f* and L3g are virtually restricted to East Africa

      (with some dispersal into Central Africa, southeastern Africa, and the Near East).

      The subclade L3f1 appears to have spread at an early date into West Africa

      and is correspondingly also better represented in so called African Americans.

      Of particular interest is the fact that, as noted above, the small Hadza sample from Tanzania are largely L3g, with a small fraction of L2:

      they entirely lack the Khoisan-diagnostic L1d and L1k lineages.

      Also, Dr. Salas et al. (2002, 2004)

      Called attention to the presence of the haplogroup L3g—which they had

      Only encountered in Eastern African populations—in three Brazilians

      (among the 92 African mtDNA haplotypes that were characterized),

      One Colombian, and One socalled African American individual.

      Intrigued by this proposal, we tried to identify historical evidence of direct slave trade from eastern Africa to Brazil and,

      Indeed, found some anecdotal reports but certainly Not enough to explain the significant frequency of L3g seen among African mtDNA haplogroups in Brazil..

      Median network of 20 different L3g lineages identified in populations from Africa and the Americas:

      Sudanese individual by Salas et al. (2002) Nubians (Krings et al. 1999);

      Ethiopians, Colombians, and African Americans (Salas et al. 2002);

      Hadzas (Vigilant et al. 1991); Turkanans (Watson et al. 1997);

      (Destro-Bisol et al. 2004); Bakaka, Bassa, Daba, Falis, Podowkos,and Mandara

      Brazilian whites (Alves-Silva et al. 2000); Brazilian blacks (Bortolini et al. 1997); and Camaroonese (present study)
      PUERTO RICO mtDNA PHYLOGEOGRAPHY ( citation below)

      After having a second look at your HVR1 sequences,

      You may be a likely candidate for Haplogroup L3g2,
      Hope you find this useful..

      May i ask your country of origin and if you have taken an FGS or YChromosome test for the Paternal side?

      • I am so grateful to have found your Blog!

        As I tested my FGS about 2 years ago on FTDNA, and have received only one match in that time, and no substantive answers from my inquiries about what seems to be a fairly rare HVR1:

        16304C, and specifically, 16316G, that seems to be a very infrequent mutation according to what I have been told until your answer here which was picked up on a “Google Search” for “16316 and L2 hgs for Lemba, Khoisan, and Bantu” which I recently dug up on my own.

        Can you please expand on your answer about 16316G and why it falls into L3g1 rather than L2etc. Are you suggesting Hadza, especially since I have Sephardic and Ashkenazi markers as well?

        Your help is Appreciated

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Welcome Shana!

        Thanks for sharing your information from your FGS.

        I must express that this information is regarding L3, L3g, L3g1 and L2..
        Comparable analysis can be done, once your sequence is compared to subject matter at hand…

        Haplogroup L2 is defined by the following mutations:
        HVR1: 16294, 16311!, 16390 and HVR2 and Coding region: 146, 150, 152, 2416, 8206, 9221, 10115, 13590,

        Haplogroup L3 is defined by these markers: Defining mutations 16311, 769, 1018,
        L3g1 HVR1: 16051-16114-16189-16316

        Haplogroup L2 gives rise to/or shares mutation 16311 and sometimes 16223 with Haplogroup L3, both of these groups shares ancestry with Hazda which is heavily associated with Haplogroup L3g.

        Excerpt from: Salas et al. (2002)

        This particular combination of HVS-I mutations of 16223-16293T-16311-16355-16362, recently described by Salas et al. (2002) as a Haplogroup L3g motif, shows an almost exclusively East African distribution and a coalescent time of 40,400 years 􏰁 an SE of 12,600 in Ethiopians (table 3).

        This motif, together with two characteristic mutations at nps 146 and 244 from HVS- II, has been found at its Highest frequency (52%) in the Hadza population from Tanzania, but without any Haplotype diversity (h p 0; n p 19) (Vigilant et al. 1991; Knight et al. 2003).

        In contrast, highly diverse Ethiopian sequences (table 3) with the combined L3g HVS-I and HVS-II motifs share the ancestral character states, at nps 769 and 1018, with haplogroup L4a and are derived at five other positions that distinguish L3 from L2….

        Also, Salas et al. (2002, 2004) called attention to the presence of the Haplogroup L3g—which they had only encountered in Eastern African populations—in Three Brazilians (among the 92 African mtDNA haplotypes that were characterized), One Colombian, and One African American individual…

        On the basis of this observation, they proposed the occurrence of either Direct Slave Trade from Eastern Africa to America or hitherto undetected gene flow from Eastern Africa into Western or SouthEastern Africa and then into America

        Intrigued by this proposal, we tried to identify Historical Evidence of Direct Slave Trade from Eastern Africa to Brazil and, indeed, found some anecdotal reports but certainly Not enough to explain the significant frequency of L3g seen among African mtDNA Haplogroups in Brazil (proportion, 3.3%; 95% CI, 0.7%–9.2%). We then tried to identify other potential sources for the Brazilian L3g mtDNAs.

        Before i conclude on my findings, I must see your HVR1 and HVR2 for L3g1 comparative information..

        Also may i ask, whom was the group found from FTDNA that you have a match with?

        Haplogroup Chart/Phylotree of Haplogroup L

        Phylogeography of Haplogroup L3g in Africa/the Atlantic Slave Trade:

        Wikipedia Haplogroup L2:

        Wikipedia Haplogroup L3:

  23. Dear NeferKemet,

    Sorry for responding so late.

    Dr. Ivan Van Sertima (They Came Before Columbus) and many of his contemporaries have given us abundant resources that prove that we were here long before the Enslavement of People from Africa,

    It is my personal opinion that is why many of us who have DNA of East African/Asian origins ,

    When if you consider that Haplogroup L2a,

    A East African type is the most frequent in the Americas @~19% (salas 2002)

    Any person of Non-European appearance could be subjected to forced enslavement in this county but are we to believe that they were able to do this with such thoroughness?

    There were socalled Black people who lived away from the reach of those who would Enslave them such as the Seminole of Florida, and many other Undocumented persons that our children will never see in the History Books of the Enslavers.

    We have been given the mind set that the states were so well managed that no person of color could not be enslaved but can that past the test of scrutiny given the sheer size and magnitude of enforcing such a vast region?

    This is my Favorite Blog and I refer to it often,

    Billy is a fantastic researcher and has the ability to merge the science of DNA with a human hand in a way that is rare for this area of study.

    Much success to you in your journey.


  24. NeferKemet Says:

    Greetings Sasa,

    Thank you for this information!

    This new information will definitely help in my quest of knowledge, and truth.

    I am currently reading Ivan Sertima’sGolden Age of the Moor”, due to me having been confirmed from my mtDNA results as being from the Mande peoples on my maternal side (East African/Asian origin).

    The book is very interesting in the documentation of these peoples, their origins, and migrations.

    I have also found out from paternal side that we are related to the Balante peoples of Guinea Bissau,

    And they state that their origins are from Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia.

    I originally tested with African Ancestry for the above results, and their results were Not what I expected.

    They did Not provide extensive results for me, and was Not Worth the amount of money I paid.

    They do Not provide Haplogroups or HVR Sequences, and that is what I thought I would get.
    Instead, they claim that they can link you with a “Tribe” within “Africa“.

    This is Not True, and also Not an accurate way of trying to find one’s Origins.

    I have since ordered New DNA tests, that are more extensive from FamilyTree DNA for a Full Genome Sequence test for both maternal, and paternal.

    It’s been 3 months now so far, and they have just put the expected date time at a later date for June.

    I have yet to read, “They Came Before Columbus” but, hopefully I will get the opportunity to read that piece of work as well.

    I honestly believe that there were other non-European peoples here other than the socalled “Native Americans“.

    I am a constant truthseeker, and still continue with my journey of getting to know myself.

    It has been a very enlightening experience thus far, I am also grateful that I have found this Blog.

    Billy has been very informative in providing unanswered questions I’ve been seeking.

    Thanks again for your response.


  25. African Ancestry took a lot of Heat from the other Dna testing companies,

    Because of their telling their clients they were from (generally) one tribal nation,

    Now most of the other Genetic testing companies are doing exactly the same thing.

    I read recently that they (African Ancestry) did that because it was their best “guess” and now they are providing additional possibilities in the results if they warrant it.

    I read into the message that they thought it was too complicated for the average person to decipher,
    I don’t know, maybe I misunderstood.

    It is so much more interesting to do my own research, I have learned a lot.

    I did not test with African Ancestry,

    I tested with FamilyTreeDNA and their Service was Horrible, the Wait was Extremely Long !!!

    And I am wondering how they intend to provide the ancestral nation to their clients when right now the only feedback in that regard I have is what other members say is their Ancestral Nation.

    The reason I know that is where they get the information is that one of my matches is with an elderly lady whose paternal line is from Sweden, she accidentally put that on her maternal line (the line we share), so now it looks as if I have links to Sweden, lol.

    Dr. Van Sertima had a number of videos on Youtube,

    Do a search there, look for S.O.Y. Keita videos, also search this site for his references.

    The only other thing I would add is that there seems to be an effort to link

    All Socalled African Americans to West African Ancestry only.

    Therefore only associating any movement, Out of Africa with the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

    There are and were Great Civilizations that come from Western Africa and my intent is not to slight those in any way

    But to argue that our lineage is more than where some of us arrived (including West Africa/America),

    We had a point of Origin, a Motherland within the Motherland if you will:)
    And we must take ownership of it as well.

    The same with Northern Africa, it also is Our Land and our Relationship with those Indigenous people are as valid as those here in the United States.

    So much contaminated information that we need to sort through and we will🙂

    Just thought about Basil Davison, you should be able to find him on Youtube and he has Several Books.


    • NeferKemet Says:

      Greetings again Sasa,

      I was expecting my results within 2 months from FamilyTree DNA, and now it is going on 4 months.
      I am very Disappointed about this.

      The Target Date was Pushed Back several times, i find this Very Disturbing,,

      I have emailed FTDNA regarding the delay, and I have received No response from them.

      I too have also noticed that there has been an effort to link so called African Americans to West Africa,
      And we know this is Not true.

      I am looking for my Point of Origin, and I know that it was Not in West Africa.
      I understand that the DNA testing companies are testing individuals in their most current country, and it seems that they are not taking into account regarding the migrations of people within “Africa”.

      I don’t approve of African Ancestry’s so called ability to link an individual to One Tribe of People within “Africa”.

      I am very familiar with S.O.Y. Keita videos, and have watched them with an open mind.
      I did find his videos informative but, I would like to learn more.

      I haven’t heard of Basil Davison, and I will look him up now.

      Thanks again for your response


  26. NeferKemet Says:

    I have just found Basil Davidson.
    I do recall viewing his videos not too long ago on YouTube.
    He is also very informative!

  27. Hotep Hotep Hotep.

    This is a Great Blog!
    Could you send me an Email,
    I wanted to make a request for a few photographic sources I saw on your blog.

    kindest regards,

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep Alex !

      I Appreciate your Positive Comments..
      I can send you Emails Automatically,
      Once you Subscribe to my Blogs E-Mail List..

      Look forward to sharing valuable information with you..

      Thanks Again...

  28. NeferKemet Says:


    I have finally received my results from FamilyTree DNA.

    I am very upset with African Ancestry, and their
    False misleading Results, that i have received from them.

    I have found matches with Mozambique, Yemen, and Pakistan.

    Here are my FGS results from FamilyTree DNA:

    Haplogroup L2a1a

    HVR1 differences from CRS


    HVR2 differences from CRS

    Differences from CRS

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Greetings Nefer! Welcome back…

      Congratulations! Your results show you are related to the L2a1 Family...

      There are two L2a clusters well represented in southeastern Africans, L2a1a and L2a1b,

      Both defined by transitions at quite stable HVS-I positions.

      Both of these appear to have an origin in West Africa or North West Africa

      (as indicated by the distribution of matching or neighboring types), The Maure, Bamabara, Yoruba etc..

      And to have undergone Dramatic Expansion either in southeastern Africa or in a population Ancestral to present-day Southeastern Africans.

      The very recent starbursts in subclades L2a1a and L2a2 suggest a signature for the

      Bantu expansions, as also suggested by Pereira et al. (2001).

      L2a1, defined by the mutation at np 12693, includes two further minor subclades:

      L2a1a, as defined by a substitution at np 16286 (Salas et al. 2002),
      Is now supported by a coding-region marker (np 3918) (fig. 2A)
      and was found in four of Six Yemeni L2a1 lineages.


      Your Haplogroup has been updated to Haplogroup L2a1a2 by position 16286C,

      According to the Mannis (2009) Updated – mtDNA subtree L
      Citation: van Oven M, Kayser M. 2009.
      Updated Comprehensive Phylogenetic Tree of Global Human Mitochondrial DNA Variation.
      Hum Mutat 30(2):E386-E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921

      However even with this Conclusive information it should be noted that
      FTDNA does not acknowledge this updated phylotree that has been broken down into 4 groups:

      L2a1a, Code region: 3918 5285 15244 15629

      L2a1a2, Control region hvr1: 16286

      L2a1a2a, Code region: 10454

      L2a12a1, Code region: 15211 15421

      (also keep in mind, there are no reported citations or journals on the newly L2a1a2)

      L2a1a occurs at its highest frequency in South Eastern Africa (Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

      Both the frequent founder haplotype and derived lineages (with 16092 mutation) found among Yemenis have exact matches within Mozambique sequences (Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

      This Solidifies your South East and South West Asia Migrations, from Yemen to Mozambique. or vice versa..

      In Addition your Haplotype 223 268 278 294 309 (sp37) is shared among:

      Mbundu, Cabinda, Hide, Futa Fula, Papel, Bantu-Mozambique,

      Chwabo, Makonde, Ndau, Nyanja, Nyungwe,

      Ronga, Sena, Shona, Tswa, Songhai,

      Tongas, Bambara, Mende, etc..

      SEE REPORTS and CITATIONS below:

      Mtdna Control Regions for L2a1a (sp37) report via Brasil.

      mtDna Citations for North West Saharans Mali and Mauritania

      Ethiopian mtdna Report for L2a1a in Mozambique and Yemen

      Haplogroup mtdna L2 In Southwest Asia/ Yemen/ Oman

      Haplogroup mtdna L in the Arabian Peninsula

      Gullah- Geechee Population In North West Africa:

      My Updated Edited Version of Wiki’s Haplogroup L2
      (P.S. These Wiki Articles on Haplogroup L was Edited and Updated by Myself, View the History Tab) 🙂

      Yemenis article from my Blog:

      I Hope you find this information useful...

      • NeferKemet Says:

        Thank you for this information. What would be my ethnicity and nationality?

      • (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Hello Nefer,

        I am sure you are very excited about your results!! and you very well Should! 🙂

        But please try to overstand and Let me be unequivocally clear,

        I Do Not Claim Anyones Nationality by mtdna or Y-dna, aside from My Own Personal Haplotypes from Research..

        I try to Supply as much Data on the Specific mtdna Control Regions, and or Citations, Studies, to Guide the individuals along the way…

        However if you remember our Prior Conversation,

        I concluded that you would have to,

        One…. have your FGS mtdna which is

        L2a1a and your Y-Chromosome 67 Marker snp test, for definitive Haplogroup.

        Secondly…. You would have to do a Comparative Search and

        Find any Matches to your HVR1/HVR2 and FGS sequences or 67 Y- chromo Markers..

        You can try Public Dna Databases, as well as the Genetic Studies just as I have

        Or from your Own Personal Research and Studies, that may have Control Regions HVR1/HVR2 and Code Regions FGS..

        I leave that Responsibility Totally with the Person who is doing His/Her Research...

        Keep in mind you may be part of a Pastoralist African-Asiatic Group who are Not Sedentary, and may have Ancestry in more than one Country,

        Due to Recent and Archaic Migrations:

        ex. Out of Africa Migrations, Nomadic migrations, Climatic Conditions, Hebrew persecution, Arabian Slave Trade, Colonial Wars, Diaspora etc..

        And/Or Climatic Changes:

        ex. during the Holocene era 12,000 B.P. in Northern Africa, or during the Mousterian Pluvial Period 20-30, 000 B.P…

        {Another example would be the Fulani who are Nomadic and are found from the Western Sahara to the Eastern Sudan}

        You also mentioned that You have already Found matches in Mozambique and Yemen,

        Let me ask you which group in Mozambique or Yemen did you find your match upon:

        a). Yemen ethnicities:Yemenis Hebrews, Arabs, Himyarites
        b). Mozambique ethnic Groups: Shangaan, Bantu, Shona ?

        I also found HVR1 matches of L2a1a in

        North West Africa:

        1. Mauritania (maure)
        2. Mali (malinke and Bambara)
        3. Niger (yoruba)

        There are South-East African Hebrew Africans from Mozambique all the way to Yemen,

        There are also Moorish AsiaticAfricans who at one time and Still inhabit North West Africa, Mauritania, Morocco, Mali, Niger etc..

        Excerpt from: pg.187 Ivan Van Sertima “Golden Age of The Moor”

        “It significant to note that the term “Moabitarum” is used by medieval-era European Writers to describe the
        Moorish inhabitants of North West Africa or Mauritania

        If you have already found an Exact Matches
        (yemen, mozambique, pakistan)
        you can choose either Country with the Addition to your

        Paternal Y-Chromsomes matches while considering his matches may come up in more than One Country..

        The Studies, i previously presented shows your relations to the Population of Mali, Mauritania, and Niger,

        However upon having a closer look,

        Your HVR1 sequences are a match, But your HVR2 Does Not, which means its Relative, But Not a Perfect Match as far as Recent Ancestry,

        Also the study they did not Display the Full FGS for L2a1a to do a full comparative analysis …

        I am not at Liberty to Claim which Country you should claim over the Other,

        That my friend is a Choice that’s Entirely up to You, and how You Equate your Newfound Ancestry..

        As far as your Ethnicity on your Matrilineal Side you would be 100% Asiatic-African having

        Ancestry in North-West Africa, South-East Africa and South-West Asia.

        Once you have Both Parents, Your Y-Dna on your Paternal side should be included as well...

        Best of wishes with your research!

      • NeferKemet Says:


        I just came back to your website, and noticed this:


        Your Haplogroup has been updated to Haplogroup L2a1a2 by position 16286C,

        (also keep in mind, there are no reported citations or journals on the newly L2a1a2)

        I didn’t see this before in your first response nor, have I ever heard about this elsewhere.

        What does this mean?

        Based on my results, what is my Mitochondrial Control Region?

      • (Billy Gambela) Says:

        This means as of 2007-2009 they have broken down the Haplogroup L Family into more distinctive subclades..

        Excerpt from :

        Updated Comprehensive Phylogenetic Tree of Global Human Mitochondrial DNA Variation by Mannis van Oven* and Manfred Kayser

        Recently, a global mtDNA phylogeny based on 2959 coding region sequences was published as part of the MITOMAP database
        (Ruiz-Pesini et al., 2007).

        However, this tree does not include the commonly used control region mutations and does not contain a detailed Haplogroup nomenclature.

        Moreover, the MITOMAP tree must be considered Outdated by now since many complete mtDNA sequences that have considerably improved the resolution to the mtDNA phylogeny became available only after its publication.

        For instance, Behar et al. (2008b) recently reported 309 complete mtDNA sequences that

        (combined with 315 previously published sequences)

        Greatly increased the Resolution of Haplogroup L

        At present (August 27, 2008), 4198 complete mtDNA genome sequences and additional 945 separate coding region sequences are available via the NCBI GenBank database


        This means your Haplogroup has been broken down in 4 parts since 2002.

        Dr. Salas in 2002 assigned your haplotype 16286 to L2a1a and since then the Coding region 3918 supported this subclade,

        However in 2008 it was divided to 2 more subclades, Let me start from here:

        L2a1, defined by the mutation at np 12693,

        L2a1a, Code region: 3918 5285 15244 15629

        L2a1a2, Control region HVR1: 16286

        L2a1a2a, Code region: 10454

        L2a12a1, Code region: 15211 15421

        Since you have the 3918a (coding region) and 16286 (control region),

        You most likely belong to the new Subclade, L2a1a2

        However FTDNA does not recognize the Updated 2009-2010 Nomenclatures..

        For now, you will have to follow the studies and reports on L2a1a, as these new subclades

        Do not have published journals concerning origin and distribution at this time…

        I just wanted to bring this to your attention, as the more studies are done, we will have more Information.

        New recently reported 309 complete mtDNA that has increased the resolution of the Haplogroup L Family.
        (Behar et al. (2008b)

        Dr. Behar is a part of FTDNA Genetic Team and is mentioned in this Updated Report.

        Even with this being said FTDNA has Not Updated MITOMAP or their Mutation Chart,

        And does not recognize Mannis Van Oven’s New Phylo-Tree at this time, perhaps in the near future, they will..

        Your Control Region is your HVR1 and HVR2 sequence, (ex. 16286C )

        Your Coding region are the sequences that make up your FGS (ex. 3918)

        Together these factors determines your newly updated Haplotype.

        (in closing just be on the look out for new data on L2a1a and L2a1a2 your likely subclade)

  29. NeferKemet Says:


    I believe in Yemen, it is the Himyarites that I am related to.

    In Mozambique I have a match with someone who is Tswa that shares my haplogroup.

    I thought that I would have some Nubian, Ethiopian or Egyptian ancestry as well but,

    I don’t know how to find this out.

    I appreciate your help, and I suppose my journey is not completely over.

    I am also currently waiting for the New Paternal results to come back from FamilyTree DNA.

    There is a book by Tariq Berry called, “The Unknown Arabs“, that explains in depth of the Arabs of Mozambique (Moorish Arabs), and their relation of having Yemeni, and Meccan origins
    (The Arabs in East Africa, pg. 133).

    Very interesting book, have you read it?

    Also, the book states the Arab origins of

    Northwest Africa in Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Songhai, Yoruba, the Sahara, etc.

    All which, You have also said I have ties with!

    I didn’t believe this information at first but,

    now since I have had my DNA tests done again with more extensive detail,

    I am now accepting most of these facts from the book about my origins.

    I was misinformed from the results I received from African Ancestry, and do not recommend them whatsoever for deterimining DNA results of ancestry.

    If you have any more information to provide, I will gladly appreciate it.

    Thank you so much for your helping me sort some of the confusion I have.

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      No problem,

      It was my pleasure to have assisted you along the way....

      You mentioned you have ancestry with the Yemenis Himyarites and the Tswa from Mozambique.

      This is Great News, to have found any matches, most people are not fortunate to find exact matches…

      I Have not Read Tariq Berry’s “The Unknown Arab” but i will add it to my Books to get List!! 🙂

      As far as Direct Nubian, Egyptian or Ethiopian Ancestry,
      I have Not found any L2a1a among their Population

      Excerpt from Ethiopian mtdna: Concerning your Haplotype L2a1a: (nps 3918)*

      Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

      However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33) “African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

      complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

      {L2a1e-3495, L2a1a3918, L2a1f-5581, and L2a1i-15229″}..

      None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309″} L2a1 samples.

      As far as Egyptian population your particular Haplotype was Not among the Population,

      However this study was Done June 2009 by
      Forensic Science International: Genetics
      Jessica L. Saunier a, Jodi A. Irwin a,*, Katharine M. Strouss a,1, Hisham Ragab b, Kimberly A. Sturk a, Thomas J. Parsons….

      Also keep in mind as more Studies are completed with an Increased DataBases of mtdna’s,

      You may find matches in Nubia, Ethiopia and Egypt etc…..

      This “Egyptian Mitochondrial Control Region” is a Public record study done in Lower Egypt/Alexandria,

      However i believe it is $39.95 for temporary download you can find some citations for free and some for a small fee @

      FSI: Genetics (you must sign up to join)

      P.S. I have joined several scientific community based sites for extensive resources and studies….

      Egyptian Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a Sedentary Population: Upper/EgyptGurna population.

      This Upper Egyptian Sedentary Population presented Similarities to the

      Ethiopian population by the L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%)

      I also found L2a1a among the Tunisian Berbers and Hebrews

      Haplogroup L2a1a is also among the European Slavic populations

      I will be in touch...

      • Selam,

        I have just found a chart by Behar, et al 2008 showing my haplogroup L2a1a and the new subclade you said was associated with it, L2a1a2. Will you take a look at it (if you already haven’t done so), and explain it to me. I noticed Egypt has L2a1a2 but, I’m not sure of the numbers above this tree and the many branches across this tree. I also see Chad (Sara – Sons of Ra people). Based on my sequences I submitted to you, what is the connection?

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Salam Nefer, Welcome back.

        Yes, I have came across Behar’s mtdna Ethnic Chart as well..

        This chart is very useful, using the Control region and the Coding region to identify the different ethnic groups..

        Your relation to Haplogroup L2a1a2 is associated with your control regional sequence HVR 16268T, Your numbers do not match any of the correlations made by Behar, however as far as your clade is concerned, you would share the following relations under your 16268T..

        The Tree showing 16248T and 16268T shows relation to South (East) Africa, SEB (south east bantus).

        The Tree showing the direct line solely 16268T shows relation to four Americans (unknown),
        One line going to Mozambique:Tswa, One to a Yemenis, and One to Pakistani: Makrani

        Actually, your sequence does not match the coding region of these individuals, nonetheless you share ancestry from your haplogroup and Subclades L2a1a and L2a1a2...

        Once more testing is done on more African -Asiatic Individuals the more likely you will find closer ethnic matches…

        I hope this makes sense to you...

  30. NeferKemet Says:

    I also forgot to state my Asiatic match with Pakistan.
    From the Makrani peoples.


    Thanks again.

    I will be in touch again very soon!

  31. Hi,
    I came across your Blog while searching for answers into my mtdna Halpogroup K.

    I was wondering do you know of any K Haplo-Groups Out of

    North or East Africa, and is it likely that my Maternal Ancestor could have carried this haplogroup K

    from North Africa to West Africa before the Slave trade?

    I’m a African American male, and have traced my family back only to 1854, because of the lack of records,

    But from what I have been told by older family members there is no reason my mtdna should have comeback

    As Haplogroup K, unless K is a common haplogroup for some African American and Africans.

    HVR1: 16224C, 16311C, 16519C / HVR2: 73G, 146C, 152C, 263G, 315.1C

    If you could please assist me I would appreciate your help!

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Welcome, Hotep and Shalom!

      Your Haplogroup K has a West Asia Origin,

      It has a TMRCA Date of 22,700 to 40,400 YBP

      (TMRCA – the most recent common ancestor)

      And with this being said..

      It can found in notable frequencies in East Africa as well as North Africa..

      Haplogroup K appears in West Eurasia, North Africa, and South Asia and in Populations with such an Ancestry.

      Haplogroup K is also found in about 6% of the population of Europe and the Near East,

      But it is more common in certain of these populations.

      Approximately 16% of the Druze of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, belong to haplogroup K.

      It was also found in a significant group of Palestinian Arabs.

      Haplogroup K is also maternally associated with the Ashkenazi Jewish Population..

      Your Haplogroup (HVR) control region is identical to Haplotype subclade K1a.

      Haplogroup K1a in found in Alexandria Lower Egypt, which matches your HVR1/HVR2 Control Region exactly.

      In addition it can be found in North West African Countries such as Tunisia, Morocco, the Canary Islands as well as Eastern Ethiopia.

      Your particular haplogroup was found among cushitic speakers and the Guarages of Ethiopia..

      This Haplogroup is mainly associated with Europeans and Asiatic People, However this group also shares Ancestry

      With the African Populations of NorthEast Africa as well as the Levant and South West Asia...

      This haplogroup may not be common among
      African Americans,

      Yet they Share the same Migration
      Patterns and Markers that is Shared Among some people of
      African descent.. (ie.) Asiatic Africans


      Ethiopian mtDNA Heritage:Tracking Gene Flow Across the Gate of Tears

      Haplogroup K among the Ethiopian and Yemenis Population Chart

      Mitochondrial Control Region for Egyptians

      Geographic Patterns of mtDNA Diversity in Europe

      Haplogroup K on Wikipedia

      mtDna Genetic Bottle Neck in Early History of Ashkenazi Jews

      Control HVR Region mtDna of Ashkenazi Jews: Chart link below

      Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary population from Egypt.

      Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event

      Haplogroup K1a Ashkenazi Jews in Dubai, Arabia

      Mitochondrial Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers/Arabs

      MtDna Diversity in the Canary Islands, and Northwest and North Central Africa

      Differences in mtDNA haplogroup distribution among 3 Jewish populations

      Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population

      P.S. (Which company did you use for your results, have you taken a FGS mtdna test?)

      • We have taking FTDNA around 2009 and most recently tested for HVR1/HVR2

      • Hi Billy,
        I just have a quick question about my mtdna because I’m trying to do some research for my great uncle on my mother’s side.
        He knows absolutely nothing about his mother or grandmother because his people just didn’t talk about their origin.

        I did some census research and found out his grandmother was from North Carolina, and listed as mulatto on the 1880 census, and the trail ends there, no maiden name or nothing.

        Anyway, some Native American guy in NC that we track down said he knows my great great grandmother people becuase he is also related to them, and the reason for the lack of information is because her people are Caucasian.

        We all do know my GG Grandmother was the first Black Women to be buried in a all White cemetery in Isle of wight Virginia.

        OK, now my question:

        With my mtdna results and research, can I assume that I maybe did have a European or Caucasian Grandmother somewhere down the line, because I have hit a Dead-End searching for Black relatives from that era.

      • (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Welcome Back,

        Nice research!

        My family on my Maternal side is from Virginia as well, My GG was also listed as Mulatto.

        We were able to trace far back as 1870 to Pittsylvania County Virginia, Nothing Further….

        Even with this being said, her haplogroup is L2a1 which has an African Origin and Asiatic Migrations and can be further associated with a pheno-type that could be considered “European” but is unequivocally African in Origin.

        example: North Africans, Askenazi Jews, Arabs, Italians, Syrians etc..

        Now to correctly answer your question, Yes you could have an European or Caucasian relative down the line,

        However keep in mind of its Asiatic Origin and African-Euro Migrations.

        The same very people who have an European Phenotype can be found in Northern parts of Africa the Mediterranean and Asia...

        In Closing,
        From your Mulatto findings and Haplogroup* you may very well have and European relative somewhere down the line, however one can not be Certain..

        Again with a more detail analysis of your mtdna, it will reveal a more concentrated Haplotype and related ethnicities as more studies are published…

        HOpe this Helps...

      • Thanks,

        I was hoping there still could be an African connection somehow with that haplogroup, because for some reason I can’t see a white woman being involved with a black man at that time in that area, but I do know those things did happen.

        My mother said all her great uncles had blue eyes,and she knew they looked different but at time she was a child ,and did not question it.

        When I took a look at the census records it seem to be a lot of people listed as mulatto. I wounder what qualified a person to list themselves as mulatto, or did the Census taker determine that.

        Your people were from Va too, it seems like a lot people with unique haplogroups have ancestry in VA or NC.
        Anyway, I’ve came across lots of “Caucasians” in West African haplogroups, and I think it’s funny to see them as clueless as!

        Thanks for responding and I will get that FGS!

      • (Billy Gambela) Says:

        No problem at all,

        Keep in mind, that some people of African-Asiatic descent also carry Haplogroup K.

        I have also come across, some socalled Whites who have no clue of African Ancestry with

        Haplogroups L2a1 and L1b, L3b1 which is prevalent in Western Africa Including
        North Africa and has an African Origin...

        My family has told us of their Native American ancestry and the U.S. Census confirms a
        Race from 18701924.

        This was due to Racial Integrity Act in Virginia 1924.

        Mulatto was also used interchangeably with the terms like “Turk”, leading to

        Further ambiguity when referring to many North Africans and West Asia Middle Easterners.

        Mulattos and or Melungeons are of mixed racial origins and are sometimes considered tri-racial isolates..
        ( )
        ( )

        Unfortunately back in 1924 in Virginia and under the Racial Integrity Act
        ( )

        My entire family lost their Ethnic “Indian” identity and would forever be

        classified as Colored, Negroes, Blacks/African Americans..

        These terms Do Not constitute a persons Nationality or Origin,

        They are Narrow Minded Racial Classifications….

        Moving along …….. myself and my sister was told by our

        Mother and Aunt that we were descended from either the

        Siouan speaking Cheraw Native Americans from Danville Virginia – or the

        Eastern Band Cherokee from parts of North Carolina

        ( my mother is from danville, virginia and my father is from roebeson county north carolina )

        (There is a piece of literature entitled “Of the Servants and Slaves in Virginia” by Robert Beverley)(first ed.)
        Published around 1705, records the Mulattos and Indians as

        having the same social status going back over 300 years ago on American Soil before today’s U.S. Constitution was put into place..

        (Slaves for Life or Servants for a Time..)
        Negroes were considered Slaves and Indians and Mulattos were Servants for a time..

        In order to join a so called Native American Tribe, one must have at least one grand parent listed on the Dawes Rolls list or

        United States Census records listed as Mulattos from 1900-1923

        (my family is listed far back as 133 years ago as mulattos therefore would qualify as Native Americans according blood quantum laws)

        This Socalled concept of Race is Outdated, and has no place in modern anthropology or genetics..

        Best of wishes with your research!!

  32. One more thing,

    My wife also tested her mtdna and it came back as X with mutations



    We both are African American, with African American parents, and Grandparents

    We both tested twice with 2 different companies and the results were the same!

    So, could you please assist her also?

  33. Wow,

    I didn’t think you would get back to me so fast!

    Brother, I thank you so much for taking the time to analyze my MTDNA results!!!

    This is the information I have been looking for.

    So I guess I came to the right person!

    I enjoy your blog, and thanks again!!!

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      It was my Pleasure,

      I am glad that i could assist you with your Genetic Journey..

      I have a few friends who also used Ancestry.Com, which is Great!

      FTDNA fortunately, but unfortunatley is the only company that offer the Full Genome Sequence,

      Which would reveal your definitive Haplogroup or Haplotype/ Subclade.

      Your Haplogroup K, looks like a likely candidate for subclade K1a.

      Your HVR regions mathces K1a, However without a FGS we can not be certain..

      Haplogroup X may be X1 or a subclade of this Haplotype..

      I know you have already taken a couple extensive mtdna test,

      Even so, if you someday decide to take an FGS,

      I would be more than willing to assist you along the way...

      Subscribe to my blog email list for updates,

      Thanks for stopping by...

      • I appreciate your help and I will try to get that FGS done before this Fall because I would love to learn more!

        So, I will check back soon!

      • (Billy Gambela) Says:

        No problem at all, see you soon..

        Best of Wishes

      • Hi Billy, Its been a long time! I was low on cash so I couldn’t get a more complete DNA test done, but I luckily cam across that 23andme free testing deal for AA’s! My mtdna is K2a, and my ytdna is E1b1a7a! My ancestral painting was 87% African, 11% European, and 2% Asian!

        So, if you have anything more to add to that I would be much obliged!

  34. NeferKemet Says:


    I just came upon another study with L2a1a showing up in Libya, and with the Tuaregs of Libya.

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Welcome Nefer,

      Nice Work, I have read this study as well, I am not sure of its publication, nonetheless it is a good study.

      It deals with the Central Africa Population of North Africa..

      Thanks for sharing the information and link for L2a1a !

      You will find L2a1a in more places than expected, in

      North, West and Central even Southern Regions of Africa and Asia.. .

      Keep up the good work! 🙂

  35. NeferKemet Says:

    I would also like to make a correction for my Yemen matches.

    The peoples I have matches with in Yemen belong to Hadramawt, and Himyarites

    (mainly exact matches with Hadramawt).

  36. Hi,

    I was wondering if you could assist me in narrowing down the area where my mtDNA originated from.

    I had the test done with two different companies, both came back saying that my mtDNA was part of the L3f haplogroup.

    So fari I have only been able to determine that this subclade originated from East AFrica.

    What I like to know which “tribes“/”nations“?

    The sequence is below:

    Haplogroup L3f

    HVR1 differences from CRS
    HVR2 differences from CRS

  37. Hi Billy, thank you very much!
    You have confirmed, digested and broke down what I was suspecting.
    I plan on having the FGS done in the next 612 months.
    This particular sequence I sent to you comes from family tree dna.

    • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome back Asali,

      Thank you for sharing your genetic information, i look forward to seeing the outcome of your results!

      Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ

      • I am waiting on more results the family finder test from Family Tree Dna.

        The test will assist in narrowing down some of my matches and will also give me the percentages of my genetic makeup.

        Family tree DNA no longer does FGS, instead I will need to take mtDNA full sequence
        (which I plan on doing within the next year).

        Are you interested in other haplogroups as well? I tested my Uncle about a year ago, he was the last surviving male on dad’s side with DNA information for my paternal grandfather. If so, I would love to post the results of his y-DNA and discuss with you.

        Happy New Year!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  38. Wow nice blog and it has inspired me to start looking into tracing my roots too.

    By the way, I and my friends are running a website with currents events and information about Africa.

    If you have guidelines on tracing the roots please feel free to send it to us and we can post in the site.

    I’m from Kenya by the way but mixed.


    • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome and thanks for stopping by..

      I do not have any specific guidelines on tracing your roots, however i will do my best to assist individuals along the way, However keep in mind most companies only give you limited information. It takes additional studies and comparative research to paint a clearer picture as far as ancestry is concerned..

      If you would like some information on genetic ancestry, i will be more than happy to help..

      List of Genetic Companies for Ancestral Origins..

      1. Genographic provides the 12 markers, has nice migration presentation. Only provides HVR1 $99.00

      2. Ancestry by Dna. by Dna Diagnostic Center, Provides the HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3
      All three regions for $199.99 (note this is not a FGS test)

      3. Family Tree DNA provides the Control Region HVR1, HVR2, as well as your

      Code Region/ FGS (full genome sequence) most definitive test. $279.00. The UPGRADE price is $199.00 from HVR1 to FGS from genographic via FTDNA..

      A.) So with option one its least expensive, however it only places you in a Haplogroup from HVR1 perspective.

      ( genographic allows you to upgrade to FGS via FTDNA for additional charge and transfer permission)..

      B.) With option 2 you can test HVR1,2,3 with option or 3 you can test for the FGS (full genome sequence) and be done with mtdna).

      As well as finding the closest relative from inside or outside your country of residence..

      Furthermore this upgrade places you in a more recent and definitive Haplogroup/Subclade.

      (family tree has a very extensive Dna databases, you will find very useful for comparative reasons)

      As for now, these may your best choices.

      Also you may reference my blog, for all of the information is backed by published genetic studies..

  39. HI,

    I recently received my results from FTDNA. Can you help me determine
    my ancestral orgins?


    MTDNA (HVR1)

    16223 T
    16278 T
    16294 T
    16309 G
    16368 C
    16390 A
    16519 C

  40. Thanks! I appreciate all of the information.

    I am in haplogroup L2a and I was even wondering if I could be haplogroup L2a1a1. I don’t have my HVR2 sequence yet, but it is possible that I might have the same sequence as Sasa (esp. because of the egypt link).

    My doctor told me that I have thalassemia which is common in the mediterranean and rare in Africa but can be found in north africa/upper egypt/people of the nile delta.

    • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      No problem, Im glad that i could assist you along the way…

      Very interesting Denise, your Haplogroup L2a has notable frequencies in North Africa that spread East and West along the Sahel..

      This haplogroup would also have a notable presence in Nile Valley as welI.
      I would like to see the final outcome of your FGS results..

  41. Sure. I haven’t ordered it yet but I’m planning to. By the way, I read your post about blood type.

    My blood type is O negative and only about 7% of people worldwide have it.
    Rh negative blood is found mainly among basque people, some jewish populations, celtics/scandinavians, moroccan berbers, a tribe in the chad lake area of west africa, and among a small amount of semitic ethiopians.
    I read somewhere that rh negative is a marker for certain hebrew tribes. I’m not sure if that’s true but I guess it’s possible.

  42. Hi I really enjoy your blog and stumbled across it researching my mtdna type.

    I just found out mt mtdna was L2a1 so it has been a help but could you help me determine my origins.



  43. Thank you I appreciate the help.

  44. I love this site!!!…

    Im considering getting tested..what test (website) can u recommend for me…
    im interested in my haplotype and group…what is the name of this test?

    Also can u explain the controversy around the M and M1 haplogroups..what haplogroups where in the Americas prior to haplogroup X ( if any)..

    Thanks for your help

    • Bileh* Gambela Says:

      Thanks for stopping by Pam!

      There are a few companies that offers this test, and many more new companies are being established.
      Here is a list of some companies and what they have to offer:

      I do not have any specific guidelines on tracing your roots, however i will do my best to assist individuals along the way, However keep in mind most companies only give you limited information.
      It takes additional studies and comparative research to paint a clearer picture as far as ancestry is concerned..

      If you would like some information on genetic ancestry, i will be more than happy to help..

      List of Genetic Companies for Ancestral Origins..

      1. Genographic provides the 12 markers, has nice migration presentation. Only provides HVR1 $99.00

      2. Ancestry by Dna. by Dna Diagnostic Center, Provides the HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3
      All three regions for $199.99 (note this is not a FGS test)

      3. Family Tree DNA provides the Control Region HVR1, HVR2, as well as your

      Code Region/ FGS (full genome sequence) most definitive test. $279.00. The UPGRADE price is $199.00 from HVR1 to FGS from genographic via FTDNA..

      A.) So with option one its least expensive, however it only places you in a Haplogroup from HVR1 perspective.

      ( genographic allows you to upgrade to FGS via FTDNA for additional charge and transfer permission)..

      B.) With option 2 you can test HVR1,2,3 with option or 3 you can test for the FGS (full genome sequence) and be done with mtdna).

      As well as finding the closest relative from inside or outside your country of residence..

      Furthermore this upgrade places you in a more recent and definitive Haplogroup/Subclade.

      (family tree has a very extensive Dna databases, you will find very useful for comparative reasons)

      As for now, these may your best choices.

      Also you may reference my blog, for all of the information is backed by published genetic studies..


      As for the controversy surrounding Haplogroup M1, to my understanding is its African Origin.

      This is an excerpt from Clyde Winters, The African Origin of mtDNA Haplogroup M1:

      The Aim of this Study is to Determine the Geographical Origins of Haplogroup M1.

      Controversy surrounds the Origin and Expansion of the M1 Haplogroup (hg).

      Some researchers believe that the M1 macrohaplogroup originated in Asia and represents a backflow to Africa, while other researchers believe hg M1 is of African origin.

      The analysis of M1 clades in Africa and Eurasia illustrates the highest frequency for hg M1 in Sub Saharan Africa instead of Asia and the Near East.

      The Distribution of Haplogroups L3 (M) and LOd across Sub Saharan Africa dating back to the South African Sangoan period make a ‘Back Migration’ of M1 to Africa Highly Unlikely.

      Today’s Khoisan people, the San and Khoi, two major ethnic groups of Southern Africa, resemble the ancient Sangoan skeletal remains, and descend from the people of the Palaeolithic Sangoan industry.

      The Sangoan Industry was distributed broadly from present day Botswana to Ethiopia.

      The Distribution of continental populations carrying the M1 haplogroup favors Africa as the place of origin instead of Asia for both haplogroup M1 (55.4%) and haplogroup M1a1 (68.0%).
      The population distributions for both M1 (Fig. 1) and M1a (Fig. 2) make it clear that the most varied
      M1 subhaplogroups appear across SubSaharan Africa, Not Asia or North Africa.

      The M1 macrohaplogroup is found throughout Africa and Asia. But the basal M1 lineage has not been found outside Africa (Kivisild et al., 2004; Rajkumar et al., 2005; Sun et al., 2006).

      Some researchers such as Gonzalez et al. (2007), believes that M1 originated in Asia and the most ancient M1 sublineage (called M1c by Gonzalez et al., 2007), Originated in Northwest Africa, though he reports that the Highest frequency of M1 is found in Sub-Saharan Africa especially East Africa.

      Studies of human mitochondrial (mt) DNA genomes demonstrate that the Root of the Human Phylogenetic Tree begins in Africa. Although 2 mtDNA lineages with an African Origin (Haplogroups M and N) were the
      Progenitors of All non-African Haplogroups

      Finally, our limited genetic data from Tanzanians be- longing to haplogroups M1, N1, and
      J suggest 2 alternatives that are not mutually exclusive.

      Populations in Tanzania may have been important in the migration of modern humans from Africa to other regions, as noted in previous studies of other populations in eastern Africa (Quintana- Murci et al. 1999).

      For example, mtDNAs of some Tanzanians belonging to Haplogroup M1 cluster with peoples from Oceania, whereas Tanzanian mtDNAs belonging to Haplogroup N1 and J cluster with peoples of Middle Eastern and Eurasian origin

      To this date Wikipedia list the Origin of Haplogroup M and N as Africa or Asia..

      Lastly you wanted to know if there were any Haplogroups in the Americas prior to X?

      That is a very good question that should start some controversy as well, according to some socalled Native Americans and Native African Asiatic Americans.

      According some researchers in genetics Most Native American Groups belong the one of the five groups:

      (Haplogroups A, B, C, D, or X ) all of the mentioned groups has an Asia Orgin with the exception of Haplogroup X
      Which has an West Asian Origin..

      Most Native American tribe do NOT partake in Genetic test for there own personal reasons, however i have seen
      the databases of some of these socalled native groups and they have African as well as European Haplogroups among them..

      Some Native Cherokee Tribes DNA resulted as an
      Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee.”

      All claim Matrilineal Descent from a Native American woman, usually named as Cherokee.

      The Main Criterion for inclusion in the study is that test subjects must have obtained Results Not placing them in the standard Native American haplogroups A, B, C or D.

      Hence the use of the word “anomalous” in the title of a paper prepared by chief investigator Donald N. Yates, “Anomalous Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Cherokee.”

      You may also find Native Americans listed as Mulattos or in the Bakers Roll listing, the Dawes Roll list, or even the U.S. Census listed as mulatto prior to 1924 Racial Integrity Act, who may not fit the criteria for the 5 haplogroups
      (A,B,C,D and X) mentioned above.

      So to answer where there any groups here prior to X?
      Yes, but only 4, other than X has been noted as Native Haplogroups to the America at this present time.

      If there were any evidence of any other groups especially African groups among the Americas such as the African Olmecs, it would change our U.S. History..


      Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages:

      The African Origin of mtDNA Haplogroup M1
      (published nov 2010)

      Wikipedia: Sangoan Industry

      Wikipedia: Haplogroup M

      Wikipedia: Haplogroup N

      Wikipedia: Haplogroup X

      Anomalous mtDna in Native American Cherokee Lineages:

      Genetic “Markers”- Not a Valid Test of Native Identity

      Hope you find this information useful

  45. THANK YOU for these references…

    My surname IS amoung the cherokee and choctaw.

    I always wondered why they say ALL AA were brought over as Slaves? We know that the African has the MOST Diversity and LIFE stems from this part of the World…we’ve been here mixing blood for thousands (and longer) of years b4 the Euro came…so of course if you swab me (from AMERICA) and compare the results to someone in Sierra Leone..Duh, we’re goin to match…this DOES NOT mean that iwas brought over here as a Slave (im not downing anyone that WAS brought over as slaves)…but i think the US along w/ Other Nations is hiding our tru HISTORY.

    As far as M and N haplogroups as an African Origin..i understand. But what about the Jarawa and Onge?

    Although about to be extinct these groups have been bottlenecked for thousand of years…but are still here, they have not lost their pigment or phyenotypical African Hair texture as the Other Asian or Indian phynotype…again proving that of course if you swab the jarawa then swab someone from Africa…theyre going to share Dna.. again someones trying to hide

    Thanks Again… I Luv Ur Site!

    • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Thank you very much!

      Thanks for sharing your thoughts..

      As far as the Population from the Andaman Islands such as the Jarawa and Onge, they would also belong to
      Haplogroups M or N with an African Origin.

      In addition, a Unique Haplotype was observed in the mtDNA HVR1 region among the Jarawas with substitution at position 16086*, in addition to substitutions at 16223 and 16311, already reported (Thangaraj 2003) to be predominant among the Negritos of Andaman Islands and other Asian populations.

      (Note: some East and North Africans share this same motif postions 16086*, 16223, 16311)

      The Aboriginal populations of Andaman Islands however, seem to have remained in isolation for a much long period than any known ancient population of the world, which is evident from the presence of the Unique Haplotype among the Jarawas.

      Mitochondrial DNA Haplotype finding from archive materials of the Andamanese (Endicott et al 2003) also substantiate the Ancient Origins of these populations.

      In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates that the aboriginal populations of Andaman Islands – the Great Andamanese and the Jarawas contitute a distinct genetic pool that is different from the rest of the Asian and African populations suggesting that (i) they either are surviving descendents of early migrants from Africa who have remained isolated in their habitat in the Andaman Islands since their settlement, or they are the descendents of one of the founder populations of modern humans.

      The origin of Andaman islanders has been the subject of recent debate.

      On the basis of analyses of complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, (Thangaraj et al.) Concluded that two Andaman populations, the Onge and the Great Andamanese, are the Direct Descendants of the first emigrants from the Out-of-Africa migration 50,000 to 70,000 years ago.

      This inference, however, is largely based on the observation of two specific mitochondrial lineages in these populations, referred to as M31 and M32.

      Also striking is the presence in Sakai, Mani of Thailand of an unequivocal representative

      With this motif (16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309)

      Of the sub-Supra Saharan African L2a haplogroup (Torroni et al. 2001),

      Which again is compatible with the physical characteristics of this Negrito Group.

      Although the suggestion that the first spreading out of Africa of modern humans could have carried

      some L2 lineages in addition to the L3 ancestors (Watson et al. 1997)

      Hope you find these articles useful…


      mtDNA Aboriginal Groups of Andaman and Nicobar islands:

      Reconstructing the Origin of Andaman Islanders:

      Wikipedia: Andamanese people

      Unearthing the Origin of the Vanishing tribes:

      mtDna of the Asiatic Sakai from Thailand L2a:

      Different ethnic groups: L2a1-c1 @ position 16086 in (North Africa)

  46. abdelkarim Says:

    What exactly is up with these mutations?

    HVR1: 16129A, 16148T, 16168T, 16172C, 16187T, 16188G, 16189C, 16223T, 16230G, 16278T, 16293G, 16311C, 16320T

    HVR2: 93G, 95C, 152C, 185A, 189G, 236C, 247A, 263G, 273Y, 315.1C, 522-, 523-

  47. Hi. I came across this explanation of ancestry and I do admit you are very “GOOD” !

    Can you please help me figure out my ancestry ? Im absolutely clueless ! 🙂

    My Haplogroup is L3f, HVR1: 16129A, 16209C, 16223T, 16292T, 16295T, 16311C, 16519C.

    I would greatly appreciate it !

    Thanks !

    • Bileh Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Hello Aisha!

      Thanks for the kind words..

      Let me first say that in order to designate your final subclade, I would need your HVR1 and HVR2 as well as your FGS sequence. However based on your HVR1 motif we can find some related ethnicities and migration routes.

      Haplogroup L3f is rare and also appear to have an East African origin.

      L3f* is virtually restricted to East Africa (with some dispersal into Central Africa, South Eastern Africa, and the Near East).

      The subclade L3f1 appears to have spread at an early date into West Africa and is correspondingly also better represented in African Americans.

      Your particular sequence comes very close to the subclade L3f1 by comparative markers such as 129A, 209C, 223T, 292T, 295T, 311C.

      These markers also shares genetic ancestry with Ethiopians, Egyptians, Cabinda people from Angola, Bassa from Liberia , Turkana from Kenya, Bantu-Mozambique, Mende from Sierra Leone..

      A few haplogroup L3f types in America match those of Eastern Africans—again, however, never uniquely; they are also shared by western Africans, South Eastern Africans, or both.

      At the same time, several L3f types are shared uniquely by western Africans only. L3f is likely of Eastern African
      Origin (Salas et al. 2002), but the derived subhaplogroup L3f1 is also present in western Africa, and it is this component that is most commonly found in Americans.


      Brasil mtDna Control Region with African population (Sp66) L3f1

      MtDna control region sequences from an Egyptian population:

      Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage:

      The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

      The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA:

      Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists Haplogroup L3f:

      Hope you find this information useful…

  48. Hi Again ! I used THE GENOGRAPHIC PROJECT.
    It stated that i was L3 and my SUBCLADE is L3F.
    Does this still mean im L3F1?

    THANKS 🙂

    • Bileh* Gambela Says:

      Welcome Back!

      As i mentioned previously your HVR1 Motif is identical to L3f1, However this can only be concluded from extra testing such as HVR2 and/or FGS test. These test above would confirm your subclade L3f1.

      Subsequently, mtdna studies listed above displays an L3f1 motif, which is identical to your sequence from Brasil and Egypt population in Alexandria.

      So to answer your question about your subclade, you would still belong to L3 with your subclade belonging to L3f.
      Only further testing of the control region (hvr1/hvr2) and Coding region would reveal your most likely subclade.

      for example: See Brasil study above look for L3f1 (SP66) then scroll down to (sp66) for ethnic matches

  49. Thanks a million ! i will see if i can get a hold of the other sequences . The HVR2 And FGS. 🙂 Aisha.

    • Bileh* Gambela Says:


      It is truly as toss-up between the two, however both companies are somewhat affiliated.

      1. Genographic provides the 12 markers, has nice migration presentation. Only provides HVR1 $99.00

      2. Ancestry by Dna. by Dna Diagnostic Center, Provides the HVR1, HVR2 and HVR3
      All three regions for $199.99 (note this is not a FGS test)

      3. Family Tree DNA provides the Control Region HVR1, HVR2, as well as your

      Code Region/ FGS (full genome sequence) most definitive test. $279.00. The UPGRADE price is $199.00 from HVR1 to FGS from Genographic via FTDNA..

      A.) So with option one its least expensive, however it only places you in a Haplogroup from HVR1 perspective.

      ( Genographic allows you to Upgrade to FGS via FTDNA for additional charge and transfer permission)..

      B.) With option 2 you can test HVR1,2,3 with option or 3 you can test for the FGS (full genome sequence) and be done with mtdna).

      As well as finding the closest relative from inside or outside your country of residence..

      Furthermore this upgrade places you in a more recent and definitive Haplogroup/Subclade.

      (family tree has a very extensive Dna databases, you will find very useful for comparative reasons)

      As for now, these may your best choices….

      Thanks for stopping by…

  50. Jacqueline Neal Says:

    Hi Billy,

    I was tested by, I have L2a1



    I read your blogs. It is awesome!

    I meant Can you determine my ancestral origins. Thank you so much.
    Sorry about the wording in the prior comments.


    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome back Jackie.

      The information about your particular Haplogroup L2a1 can be found in the the article Saga of Sepharda.

      As far as your your Haplogroup Origins you belong to the macro-haplogroup L2.
      Haplogroup L2 has an Eastern Origin, but now wikipedia shows an Western Origin, nonetheless It is believed to have evolved between 87,000 to 111,100 years ago.

      Several L2 haplotypes observed in West Africa populations shared genetic matches with East Africa and North Africa..

      The main puzzle is the almost ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a, which has a North African Origin and may have spread East and West along the Sahel Corridor in North Africa after the Last Glacial Maximum, or the origins of these expansions may lie earlier, at the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ∼50,000 years ago..

      You also belong to the most extensive pan-African haplotype
      (16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) in the L2a1 haplogroup.

      This sequence is observed in West Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in North Africa among the Maure/Moor, Hausa, Fulbe, and others; in Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in East Africa among the Kikuyu from Kenya. Closely related variants are observed among the Tuareg in North Africa and West Africa and among the East African Dinka. Nubian,Egyptian and Somali People. (Ely et al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997)


      The Making of the African mtdna Database:

      The Brasil study of African-Asiatic mtdna (sp31-L2a1):

      Mitochondrial Control Region of Egyptian Population:

      Control HVR Region mtDna of Ashkenazi Jews: (Chart) ~ link below

      mtDNA Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event

      Hope you find these references and citations useful..

  51. Thanks so much, Billy for your insights. You are so helpful with the ancestral origins. Keep up the good work. Thank you for the links.
    I am going to have my FGS done soon. I will come back to your site soon.


  52. Patrick Says:


    This is a wonderful website! I just received my mtDNA results from FTDNA Friday of last week. I was listed with the haplogroup group L3e1.



    Over the past week, I have been reading mtDNA papers and I’m a bit puzzled by my results. L3e1 points to an origin in Central – Western Africa or Southeastern Africa (Mozambique). However in all the studies I’ve researched, 16179T does not show up. 16223 is a mutation from L and L2. 16327 is the defining mutation for L3e1.

    I’ve only found 16179 in L4b1 and L3h1b1 and in haplogroups M, U, and B. Is L3e1. From my research, I have a lot of the mutations the haplogroups that spring from L3 have.

    Is it possible my mtdna origin is in the area of Ethiopia – Sudan, because it was from this area that people left Africa for the “Middle East” which gave rise to M, N and the remaining haplogroups? I’m from the part of L3e1 that’s closest to the other haplogroups.

    Or was L3e1 in Asia before the slave trade? Solving 16179T would be a big help.

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Patrick,

      Thanks for the stopping by and sharing your genetic information.
      You are correct your L3e1 is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but it is especially common in South-East Africa.

      This clade appears to have a west or east Central African origin and is rare among West Africans, although it is well represented among African Americans. Several southeastern African types are shared with East African Bantu-speaking Kikuyu from Kenya.

      This suggests that L3e1 may have spread into Kenya via the Eastern stream from a Cameroon source population (best represented in this data set by Bioko and São Tomé) or from some Central African source. It subsequently dispersed into the South-East (although, with so little data, back migration into Kenya cannot be ruled out).

      The African American types may be the result of direct transportation from Mozambique, given the lack of West African representatives. One L3e1a type is also present at elevated frequency in the Khwe, but, since it matches two Herero and also has a direct derivative in the South-East, this again appears to have been the result of gene flow from Bantu speakers, even though the type has not been sampled in that group.

      In the present study, two different L3h haplotypes were found in Ethiopian Amharic speakers, one of which shares the 16256 transversion with West Africans but lacks the 16129 and 16362 transitions. A related sequence that shares combined transitions at nps 16179T and 16284 has been sampled in East African Tanzanians (Knight et al. 2003). The Yemeni L3h haplotype shares its characteristic HVS-I motif 16165-16192-16223-16311 with six Sudanese sequences
      (Krings et al. 1999).

      Though you may have a CentralEastern Origin, It is very plausible that your particular sequence may have migrated through East Africa as well as South West Asia’s Yemen and Middle East, as well as sharing genetic ancestry with these particular ethnic groups and populations.


      Making of the African mtDNA Landscape:

      Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage:

      Phlyogenetic and Phylogeographic Analysis of African DNA:

      Human mtDNA haplogroup L3e: snapshot of African prehistory and Atl slave trade:

      Hope this will be of service to you..

      • Bileh,

        Thanks for your comments!! I have good news!

        After posting to your website, I finally found 16179T in L3e1! I obtained access to the Sorenson (smgf) database and numerous close hits for persons of Nigerian origins popped up. That’s the good news. The bad news is that they didn’t sign release forms! So I can only see their country of origin, but not the family name (to trace ethnic/clan origin). On the three or four that I am able to see surnames, they are clustered around eastern Nigeria (Calabar – Cross River area) and western Cameroon adjacent to the Cross river area. I then found a Cross River study and my HVR-1 panel markers are mentioned in the study (see link and click on additional files on page 15 of the study. On worksheet S3, line 428 are matching numbers)

        I did match a Nigerian in the Sorenson database exactly on my HVR-1 panel. However, he or she, hasn’t tested HVR-II. The maternal surname is Emenike, which is Igbo, and originated just west of the Calabar area. As for other closer matches, there are lots of Nigerians and Cameroonians that were 16223, 16327, and 16519 and on panel II; they matched exactly except for not having 195C. So, I’m thinking I have found the general area my maternal ancestor originated. Since I’m not matching exactly, but very close, I think the Lake Chad area holds the key to solving this mystery.


      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Thats Great News Patrick!

        This type of DNA/Science is very meticulous and detail, some individuals can go for months even years without finding an exact match. I believe you are very fortunate to come across this information pertaining to a match.
        I always stress that in this field the investigation is never fully complete, and is ongoing, it can open up new avenues or revelations day by day.

        Also additional testing such as FGS and Y-chromosome Test can lead to more constructive conclusions

        Thanks again for sharing your genetic information, Im glad i could help..

  53. Kwikai Chouakeu Says:

    Greetings Jacqueline,

    I found a match to your hyper variable region 1 sequence(& your sub-clade, L2a1) to a Bamileke person in Cameroon. The Bamileke person’s HVR-1 sequence is: 16189, 16192, 16223, 16278, 16294, 16309, 16390.

    I obtained this information from a 2010 publication by Geneticists Wilson, J.L., Ely, B. & Jackson, B.A. on Bamileke & Fulani haplogroups/haplotypes/hyper variable region 1 sequences.

    It is entitled “Evaluating African-derived mtDNA haplotype diversity via independent sample collections.” It comes from the Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 43(2): 65–74).

  54. Kwikai Chouakeu Says:

    Hey Jacqueline!

    You are welcome anytime. I am very happy to share this information with you.

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Thanks Kwikai, for joining the discussion and sharing this information with others.. I appreciate that bro!

  55. Latoya Smith Says:

    Hello Billy!
    I just had my DNA test done from 23andme and I am a L3b1a. My mutations are:
    Do you have any information regarding L3b1a? Thanks a lot and I love your site!

    Latoya Smith

  56. Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

    Welcome Owen and thanks for sharing your genetic information.

    Your Haplogroup L2b also shows isolated occurrences in East Africa, Western North Africa as far North as The Iberian Peninsula. Therefore, an origin for all three in West and western Central Africa seems likely. The estimated divergence times, ranging from ~120,000 years..

    The following ethnic group shares ancestry with your haplogroup L2b:

    Ethnic groups from the Iberian Peninsula, The Mandara from the Cameroon Mandara Kingdom, The Balanta from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Gambia. Mandinga from the Mali Empire.
    The Tongas from Zambia and Zimbabwe and the Wolof from Senegal..


    FTDNA Iberia Peninsula mTDNA:

    Balanta Peoples:

    The Mali Empire:

    The Mandara Kingdom:

    Brasil mtdna sequences and Ethnic Groups:

    The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape:

    Hope you find this useful…

  57. Hello Bileh,

    Firstly, I would like to say thank you for such a wonderful site. I’ve been following it for quite some time and well.. this is the first time I’m writing a post.

    I tested with 23andme and was told that my mtdna Haplogroup L3f1b4a was linked to the Yoruba and Fulbe people. Based on a few studies that I have recently come across (one you referenced earlier in this thread) mentioned the Cabinde as the source for those in Brazil with L3f1 haps.

    Another study researched the Gullah people in South Carolina and found the Malinke and Bambara of Mali to possess these haps. The only thing I have from the company is the defining mutation for my hap, which is 16292C.

    Any enlightenment you could shed on this issue would be greatly appreciated.


    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Lana, and thanks for sharing your genetic information.

      I would really need to see your HVR1/HVR2 or (FGS) sequences to be absolutely certain.

      (Your HVR sequences would be useful for comparative ethnic matches)

      I will list some data from several studies and citations that deals with your L3f1 Haplogroup.

      Your Haplogroup L3f is defined by the coding variants 3396-4218-15514-15944del and the control region (motif) 16209–16519 with a TMRCA of 57,100 ± 9,400 YBP.

      This haplogroup diversifies into sub-haplogroups L3f1, L3f2 and L3f3.

      The most geographically widespread sub-haplogroup is L3f1, which is distributed across the African continent and also Arabia and has a TMRCA of 48,600 ± 11,500 YBP.

      In our tree, sub-haplogroup L3f1 as defined by Salas et al. Using HVS-I data is now represented by two sub-haplogroups, The Ancestral L3f1 and the derived L3f1b that carries two control region variants 16292 and 16311 as well as six coding variants.

      The long branch leading to L3f1b may indicate constant population size and/or strong genetic drift throughout the dry climatic conditions during the last glacial period.

      On the other hand, the recent age for sub-haplogroup L3f1b of 15,900 ± 2,600 YBP (or 15,000 ± 3,000 YBP if not including the divergent sequence number 13) and its star-like phylogeny suggests a population expansion in the African population bearing its ancestral motif during the climatic improvement after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM).

      Subsequently, other L3f1b sub-haplogroups emerged in the Holocene; L3f1b1 11,600 ± 3,900 YBP, L3f1b2 6,400 ± 3,000 YBP, L3f1b3 12,800 ± 5,700 YBP and your L3f1b4 at 11,600 ± 5,300 YBP.
      The youngest clade, L3f1b2, seems to be more frequent in the Middle East.

      L3f1a seems to be older (37,700 ± 10,000 YBP) than its sister sub-haplogroup L3f1b and is also less diversified. A few samples from Chad belong to these sub-haplogroups: two to L3f1a and one to L3f1b3.

      Your HVR1 mutation 16292T is associated with Haplogroup L3f1 via position 16292T (H115) motif (sp.66,68)

      Haplogroup L3f/L3f1 shows relation to following people:

      Bambara, Malinke from Mali and Populations from Mauritania,
      Bantus from Mozambique, Cabinda from Angola as well as the Mende/Sierra leone

      This subclade also shares genetic ancestry with the Turkana people from Eastern Kenya.
      Though this clade has a strong South-Eastern affiliation,

      There may be smaller percentages of L3f in Ethiopia, and Egypt/Nile Valley..

      L3f1b is widespread throughout Africa and has also dispersed into the Middle East with evidence of several new Holocene-emerging sub-haplogroups.

      A Plausible Geographic Origin for L3f1b4 would be Eastern Africa From SouthEast Africa‘s Mozambique to Eastern Kenya, there is a genetic presence of L3f1b4 in South West Asia‘s Oman as well..

      In fact, the Sahara was repopulated during the first half of the Holocene when humid conditions and greening were established by ~10,000 YBP, leading to the Holocene Climatic Optimum. The Optimum lasted till ~6,000 YBP, when the shift towards more permanent aridity occurred culminating with the formation of the current Sahara Desert.

      At this present time, there are not many scientific studies or citations for L3f1b4a.

      However, the information above can be used a reference guide to your newly assigned Haplogroup..


      Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup:

      Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Mauritania and Mali and their Genetic Relationship to Other Western Africa Populations:

      African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups (Gullah/Geechie):

      Ethiopian mtDna Study

      Wikipedia mtDna of Haplogroup L3

      Ethiopian and Yemenis mtDna Haplogroups

      The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

      mtDna Profile of West African and other related ethinicites ( chart on pg.5)

      The mtDna report from Brazil on Haplogroup motifs (L3f1 sp66, sp68)

      Hope this you find this advantageous to your research

      • Simply outstanding!

        Wow, that’s more information than I received from 23andme.

        Unfortunately, it doesn’t appear as if they provide HRV1/2 data.

        I may have to test at a company like FTDNA to get that information.

        OH well, that’s more money to throw into my ever-growing DNA pot. Next time I hope to have the information needed.

        I had no idea what I was missing out on not having a full sequence done.



      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Your very welcome Lana,
        It was my pleasure, and thanks for sharing your genetic information.

        Your Genetic HVR1/HVR2 and FGS sequence helps to determined comparative matches and gives hints to your migrations as well.

        Thanks Again..

  58. Imani Pamoja Says:

    Hello Bileh,

    I’ve been researching my Haplogroup Lb31a for several weeks now. I have not discovered that much. I took the HVR1-MEGA test, but was informed that I had no matches.
    I have been searching day and night for more information, almost to no avail.

    I even resorted to searching world-wide populations to determine countries where my blood type was most prevalent. My blood type is rare, but I came up with the following locations: Japan/18%; Chinese-Peking/13%; Tartars/13%; Hindus (Bombay)/11%; Kalmuks/11%; Gypsies(Hungary)/10%; Japanese/10%; Koreans/10%; Grand Andamanese/9%; Czechs/9%; Papuas (New Guinea)/9%; Poles/9%; Bulgarians/8%; Buryats (Siberia)/8%; Egyptians/8%; Eskimos (Greenland)/8%; Estonians/8%; Jews (Poland)/8%; Russians/8%; Thais/8%; Burmese/7%; Chuvash/7%; Finns/7%; Indians/7%; Latvians/7%; Persians/7%; 6% for the following: Albanians; Arabs; Armenians; Austrians; Chinese-Canton; Fijians; Lithuanians; Philippinos; Rumanians; Turks; Ukrainians; 5% for the following: Abyssinians; Asian (in USA-General); Bantus; Eskimos-Alaska; Germans; Greeks; Hungarians; Jews-Germany; Sardinians; Serbians; Slovaks; Spanish; Swedes; Vietnamese;

    I know that you must be terribly busy, so to perhaps make this task a little easier, I have included my HVR1 and HVR2 sequences as follow:

    HVR1: 16233T 16278T 16356C 16362C 16519C HVR2: 73G 263G 309.1C 315.1C 522-523-

    I have no idea where to get further information. I hope that you can provide me with some helpful information or suggestions. Thanking you ahead of time for your kind assistance!

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Imani and thanks for sharing your genetic information

      The commoner haplogroup L3b is predominantly West African, with a substantial representation again in African Americans.

      It has spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East. There is very little dispersal into either East Africa or even Central Africa, but several derived types are present in southeastern Africa.

      Your mtDna belongs to the Haplogroup L3.
      The Number 11002G in your Code Region designates you to the subclade L3b1a.

      Your Control Regions HVR1 and HVR2 are among West and North Africans as well…

      The recent high-resolution mtDNA studies are offering the possibility of shedding light on ancient and recent human migration events, allowing to inferring more precisely about the geographical origin of lineages observed nowadays in a certain region.

      In fact, the characterization of the full mtDNA sequence is being used to investigate local events as

      The Chadic Expansion from East Africa towards Chad Basin in the last 8,000 years or historic movements as the Diaspora of Jews, which could not be approached in previous more limited mtDNA surveys.

      I have not found any exact matches on your sequence of numbers, however i did find some information on these ethnic groups related to your clade.

      Excerpt from: The trans-Saharan slave trade – clues from interpolation analyses and high-resolution
      characterization of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

      Most of these North African sequences share a recent Ancestry with sequences
      Observed in other parts of Africa, in the Holocene period

      Pg.10 of 18

      Three Egyptian, Four Tunisian, One Libyan and One Moroccan sequences share a most recent common ancestor of 13,537 ± 1,058 years old with Seven West African,

      Two South African, Six Americans (most probably African-descents), Two East Africans, Two Central Africans, Five Near Eastern and Two South Asians, being affiliated in Haplogroup L3b1a.

      REFERENCES: The trans-Saharan slave trade mtDna Lineages

      The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape:

      Phylogenetic Tree Haplogroup L3 2010

      Haplogroup L3b1a Mitochondrial Sequence for U.S. Hispanics

      Haplogroup L3b1a Mitochondrial Sequence for Egyptians

      Hope you find these references useful..

      • Thanks Bileh, I just noticed your reply, while searching for more information about my haplogroup L3b1a. I was curious to find out if you know the origins for 223T 278T 356C 362 and 519C. I know 223T and 278T are African and possibly, 362C, but I’m not sure about 356C and 519C. I’ve also noticed how 3 or 4 of the same markers found in L3b1a are also found in such mtDNA haplogroups as M, N, X, U4, W. What exactly does this mean? Is this the result of admixture or more specifically the influence of African ancestry or both? Thanks for the great help you have already provided and for your comments regarding origin of markers mentioned and L3b1a markers that seem prevalent in other mtDNA haplogroups. Asante!!!

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        This is what i was able to find on these particular mutations

        Your 223T is associated with Haplogroup L1, and L2 and has a Eastern assignation.
        278T is associated with Central Eastern and some western migrations.
        Your mutations on 362C and 356C are Associated with North Africans, Middle Eastern and European populations and migrations.

        Your haplotype markers also found in such mtDNA haplogroups as M, N, X, U4, W.
        Which are found in the same geographic regions as your Haplogroup.

        Lastly the mutation 16519 were not considered for phylogenetic reconstruction and are therefore excluded from the Tree. Many authors (Finnila 2001, Kivisild 2002, Macauley 1999) have explicitly ignored this locus, sometimes sounding mildly vexed when they could construct a network diagram “free of reticulations” only when 16519C was excluded
        (Maca- Meyer 2001).

        Later studies confirmed the ubiquitous appearance of 16519C in additional populations, intruding on multiple branches of phylogenetic trees for African and Asian samples
        (Allard 2004, Allard 2005).

        Thanks again..

  59. misterenigmatic Says:

    Hi Bileh!,

    Not too long ago, I took the AncestrybyDNA test and I found out I have Haplogroup L2a1.

    My HVR1 markers are:

    16278T, 16294T, 16309G, 16368C, 16390A, 16519C

    My HVR2 markers are :

    73G, 146C, 152C, 195C, 256A, 263G, 309CC, 315CC

    My HVR3 markers are:

    524CA 525CC

    I wanted to know how I would be classified based on my markers and if I’m in the sp40 as you are?


    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome and thanks for sharing your genetic information,
      You belong to Haplogroup L2a1a1, Your markers show that with the mutation 16368C.
      Haplogroup L2a1a1 is defined by markers 6152C, 15391T, 16368C

  60. Is there a difference between L2a an L2a1, if so how can mother and daughter belong to different groups. One was tested using 23and me and the other was tested at ftDNA (mtDNA).

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Hello there. I can best explain the difference this way. L2a is the progenitors to all L2a1 groups. Haplogroup L2a has a North African Origin from 55, 000 ybp. Haplogroup L2a1 has a North East African Origin and has an origin date approximately 33, 000. The reason why you see two separate similar results is because of the following factors. 23andme only provides HVR1 &HVR2 level testing. FtDNA provides higher level testing such as FGS (full genome sequence) Test. So you would first have to check the level of testing. FtDNA is one of only testing labs that provides these type of test. I hope this make sense to you.

      • Denise Williams Says:

        Hi Billy, I thought L2a and L2a1 were all a spin off of L2. It seems as though you are the only one that is researching the sequences that our identical or similiar, to our haplogroup. Many have sent you sequences that are not like ours. I thought L2e is the oldest?

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Hello Denise. L2 Would be the matriarch of the Haologroup L2a and L2a1.. I was just giving him the short version for affiliation purposes. Thank you for the support!

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