355-1492 A.D. The Mighty Moorish Empire of North Africa, South West Asia, Iberian Peninsula and The Americas..

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Mansa Musa 5 Moors of North Africa

ISLAM AND EUROPE TIMELINE (355-1291 A.D.)

355: After removing a Roman temple from the site (possibly the Temple of Aphrodite built by Hadrian), Constantine I has the Church of the Holy Sepulcher constructed in Jerusalem. Built around the excavated hill of the Crucifixion, legend has it that Constantine’s mother Helena discovered the True Cross here.

570: Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) born in Mecca (South West Asia) Erroneously called the Middle East.

590 – 604: Pope Gregory the Great (c. 540 – 604) begans his liturgical reforms and changes in church administration.

594: Muhammad became the manager of the business of Lady Khadija.

595: Muhammad married Hadrat Khadija.

610: Muhammad had a religious experience on Mount Hira that changed his life. which became the early beginnings of Islam.

613: Persians capture Damascus and Antioch.

614: Persians sack Jerusalem. damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the process.

615: Muhammad invited the Hashimites to adopt Islam.

615: Persecution of Muslims by the Quaraish in Mecca intensified and a small group of Muslims, left Mecca to seek Asylum in Ancient Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia). They were sheltered and protected by the Negus or Negast (King) of Abyssinia-Ethiopia.

621: Abu Jahl became leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Mecca and organized a boycott of merchants in Mohammad’s clan, the Hashim.

622: About 75 converts from Medina took the two Pledges of al-Aqaba, professing to Islam and to protect Muhammad from all danger.

622: The Hijra: emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib (now: Madinat al-Nabi, “the city of the Prophet,” or simply, al-Madina). Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms. Starting point of the Islamic calendar.

624: Muhammad broke with his Jewish supporters because they refused to recognize him as a prophet and adopt Isalm. He chose now to emphasize the Arabness of the new religion and has his followers face Mecca when praying instead of Jerusalem. In the end, all the Jews were either banished or executed.

March 15, 624: At the Battle of Abdr, Muhammad and his followers defeated an army from Mecca. Muhammad’s chief rival in Mecca, Abu Jahl, was executed.

627: Meccan leader Abu Sufyan (c. 567 – c. 655) laid siege to Muhammad’s forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench. Even with 10,000 men he was unsuccessful for the 15 days he was there. Muhammad suspected the Banu Quraiza Jews of helping the Meccans and had all the men killed.

627: A confederation was created between Muhammad’s followers in Mecca and the eight Arab clains in Medina with the Constitution of Medina.

628: Muhammad led about 1,600 men on a pilgrimage to Mecca where their passage was blocked by citizens of Mecca. Fortunately they agreed to negotiate with Muhammad and then later agreed to the Pact of Hudaibiya, ending hostilities and allowing for Muslim pilgrimages.

629: After a group of Muslims was attacked, Muhammad dissolved the Pact of Hudaibiya and prepared to attack Mecca.

630: An army of 30,000 Muslims marched on Mecca which surrendered with little resistance. Muhammad took control of the city Mecca and made it the Spiritual Center of Islam.

632: Death of Muhammad. His father-in-law, Abu-Bakr, and Umar devised a system to allow Islam to sustain religious and political stability. Accepting the name of caliph (“deputy of the Prophet”), Abu-Bakr begins a military exhibition to enforce the caliph’s authority over Arabian followers of Muhammad. Abu-Bakr then moved northward, defeating Byzantine and Persian forces. Abu-Bakr died two years later and Umar succeeded him as the second caliph, launching a new campaign against the neighboring empires.

632-34: Widespread tribal rebellion on the death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr, the first caliph (khalifa) reimposes the authority of the Islamic government throughout Arabia and sends Arab armies of conquest against Iraq-Mesopotamia and Syria.

633: Muslims conquer Syria and Iraq.

634: Victory against the Byzantines in Palestine (Ajnadayn).

634-644: Umar (c. 591-644) reigns as the second caliph. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons established in the conquered lands, and the Muslim rulers begin to take control of financial organisation.

635: Muslims begin the conquest of Persia and Syria.

635: Arab Muslims capture the city of Damascus from the Byzantines.

August 20, 636: Battle of Yarmuk (also: Yarmuq, Hieromyax): Following the Muslim capture of Damascus and Edessa, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius organizes a large army which manages to take back control of those cities. However, Byzantine commander, Baänes is soundly defeated by Muslim forces under Khalid ibn Walid in a battle in the valley of the Yarmuk River outside Damascus. This leaves all of Syria open to Arab domination.

636 (?): The Arabs under Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas defeat a Sasanian army in the battle of Qadisiyya (near Hira), gaining Iraq west of the Tigris. A second victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon.

637: The Arabs occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By 651, the entire Persian realm would come under the rule of Islam and continued its westward expansion.

637: Syria is conquered by Muslim forces.

637: Jerusalem falls to invading Muslim forces.

638: Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem.

639-42: Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by ‘Amr ibn al-‘As. Muslims capture the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine, marking end of the Byzantine presence in Syria.

641: Islam spreads into Egypt. The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.

641: Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.

641/2: Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. Amr forbids the looting of the city and proclaims freedom of worship for all. According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library burned the following year. Al-As creates the first Muslim city in Egypt, al-Fustat, and builds there the first mosque in Egypt.

644: Muslim leader Umar dies and is succeeded by Caliph Uthman, a member of the Umayyad family that had rejected Muhammad’s prophesies. Rallies arise to support Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, as caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.

649: Muawiya I, a member of the Umayyad family, leads a raid against Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging the rest of the island.

652: Sicily is attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia (named Ifriqiya by the Muslims, a name later given to the entire continent of Africa).

653: Muawiya I leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) and shipping it back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.

654: Muawiya I conquers Cyprus and stations a large garrison there. The island would remain in Muslim hands until 0966.

655: Battle of the Masts: In one of the few Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muslim forces under the command of Uthman bin Affan defeat Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine power.

661-680: Mu’awiya, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, becomes the caliph and moves the capital from Mecca to Damascus. The Umayyad family rules Islam until 750. Ali’s followers form a religious party called Shiites and insist that only descendants of Ali deserve the title of caliph or deserve any authority over Muslims. The opposing party, the Sunnites, insist on the customs of the historical evolution of the caliphate rather than a hereditary descent of spiritual authority.

662: Egypt fell to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 868 A.D. A year prior, the Fertile Crescent and Persia yielded to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, whose rule lasted until 1258 and 820, respectively.

667: The Arabs occupy Chalcedon, threatening Constantinope. Sicily is attacked by Muslims sailing from Tunisia.

668: First Siege of Constantinople: This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months. The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs: Greek Fire. It burned through ships, shields, and flesh and it could not be put out once it started. Muawiyah has to send emissaries to Byzantine Emperor Constans to beg him to let the survivors return home unimpeded, a request that is granted in exchange for a yearly tribute of 3,000 pieces of gold, fifty slaves, and fifty Arab horses.

669: The Muslim conquest reaches to Morocco in North Africa. The region would be open to the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 800.

672: Muslims under Mauwiya I capture the island of Rhodes.

672: Beginning of the ‘seven year’ Arab siege of Constantinople.

674: Arab conquest reaches the Indus River.

August 23, 676: Birth of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in Herstal, Wallonia, Belgium, as the illegitimate son of Pippin II. Serving as Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles would lead a force of Christians that turn back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, would effectively halt the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.

677: Muslims send a large fleet against Constantinople in an effort to finally break the city, but they are defeated so badly through the Byzantine use of Greek Fire that they are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.

680: Birth of Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor, along the Turkish-Syrian border in the Syrian province of Commagene. Leo’s tactical skills would be responsible for turning back the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, shortly after he is elected emperor.

688: Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a peace treaty making Cyprus neutral territory. For the next 300 years, Cyprus is ruled jointly by both the Byzantines and the Arabs despite the continuing warfare between them elsewhere.

691: Birth of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces would make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

698: Muslims capture Carthage in North Africa.

700: Muslims from Pamntelleria raid the island of Sicily.

Moors of Spain

Tariq ibn Ziyad (Arabic: طارق بن زياد‎, died 720) was a Muslim general who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army from the north coast of Morocco, consolidating his troops at a large hill now known as Gibraltar. The name “Gibraltar” is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq (جبل طارق), meaning “mountain of Tariq”, which is named after him.

711: With the further conquest of Egypt, Spain and North Africa, Islam included all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world under Islamic rule. Muslims began the conquest of Sindh in Afghanistan.

The Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa and called the territory Al-Andalus, which at its peak included most of modern-day Spain, Portugal, and Septimania. The Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily in 827, developing it as a port, and they eventually consolidated the rest of the island and some of southern Italy. Differences in religion and culture led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe, which tried to reclaim control of Muslim areas. In Spain this conflict was referred to as the Reconquista. In 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, which was destroyed by European Christians in 1300. The fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, although a Muslim minority persisted until their expulsion in 1609.

April 711: Tariq ibn Malik, a Berber officer, crosses the strait separating Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims and enters Spain (al-Andalus, as the Muslims called it, a word is etymologically linked to “Vandals”). The first stop in the Muslim conquest of Spain is at the foot of a mountain that comes to be called Jabel Tarik, the Mountain of Tarik. Today it is known as Gibraltar. At one time the Berbers had been Christians but they recently converted in large numbers to Islam after the Arab conquest of North Africa.

July 19, 711: Battle of Guadalete: Tariq ibn Ziyad kills King Rodrigo (or Roderic), Visigoth ruler of Spain, at the Guadalete River in the south of the Iberian peninsula. Tariq ibn Ziyad had landed at Gibraltar with 7,000 Muslims at the invitation of heirs of the late Visigoth King Witica (Witiza) who wanted to get rid of Rodrigo (this group includes Oppas, the bishop of Toledo and primate of all Spain, who happens to be the brother of the late king Witica). Ziyad, however, refuses to turn control of the region back over to the heirs of Witica. Almost the entire Iberian peninsula would come under Islamic control by 718.

712: Muslim governor of Northern Africa Musa ibn Nusayr follows Tariq ibn Ziyad with an army of 18,000 as reinforcements for the Conquest of Andalusia. Musa’s father had been a Catholic Yemenite studying to be a priest in Iraq when he was captured in Iraq by Khalid, the “Sword of Islam,” and forced to choose between conversion or death. This invasion of Iraq had been one of the last military orders given by Muhammed before his death.

714: Birth of Pippin III (Pippin the Short) in Jupille (Belgium). Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, in 0759 Pippin would capture Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, and thereby drive Islam out of France.

715: By this year just about all of Spain is in Muslim hands. The Muslim conquest of Spain only took around three years but the Christian reconquest would require around 460 years (it might have gone faster had the various Christian kingdoms not been at each other’ throats much of the time). Musa’s son, Abd el-Aziz, is left in charge and makes his capital the city of Seville, where he married Egilona, widow of king Rodrigo. Caliph Suleiman, a paranoid ruler, would have el-Aziz assassinated and sends Musa into exile in his native Yemen village to live out his days as a beggar.

716: Lisbon is captured by Muslims.

717: Cordova (Qurtuba) becomes the capital of Muslim holdings in Andalusia (Spain).

717: Leo the Isaurian, born along the Turkish-Syrian border in the Syrian province of Commagene, revolts against the usurper Theodosius III and assumes the throne of the Byzantine Empire.

August 15, 717: Second Siege of Constantinople: Taking advantage of the civil unrest in the Byzantine Empire, Caliph Sulieman sends 120,000 Muslims under the command of his brother, Moslemah, to launch the second siege of Constantinople. Another force of around 100,000 Muslims with 1,800 galleys soon arrives from Syria and Egypt to assist. Most of these reinforcements are quickly destroyed with Greek Fire. Eventually the Muslims outside Constantinople begin to starve and, in the winter, they also begin to freeze to death. Even the Bulgarians, usually hostile to the Byzantines, send a force to destroy Muslim reinforcements marching from Adrianopolis.

August 15, 718: Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening of the Umayyad government, in part because of the heavy losses. It is estimated that of the 200,000 soldiers who besieged Constantinople, only around 30,000 made it home. Although the Byzantine Empire also sustains heavily casualties and loses most its territory south of the Taurus Mountains, by holding the line here they prevent a disorganized and militarily inferior Europe from having to confront a Muslim invasion along the shortest possible route. Instead, the Arabic invasion of Europe must proceed along the longer path across northern Africa and into Spain, a route which prevents quick reinforcement and ultimately proves ineffective.

719: Muslims attack Septimania in southern France (so named because it was the base of operations for Rome’s Seventh Legion) and become established in the region known as Languedoc, made famous several hundred years later as the center of the Cathar heresy.

July 09, 721: A Muslim army under the command of Al-Semah and that had crossed the Pyrenees is defeated by the Franks near Toulouse. Al-Semah is killed and his remaining forces, which had previously conquered Narbonne, are forced back across the Pyrenees into Spain.

722: Battle of Covadonga: Pelayo, (690-737) Visigoth noble who had been elected the first King of Asturias (718-0737), defeats a Muslim army at Alcama near Covadonga. This is generally regarded as the first real Christian victory over the Muslims in the Reconquista.

724: Hisham becomes the 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

724: Under the command of Ambissa, Emir of Andalusia, Muslim forces raid southern France and capture the cities of Carcassone and Nimes. Primary targets in these and other raids are churches and monasteries where the Muslims take away holy objects and enslave or kill all the clerics.

725: Muslim forces occupied Nimes, France.

730: Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon.

October 10, 732: Battle of Tours: With perhaps 1,500 soldiers, Charles Martel halts a Muslim force of around 40,000 to 60,000 cavalry under Abd el-Rahman Al Ghafiqi from moving farther into Europe. Many regard this battle as being decisive in that it saved Europe from Muslim control. Gibbon wrote: “A victorious line of march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire; the repetition of an equal space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland and the Highlands of Scotland; the Rhine is not more impassable than the Nile or Euphrates, and the Arabian fleet might have sailed without a naval combat into the mouth of the Thames. Perhaps the interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford, and her pulpits might demonstrate to a circumcised people the sanctity and truth of the revelation of Muhammed.” Others, though, argue that the battle’s importance has been exaggerated. The names of Tours, Poitiers, and Charles Martel do not appear in the Arab histories. They list the battle under the name Balat al-Shuhada, the Highway of Martyrs, and is treated as a minor engagement.

735: Muslim invaders capture the city of Arles.

737: Charles Martel sends his brother, Childebrand, to lay siege to Avignon and drive out the Muslim occupiers. Childebrand is successful and, according to records, has all the Muslims in the city killed.

739: Already having retaken Narbonne, Beziers, Montpellier, and Nimes during the previous couple of years, Childebrand captures Marseille, one of the largest French cities still in Muslim hands.

June 08, 741: Death of Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor. Leo’s tactical skills were responsible for turning back the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, shortly after he was elected emperor.

October 22, 741: Death of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in at Quierzy (today the Aisne county in the Picardy region of France). As Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles had led a force of Christians that turned back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, effectively halted the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.

April 04, 742: Birth of Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire.

743: Death of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It was under Hisham that Muslim forces made their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

750: The Arabian Nights, a compilation of stories written under the reign of the Abbasids, became representative of the lifestyle and administration of this Persian influenced government.

750 – 850: The Four Orthodox Schools of Islamic Law were established.

750: The Abbasids assume control of the Islamic world (except Spain, which falls under the control of a descendant of the Umayyad family) and moved the capital to Baghdad in Iraq. The Abbasid Caliphate would last until 1258.

September 755: Abd al-Rahman of the Umayyad dynasty flees to Spain to escape the Abbasids and would be responsible for creating the “Golden Caliphate” in Spain.

756: The Emirate of Cordova is established by Umayyad refugee Abd al-Rahman I in order to revive the defeated Umayyad caliphate which had been destroyed in 0750 by the Abbasids. Cordova would become independent of the Abbasid Empire and represents the first major political division within Islam. The political and geographic isolation of the Cordova Caliphate would make it easier for Christians to decisively conquer it despite their failures elsewhere, although this would not be completed until 1492.

759: Arabs lose the city of Narbonne, France, their furthest and last conquest into Frankish territory. In capturing this city Pippin III (Pippin the Short) ends the Muslim incursions in France.

768: Pepin’s son, Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne), succeeded his father and became one of the most important European rulers of medieval history.

September 24, 768: Death of Pippin III (Pippin the Short) at Saint Denis. Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, in 759 Pippin captured Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, and thereby drove Islam out of France.

778: Charlemagne, King of the Franks and soon-to-be Holy Roman Emperor, is invited by a group of Arab leaders in northeastern Spain to attack Abd al-Rahman I, ruler of the Emirate of Cordova. Charlemagne obliges them, but is forced to retreat after only getting as far as Saragossa. It is during his march back through the Pyrenees that his forces are set upon by Basques. Among the many who die is the war leader Roland from Breton, killed in Roncevalles, whose memory has been preserved in the “Chanson de Roland,” an important epic poem during the Middle Ages.

785: The Great Mosque in Cordoba, in Muslim controlled (Al Andalusia) Spain, was built.

787: Danes invade England for the first time.

788: Death of Abd al-Rahman I, founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Cordova. His successor is Hisham I.

792: Hisham I, emir of Cordova, calls for a Jihad against the infidels in Andalusia and France. Tens of thousands from as far away as Syria heed his call and cross the Pyrennes to subjugate France. Cities like Narbonne are destroyed, but the invasion is ultimately hated at Carcassone.

796: Death of Hisham I, emir of Cordova. His successor is his son, al-Hakam, who would keep up the jihad against the Christians but would also be forced to contend with rebellion at home.

799: The Basques rise in revolt and kill the local Muslim governor of Pamplona.

800: North Africa falls under the rule of the Aghlabi dynasty of Tunis, which would last until 909.

800 – 1200: Jews experience a “golden age” of creativity and toleration in Spain under Moorish (Muslim) rule.

800: Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu r-Rashid give keys to the Holy Sepulcher to the Frankish king, thus acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem.

801: Vikings begin selling slaves to Muslims.

806: Hien Tsung becomes the Emperor of China. During his reign a shortage of copper leads to the introduction of paper money.

813: Muslims attack the Civi Vecchia near Rome.

April 04, 814: Death of Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire.

816: With the support of Moors, the Basques revolt against the Franks in Glascony.

822: Death of Al-Hakam, emir of Cordova. He is succeeded by Abd al-Rahman II.

June 827: Sicily is invaded by Muslims who, this time, are looking to take control of the island rather than simply taking away booty. They are initially aided by Euphemius, a Byzantine naval commander who is rebelling against the Emperor. Conquest of the island would require 75 years of hard fighting.

831: Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Palermo and make it their capital.

835: Birth of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun will establish himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

838: Muslim raiders sack Marseille.

841: Muslim forces capture Bari, principle Byzantine base in southeastern Italy.

846: Muslim raiders sail a fleet of ships from Africa up the Tiber river and attack outlying areas around Ostia and Rome. Some manage to enter Rome and damage the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. Not until Pope Leo IV promises a yearly tribute of 25,000 silver coins do the raiders leave. The Leonine Wall is built in order to fend off further attacks such as this.

849: Battle of Ostia: Aghlabid monarch Muhammad sends a fleet of ships from Sardinia to attack Rome. As the fleet prepares to land troops, the combination of a large storm and an alliance of Christian forces were able to destroy the Muslims ships.

850: The Acropolis of Zimbabwe was built in Rhodesia.

850: Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim Cordova, is executed after he refuses to retract numerous insults he made about the Prophet Muhammed. Numerous other priests, monks, and laity would follow as Christians became caught up in a zest for martyrdom.

851: Abd al-Rahman II has eleven young Christians executed in the city of Cordova after they deliberately seek out martyrdom by insulting the Prophet Muhammed.

852: Death of Abd al-Rahman II, emir of Cordova.

858: Muslim raiders Attack Constantinople.

859: Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Castrogiovanni (Enna), slaughtering several thousand inhabitants.

863: Under Cyril (0826 – 0869) and Methodius (c. 0815 – 0885) the conversion of Moravia begins. The two brothers were sent by the patriarch of Constantinople to Moravia, where the ruler, Rostilav, decreed in 863 that any preaching done had to be in the language of the people. As a result, Cyril and Methodius developed the first usable alphabet for the Slavic tongue – thus, the Cyrillic alphabet.

866: Emperor Louis II travels from Germany to southern Italy to battle the Muslim raiders causing trouble there.

868: The Sattarid dynasty, whose rule would continue until 930, extended Muslim control throughout most of Persia. In Egypt, the Abbasid and Umayyad caliphates ended and the Egyptian-based Tulunid dynasty took over (lasting until 904).

869: Arabs capture the island of Malta.

870: After a month-long siege, the Sicilian city of Syracuse is captured by Muslim invaders.

871: King Alfred the Great of England created a system of government and education which allowed for the unification of smaller Anglo-Saxon states in the ninth and tenth centuries.

874: Iceland is colonized by Vikings from Norway.

876: Muslims pillage Campagna in Italy.

879: The Seljuk Empire unites Mesopotamia and a large portion of Persia.

880: Under Emperor Basil, the Byzantines recapture lands occupied by Arabs in Italy.

884: Death of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun established himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

884: Muslims invading Italy burn the monastery of Monte Cassino to the ground.

889: Khash khāsh ibn Sa`īd ibn Aswad (Arabic خشخاش بن سعيد بن اسود) Al-Mas’udi writes that Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad, from Delba (Palos de la Frontera) sailed into the Atlantic Ocean in 889 and returned with a shipload of valuable treasures.

Ali al-Masudi, in The Book of Golden Meadows (947), wrote: In the ocean of fogs [the Atlantic] there are many curiosities which we have mentioned in detail in our Akhbar az-Zaman, on the basis of what we saw there, adventurers who penetrated it on the risk of their life, some returning back safely, others perishing in the attempt. Thus a certain inhabitant of Cordoba, Khashkhash by name, assembled a group of young men, his co-citizens, and went on a voyage on this ocean. After a long time he returned back with booty. Every Spaniard knows this story.

898: Birth of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova would become one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power.

900: The Fatimids of Egypt conquered North Africa and included the territory as an extension of Egypt until 972.

902: The Muslim conquest of Sicily is completed when the last Christian stronghold, the city of Taorminia, is captured. Muslim rule of Sicily would last for 264 years.

905: The Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt is destroyed by an Abbasid army sent to reestablish control over the region of Egypt and Syria.

909: Sicily came under the control of the Fatimids’ rule of North Africa and Egypt until 1071. From 878 until 909, their rule of Sicily was uncertain.

909: The Fatimid Dynasty assumes control of Egypt. Claiming descent from Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammed, and Ali bin Abi Talib, the Fatimids would rule Egypt until being overthrown by the Auyybids and Saladin in 1171.

911: Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, cutting off passage between the two countries.

912: Abd al-Rahman III becomes the Umayyad Caliph in Andalusia.

916: A combined force of Greek and German emperors and Italian city-states defeat Muslim invaders at Garigliano, putting Muslim raids in Italy to an end.

920: Muslim forces cross the Pyrenees, enter Gascony, and reach as far as the gates of Toulouse.

929: Abd al-Rahman III transforms the Emirate of Cordova into and independent caliphate no longer under even theoretical control from Baghdad.

935 – 969: The rule of Egypt was under the Ikhidid dynasty.

936: The Althing, the oldest body of representative government in Europe, is established in Iceland by the Vikings.

939: Madrid is recaptured from Muslim forces.

940: Hugh, count of Provence, gives his protection to Moors in St. Tropez if they agree to keep the Alpine passes closed to his rival, Berenger.

953: Emperor Otto I sends representatives to Cordova to ask Caliph Abd al-Rahman III to call off some Muslim raiders who had set themselves up in Alpine passes and are attacking merchant caravans going in and out of Italy.

961: Death of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova became one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power. He is succeeded by Abdallah, a caliph who would kill many of his rivals (even family members) and has captured Christians decapitated if they refuse to convert to Islam.

961: Under the command of general Nicephorus Phokas, the Byzantines recapture Crete from Muslim rebels who had earlier fled Cordova.

965: Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phokas reconquers Cyprus from the Muslims.

965: Grenoble is recaptured from the Muslims.

969: The Fatimid dynasty (Shi’ite) takes Egypt from the Ikshidids and assumes the title of caliphate in Egypt until 1171.

969: Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas reconquers Antioch (modern Antakya, capital of the province Hatay) from the Arabs.

972: The Fatimids of Egypt conquer north Africa.

972: The Muslims in the Sisteron district of France surrender to Christian forces and their leader asks to be baptized.

981: Ramiro III, king of Leon, is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor) at Rueda and is forced to begin paying tribute to the Caliph of Cordova.

985: Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir sacks Barcelona

994: The monastery of Monte Cassino is destroyed a second time by Arabs.

July 03, 997: Under the leadership of Almanzor, Muslim forces march out of the city of Cordova and head north to capture Christian lands.

August 11, 997: Muslim forces under Almanzor arrive at the city of Compostela. The city had been evacuated and Almanzor burns it to the ground.

998: Venice conquers the Adriatic port of Zara.

c. 1000: Chinese perfect the production and use of gunpowder.

1000: The Seljuk Turkish Empire is founded by an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.

August 08, 1002: Death of Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, ruler of Al-Andalus, on the way back from raiding the Rioja region.

1004: Arab raiders sack the Italian city of Pisa.

1007: Birth of Isaac I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor. Founder of the dynasty of the Comneni, Isaac’s government reforms may have helped the Byzantine Empire last longer.

1009: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the Holy Sepulcher and all Christian buildings in Jerusalem be destroyed. In Europe a rumor develops that a “Prince of Babylon” had ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher at the instigation of the Jews. Attacks on Jewish communities in cities like Rouen, Orelans, and Mainz ensue and this rumor helps lay the basis for massacres of Jewish communities by Crusaders marching to the Holy Land.

1009: Sulaimann, grandson of Abd al-Rahman III, returns over 200 captured fortresses to the Castilians in return for massive shipments of food for his army.

1012: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship in his lands.

1012: Berber forces capture Cordova and order that half the population be executed.

1013: Jews are expelled from the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova, then ruled by Sulaimann.

1015: Arab Muslim forces conquer Sardinia.

1016: The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is partially destroyed by earthquakes.

1020: Merchants from Amalfi and Salerno are granted permission by the Egyptian Caliph to build a hospice in Jerusalem. Out of this would eventually grow The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as: Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller).

1021: Caliph al-Hakim proclaimed himself to be divine and founded the Druze sect.

1022: Several Cathar heretics are discovered in Toulouse and put to death.

1023: Muslims expel the Berber rulers from Cordova and install Abd er-Rahman V as caliph.

1025: The power of the Byzantine Empire begins to decline.

1026: Richard II of Normandy leads a group of several hundred armed men on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the belief that the Day of Judgment had arrived. Turkish control of the region hampers their goals, however.

1027: The Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate. Byzantine leaders begin the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulcher.

1029: Alp Arslan, “The Lion Hero,” is born. Arslan is the son of Togrul Beg, conqueror of Baghdad who made himself ruler of the Caliphate, and great-grandson of Seljuk, founder of the Seljuk Turkish empire.

1031: The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.

1031: The emir of Aleppo has the Krak des Chevaliers contructed.

1033: Castile is retaken from the Arabs.

1035: The Byzantines make a landing in Sicily, but don’t try to recapture the island from the Muslims.

1038: The Seljuk Turks become established in Persia.

1042: The rise of the Seljuk Turks begins.

1045 – 1099: Life of Ruy Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (Arabic for “lord”), national hero of Spain. El Cid would become famous for his efforts to drive the Moors out of Spain.

May 18, 1048: Persian poet Umar Khayyam is born. His poem The Rubaiyat became popular in the West because of its use by Victorian Edward Fitzgerald.

1050 – 1200: The first agricultural revolution of Medieval Europe begins in 1050 with a shift to the northern lands for cultivation, a period of improved climate from 700 to 1200 in western Europe, and the widespread use and perfection of new farming devices. Technological innovations include the use of the heavy plow, the three-field system of crop rotation, the use of mills for processing cloth, brewing beer, crushing pulp for paper manufacture, and the widespread use of iron and horses. With an increase in agricultural advancements, Western towns and trade grow exponentially and Western Europe returns to a money economy.

1050: Duke Bohemond I (Bohemond Of Taranto, French Bohémond De Tarente), prince of Otranto (1089­1111) is born. One of the leaders of the First Crusade, Bohemond would be largely responsible for the capture of Antioch and he secures the title Prince of Antioch (1098 – 1101, 1103 – 04).

1050: Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos restores the complex of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

1054: A famine in Egypt forces al Mustansir, 8th Fatimid caliph, to seek food and other commercial assistance from Italy and the Byzantine Empire.

July 16, 1054: Great Schism: The Western Christian Church, in an effort to further enhance its power, had tried to impose Latin rites on Greek churches in southern Italy in 1052; as a consequence, Latin churches in Constantinople were closed. In the end, this leads to the excommunication of Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople (who in turn excommunicates Pope Leo IX). Although generally regarded as a minor event at the time, today it is treated as the final event that sealed the Great Schism between Eastern and Western Christianity.

1055: Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad.

1056: The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name “those who line up in defense of the faith,” this is a group of fanatical Berber Muslims who would rule North Africa and Spain until 1147.

1061: Roger Guiscard lands at Sicily with a large Norman force and captures the city of Masara. The Norman reconquest of Sicily would require another 30 years.

1063: Alp Arslan succeeds his father, Togrul Beg, as ruler of the Baghdad Caliphate and the Seljuk Turks.

1064-1091: The Normans recapture Sicily from the Muslims.

1064: The Seljuk Turks conquer Christian Armenia.

September 29, 1066: William the Conqueror invades England and claims the English throne at the Battle of Hastings. Because William is both the King of England and the Duke of Normandy, The Norman Conquest fuses French and English cultures. The language of England evolves into Middle English with an English syntax and grammar and a heavily French vocabulary.

1067: Romanus IV Diogenes becomes the Byzantine Emperor.

1068: Alp Arslan invades the Byzantine Empire and is repulsed by Romanus IV Diogenes over the course of three campaigns. Not until 1070, though, would the Turks be driven back across the Euphrates river.

1070: Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem from the Fatimids. Seljuk rule is not quite as tolerant as that of the Fatimids and Christian pilgrims begin returning to Europe with tales of persecution and oppression.

1070: Brother Gerard, a leader of the Benedictine monks and nuns who run the hospices in Jerusalem. beings to organize The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as: Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller) as a more military force for the active protection of Christian pilgrims.

1071: Normans conquer the last Byzantine holdings in Italy.

1071-1085: Seljuk Turks conquer most of Syria and Palestine.

August 19, 1071: Battle of Manzikert: Alp Arslan leads an army of Seljuk Turks against the Byzantine Empire near Lake Van. Numbering perhaps as many as 100,000 men, the Turks take the fortresses of Akhlat and Manzikert before Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes can respond. Although Diogenes is able to recapture Akhlat, the siege of Manzikert fails when a Turkish relief force arrives and Andronicus Ducas, an enemy of Romanus Diogenes, refuses to obey orders to fight. Diogenes himself is captured and released, but he would be murdered after his return to Constantinople. Partly because of the defeat at Manzikert and partly due to the civil wars following the murder of Digoenes, Asia Minor would be left open to Turkish invasion.

1072: Palermo falls to the Norman adventurers Roger I and Robert Guiscard. Guiscard allows to the inhabitants the right to practice their religion and a certain autonomy.

December 15, 1072: Malik Shah I, son of Alp Arslan, succeeds his father as Seljuk Sultan.

1073: Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.

July 1074: El Cid marries Jimena, niece of Alfonso IV of Castile and daughter of the Count of Oviedo.

1078: Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea. It would change hands three more times, finally coming under control of the Turks again in 1086.

1079: Battle of Cabra: El Cid led his troops to a rout of Emir Abd Allah of Granada.

1080: Order of the Hospital of St. John is founded in Italy. This special order of knights was dedicated to guarding a pilgrim hospital, or hostel, in Jerusalem.

1080: An Armenian state is founded in Cilicia, a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), north of Cyprus, by refugees feeling the Seljuk invasion of their Armenian homeland. A Christian kingdom located in the midst of hostile Muslim states and lacking good relations with the Byzantine Empire, “Armenia Minor” would provide important assistance to Crusaders from Europe.

1081 – 1118: Alexius I Comnenus is Byzantine emperor.

1081: El Cid, now a mercenary because he had been exiled by Alfonso IV of Castile, enters the service of the Moorish king of the northeast Spanish city of Zaragosa, al-Mu’tamin, and would remain there for his successor, al-Mu’tamin II.

1082: Ibn Tumart, founder of the Amohad Dynasty, is born in the Atlas mountains.

1084: Seljuk Turks conquer Antioch, a strategically important city.

October 25, 1085: The Moors are expelled from Toledo, Spain, by Alfonso VI.

October 23, 1086: Battle of Zallaca (Sagrajas): Spanish forces under Alfonso VI of Castile are defeated by the Moors and their allies, the Almorivids (Berbers from Morocco and Algeria, led by Yusef I ibn Tashufin), thus preserving Muslim rule in al-Andalus. The slaughter of Spaniards was great and Yusef refused to abide by his agreement to leave Andalusia in the hands of the Moors. His intention was actually to make Andalusia an African colony ruled by the Almorivids in Morocco.

1087: After his crushing defeat at Zallaqa, Alfonso VI swallows his pride and recalls El Cid from exile.

September 13, 1087: Birth of John II Comnenus, Byzantine emperor.

1088: Patzinak Turks begin forming settlements between the Danube and the Balkans.

March 12, 1088: Urban II is elected pope. An active supporter of the Gregorian reforms, Urban would become responsible for launching the First Crusade.

1089: Byzantine forces conquer the island of Crete.

1090: Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravids, captures Granada.

1091: The last Arabic fortress in Sicily falls to the Normans.

1091: Cordova (Qurtuba) is captured by the Almoravids.

1092: After the death of Seljuk Sultan (al-sultan , “the power”) Malik Shah I, the capital of the Seljuks is moved from Iconjium to Smyrna and the empire itself dissolves into several smaller states.

May 1094: El Cid captures Valencia from the Moors, carving out his own kingdom along the Mediterranean that is only nominally subservient to Alfonso VI of Castile. Valencia would be both Christian and Muslim, with adherents of both religions serving in his army.

August 1094: The Almoravids from Morocco land near Cuarte and lay siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. El Cid, however, breaks the siege and forces the Amoravids to flee – the first Christian victory against the hard-fighting Africans.

November 18, 1095: Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, asking help against the Muslims, were warmly received.

FIRST CRUSADE (1096-99)

Spring, 1096: Peasants’ (or PeopleÕs) Crusade sets out from Europe. Three armies don’t make it past Hungary.

Spring-Summer 1096: Massacres against German Jews occur on the way to the Holy Land.Ê Crusaders believe that the battle against Christ’s enemies ought to begin at home.

August, 1096: Emperor Alexius of Constantinople shipped the Peasants’ Crusade over the Bosporus.

Late Summer, 1096: First Crusade leaders depart Europe.

October 1096: Peasants’ Crusade annihilated in Anatolia by the Turks.

Spring, 1097: First Crusade contingents assembling in Constantinople.

End of April 1097: First Crusade began the march in Anatolia to Nicaea.

May 14ÐJune 19 1097: Siege of Nicaea.

July 1, 1097: Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskisehir).

October 21, 1097 Ð June 3, 1098: Crusader siege of Antioch.

December 31, 1097: First Battle of Harenc. Turkish prisoners were dragged within sight of the walls of Antioch and beheaded.

February 9, 1098: Second Battle of Harenc.

February, 1098: Emperor Alexius’ general Tacitius abandons the siege of Antioch.

Mar 10, 1098: Citizens of Edessa give Baldwin control of the city.

Jun 1, 1098: Stephen of Blois and a large group of French crusaders flee the siege of Antioch with news of the arrival of Emir Kerboga of Mosul and his army of 75,000.

Jun 3, 1098: Antioch falls to Bohemond and the remaining crusaders.

Jun 5-9, 1098: KerbogaÕs army arrives before Antioch, forcing Bohemond to assume the role of the beseiged.

Jun 14, 1098: Peter Bartholomew discovers the supposed Holy Lance (the weapon which had stabbed Jesus during his crucifixion.)Ê Crusader morale skyrockets.

Jun 28, 1098: Battle of Orontes. Crusader victory forces Kerboga to lift the siege of Antioch.

Nov 27-Dec 11, 1098: Crusaders capture M’arrat-an-Numan.

Jan 13, 1099: Raymond of Toulouse, after disagreeing with Bohemund about the future crusader course of action, leads the majority of crusaders away from Antioch and toward Jerusalem.

Feb 14, 1099: Raymond begins the disorganized siege of Arqah, near Tripoli.

Late Mar, 1099: Godfrey and Robert of Flanders join the siege of Arqah.

April 20, 1099: Peter Bartholomew dies after attempting an ordeal by fire to prove the authenticity of the Hold Lance.

Mid-May, 1099: Raymond lifts the siege of Argah and pushes to Jerusalem.

Jun 7, 1099: Crusaders reach the walls of Jerusalem.

Jun 13, 1099: Crusaders fail to take Jerusalem by storm.

Jul 15, 1099: In the only fully coordinated operation of the First Crusade, Godfrey’s forces succeed in scaling the walls of Jerusalem (near Herod’s Gate) through the effective use of a massive siege tower and ladders.ÊÊ Once in the city, the Crusaders massacre the garrison of Fatimid Moslems and a large percentage of the Moslem and Jewish population.Ê Godfrey was elected Guardian of Jerusalem.

Aug 12, 1099: Battle of Ascalon. According to most accounts (both crusader and Muslim), the Fatimids were caught unprepared and the battle was short. Al-Afdal left behind his camp and its treasures, which were captured by Robert and Tancred. Crusader losses are unknown, but the Egyptians lost about 10-12 000 men. After the battle, almost all of the remaining crusaders returned to their homes in Europe, their vows of pilgrimage having been fulfilled. There were perhaps only a few hundred knights left in Jerusalem by the end of the year, but they were gradually reinforced by new crusaders, inspired by the success of the original crusade. Ascalon itself remained under Fatimid control and was soon re-garrisoned. It became the base of operations for invasions of the Kingdom of Jerusalem every year afterwards, and numerous battles were fought there in the following years, until it was finally captured by the crusaders in 1153.

1100: Baldwin, count of Edessa, escapes an ambush near Beirut and proclaims himself king of Jerusalem.

1104: Muslim victory at Harran, which checks the Crusaders’ eastward advance.

1108: Two coalitions made up of Crusaders and Muslims confront one another near Tel Bashir.

1109: Fall of Tripoli after a 2000-day siege.

1110: Fall of Beirut and Saida.

1111: Ibn al-Khashab, the qadi of Aleppo, organizes a riot against the caliph of Baghdad to demand intervention against the Frankish occupation.

1112: Victorious resistance at Tyre.

1115: Alliance of Muslim and Frankish princes of Syria against an army dispatched by the sultan.

1119: Ilghazi, ruler of Aleppo, crushes the Crusaders at Sarmada.

1124: The Crusaders take Tyre. They now occupy the entire coast, except for Ascalon.

1125: Ibn al-Khashab is murdered by the Assassins sect.

1128: Failure of Crusaders thrust at Damscus. Zangi the ruler of Aleppo.

1135: Zangi fails to take Damascus.

1137: Zangi captures Fulk, king of Jerusalem, then releases him.

1140: Alliance of Damascus and Jerusalem against Zangi.

THE SECOND CRUSADE (1144-1155)

1144: Zangi takes Edessa, destroying the first of the four Frankish states of the Orient.

1146: Murder of Zangi. His son Nur al-Din replaces him in Aleppo.

1148: Debacle at Damascus for a new Frankish expedition led by Conrad, emperor of Germany, and Louis VII, king of France.

1154: Nur al-Din takes control of Damascus, unifying Muslim Syria under his authority.

1163-1169: The struggle for Egypt. Shirkuh, lieutenant of Nur al-Din, finally wins. Proclaimed vizier, he dies two months later. He is succeeded by his nephew Saladin (Salahuddin).

1171: Saladin proclaims the overthrow of the Fatimid caliphate. Sole master of Egypt, he finds himself in conflict with Nur al-Din.

1174: Death of Nur al-Din. Saladin takes Damascus.

1183: Saladin takes Aleppo. Egypt and Syria now reunited under his aegis.

THE THIRD CRUSADE (1187-1192)

1187: The year of Islamic victory.Ê Saladin crushes the Crusaders armies at Hittin, near Lake Tiberias. He reconquers Jerusalem and the greater part of the Crusaders territories. The Crusaders now hold only Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch.

1190-92: Setback for Saladin at Acre. Intervention of Richard the Lionheart, king of England, enables the Crusaders to recover several cities from the sultan, but not Jerusalem.

1193: Saladin dies in Damascus at the age of 55. After several years of civil war, his empire is reunited under the authority of his brother al-Adil.

THE FOURTH AND FIFTH CRUSADES (1194-1201)

1204: The Crusaders take Constantinople. Sack of the city.

THE SIXTH CRUSADE (1216-1218)

1218-21: Invasion of Egypt by the Crusaders. They take Damietta and head for Cairo, but the sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil, finally repels them.

THE SEVENTH CRUSADE (1227-1229)

1229: Al-Kamil delivers Jerusalem to the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, arousing a storm of indignation in the Arab world.

1244: The Crusaders lose Jerusalem for the last time.

THE EIGHTH CRUSADE (1245-1247)

1248-50: Invasion of Egypt by Louis IX, King of France, who is defeated and captured. Fall of the Ayyubid dynasty; replaced by the rule of the Mamluks.

1258: The Mongol chief Hulegu, grandson of Genghis Khan, sacks Baghdad, massacring the population and killing the last Abbasid caliph.

1260: The Mongol army, after occupying first Aleppo and then damascus, is defeated at the battle of Ayn Jalut in palestine. Baybars at the head of the Mamluk sultanate.

1268: Baybars takes Antioch, which had been allied with the Mongols.

1270: Louis IX dies near Tunis in the course of a failed invasion.

1289: The mamluk sultan Qalawun takes Tripoli.

1291: The sultan Khalil, son of Qalawun, takes Acre, putting an end to two centuries of Crusader presence in the Orient.

(adapted from the Christianity vs. Islam: Timeline of the Crusades, with many additions.)

1312-1337 was the tenth Mansa, which translates as “King of Kings” or “Emperor”, of the wealthy West African Mali Empire. At the time of Musa’s rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire in present-day southern Mauritania and in Melle (Mali) and the immediate surrounding areas. Musa held many titles, including Emir of Melle, Lord of the Mines of Wangara, Conqueror of Ghanata, and at least a dozen othersMansa-Musa Timbuktu, Egypt to Mecca

Mansa Musa is mostly remembered for his extravagant hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca with, according to the Arab historian Al Umari, 100 camel-loads of gold, each weighing 300 lbs.; 500 slaves, each carrying a 4 lb. gold staff; thousands of his subjects; as well as his senior wife, with her 500 attendants. With his lavish spending and generosity in Cairo and Mecca, he ran out of money and had to borrow at usurious rates of interest for the return trip. Al-Umari also states that Mansa Musa and his retinue “gave out so much gold that they depressed its value in Egypt and caused its value to fall.”

However, attention should be focused on the effects of the hajj, rather than the pilgrimage itself.

The hajj planted Mali in men’s minds and its riches fired up the imagination as El Dorado did later. In 1339, Mali appeared on a “Map of the World”. In 1367, another map of the world showed a road leading from North Africa through the Atlas Mountains into the Western Sudan. In 1375 a third map of the world showed a richly attired monarch holding a large gold nugget in the area south of the Sahara. Also, trade between Egypt and Mali flourished.

Mansa Musa brought back with him an Arabic library, religious scholars, and most importantly the Muslim architect al-Sahili, who built the great mosques at Gao and Timbuktu and a Royal Palace. Al-Sahili’s most famous work was the chamber at Niani. It is said that his style influenced architecture in the Sudan where, in the absence of stone, the beaten earth is often reinforced with wood which bristles out of the buildings.

Mansa Musa strengthened Islam and promoted education, trade, and commerce in Mali. The foundations were laid for Walata, Jenne, and Timbuktu becoming the cultural and commercial centers of the Western Sudan, eclipsing those of North Africa and producing Arabic-language black literature in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Diplomatic relations were established and ambassadors were exchanged between Mali and Morocco, and Malinke students were sent to study in Morocco.

For the forty-seven years between the time of the death of his grandfather’s brother, Sundiata, and Mansa Musa’s accession to the throne, Mali endured a period of political instability. Mansa Musa ruled for 25 years, bringing prosperity and stability to Mali and expanding the empire he inherited.

Mali achieved the apex of its territorial expansion under Mansa Musa. The Mali Empire extended from the Atlantic coast in the west to Songhai far down the Niger bend to the east: from the salt mines of Taghaza in the north to the legendary gold mines of Wangara in the south.

Mansa Musa was the ruler of Malian Empire which has an estimated net worth of $400 billion. He is referred to as The Richest Man of All Time.

Mansa Musa is the tenth Mansa. He is known for other names such as Emir of Melle, Lord of the Mines of Wangara, and Conqueror of Ghanata, Futa-Jallon.

He came to the throne by appointing a deputy. The reason why the King appointed Musa as his deputy because he did an expedition to the Atlantic Ocean.

When Musa embarked himself to a journey, aside from his own religious fulfillment, but he also recruited leaders and teachers so that his people must learn more about the teachings of the Prophet.

He is known as a devoted Muslim. His pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 was known across northern Africa and the Middle East.

The said journey to Mecca was documented by a lot of eyewitness wherein they astonished on the extensive procession. In 1324, he also visited with the Mamluk sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad of Egypt.

When he returned from his journey from Mecca in 1325, he was told that his army recaptured of Gao. Musa visited the city made a detour and visited the city and brought the two sons of the Gao king to Niani.

He built mosques and madrasas in Timbuktu and Gao. Some of the buildings he made during his reign was the ancient center of learning Sankore Madrasah or University of Sankore, and Hall of Audience in Niani.

Also during his reign, he accomplished the build up of Timbuktu wherein it became a center of trade, culture, and Islam.

Mansa Musa I of Mali was born during the period of 1280s. He died on 1337. He has two sons.

Mansa Musa died in 1337. He had brought stability and good government to Mali, spreading its fame abroad and making it truly “remarkable both for its extent and for its wealth and a striking example of the capacity of the Negro for political organization” (E.W. Bovill, 1958, The Golden Trade of the Moors).

Moor, in English usage, a Moroccan or, formerly, a member of the Muslim population of what is now Spain and Portugal. Of North African, African Arab, Spanish, and Amazigh (Berber) Origins, the Moors created the Arab Andalusian civilization and subsequently settled as refugees in North Africa between the 11th and 17th centuries. By extension (corresponding to the Spanish moro), the term occasionally denotes any Muslim in general, as in the case of the “Moors” of Sri Lanka or of the Philippines.

Blacka Moors of Al Andalusia (Spain

1492- The Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more centuries in southern Iberia. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada surrendered to the armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragón and Isabella I of Castile, the “Catholic Monarchs”). They forced the remaining Jews to leave Spain, convert to Roman Catholic Christianity, or be killed for refusing to do so. In 1480, to exert social and religious control, Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to allow the Inquisition in Spain. Granada’s Muslim population rebelled in 1499. The revolt lasted until early 1501, giving the Castilian authorities an excuse to void the terms of the Treaty of Granada (1491).

Nasrid Dynasty Flag of Grenada

In 1501, Castilian authorities delivered an ultimatum to Granada’s Muslims: they could either convert to Christianity or be Expelled or Killed. Coat of arms of the Nasrid Dynasty, the last Muslim dynasty of Al-Andalus.  

The Nasrid dynasty claimed direct male-line descent from Sa’d ibn Ubadah the chief of the Banu Khazraj tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The nasab of Yusuf (nicknamed “al-Ahmar”, meaning “the Red.

The family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty.

It starts with their common ancestor, Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted, as are sons whose descendants never reigned. During times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree generally recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace.

The Nasrid dynasty (Arabic: بنو نصر‎ banū Naṣr) was the last Muslim Dynasty in Spain, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1238 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1232 by Mohammed I ibn Nasr until January 2, 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule.

The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly. They were respectively called Marranos and Moriscos. However, in 1567 King Philip II directed Moriscos to give up their Arabic names and traditional moorish dress, and prohibited the use of the Arabic language.

The word derives from the Latin Maurus, first used by the Romans to denote an inhabitant of the Roman province of Mauretania, comprising the western portion of present-day Algeria and the northeastern portion of present-day Morocco. Modern Mauritanians are also sometimes referred to as Moors (as with the French maures); the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, however, lies in the large Saharan area between Morocco and the republics of Senegal and Mali.

The term is of little use in describing the ethnic characteristics of any groups, ancient or modern. From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, however its a known fact that Europeans depicted Moors as being Black, “Swarthy,” or “Tawny” in skin colour. (Othello, Shakespeare’s Moor of Venice, comes to mind in such a context.) Europeans designated Muslims of any other complexion as “White Moors,” despite the fact that the current  population in most parts of North Africa differs little in physical appearance from that of Southern Europe (in present Morocco, for example, red and blonde hair are relatively common).

The term Moorish continues to be widely used to describe the art, architecture, and high culture of Muslim Andalusia and North Africa dating from the 11th century onward. The spainish term for someone of dark skin is called Mor’reno for Males and Mor’reyna for Females. The Root word Moor means Dark and the Suffix term (Rey) means King and (Reyna) means Queen. (Moor Rey) African King, (Moor-Reyna) African- Queen … This term would also be used to describe a person of African American descent.

Moreno can mean dark-skinned in Spain, Portugal, Brazil, and the Philippines. Also in Spanish, morapio is a humorous name for “wine”, especially that which has not been “baptized” or mixed with water, i.e., pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Filipino Moros from Mindanao, and the Moriscos of Granada. Moro refers to all things dark, as in “Moor”, moreno, etc. It was also used as a nickname; for instance, the Milanese Duke Ludovico Sforza was called Il Moro because of his dark skin complexion. 

The language spoken in the parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule was Andalusian Arabic, a variety of the Arabic language; the language became extinct after the Expulsion of the Moriscos, but Arabic influence can be found in the Spanish language of today. The Muslims were resisted in parts of the Iberian Peninsula in areas of the northwest (such as Asturias, where they were defeated at the battle of Covadonga) and the largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. Though the number of Moorish colonists was small, many native Iberian inhabitants converted to Islam. By 1000, according to Ronald Segal, some 5,000,000 of Iberia’s 7,000,000 inhabitants, most of them descended from indigenous Iberian converts, were Muslim. There were also Sub-Saharan Africans who had been absorbed into Al-Andalus to be used as soldiers and some were also slaves. The Berber and Sub-Saharan African soldiers were known as “tangerines” because they were imported through North Africa from Tangier in Morocco.

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PRE-COLUMBIAN MUSLIMS IN THE AMERICAS
By: Dr. Youssef Mroueh

Preparatory Commitee for International Festivals to celebrate the millennium of the Muslims arrival to the Americas

(996-1996 CE )

INTRODUCTION:

Numerous evidence suggests that Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived to the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus. It is recorded,for example, that in the mid-tenth century, during the rule of the Ummayyed Caliph Abdul-Rahman III (929-961 CE), Muslims
of African origin sailed westward from the Spanish port of DELBA (Palos) into the “Ocean of darkness and fog”. They returned after a long absence with much booty from a “strange and curious land”. It is evident that people of Muslim origin are known to have accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the New World.

The last Muslim stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell to the Christians in 1492 CE, just before the Spanish inquisition was launched. To escape persecution, many non-Christians fled or embraced Catholicism. At least two documents imply the presence of Muslims in Spanish America before 1550 CE. Despite the fact that a decree issued in 1539 CE by Charles V, king of Spain, forbade the grandsons of Muslims who had been burned at the stake to migrate to the West Indies. This decree was ratified in 1543 CE, and an order for the expulsion of all Muslims from overseas Spanish territories was subsequently published. Many references on the Muslim arrival to Americas are available. They are summarized in the following:

A: HISTORIC DOCUMENTS:

1. A Muslim historian and geographer ABUL-HASSAN ALI IBN AL-HUSSAIN
AL-MASUDI (871-957 CE) wrote in his book Muruj adh-dhahab wa maadin
aljawhar (The meadows of gold and quarries of jewels) that during
the rule of the Muslim caliph of Spain Abdullah Ibn Mohammad(888-912 CE), a Muslim navigator, Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad, from Cortoba, Spain sailed from Delba (Palos) in 889 CE, crossed the Atlantic, reached an unknown territory (ard majhoola) and returned with fabulous treasures. In Al-Masudi’s map of the world there is a large area in the ocean of darkness and fog which he referred to as the unknown territory (Americas).(1)

2. A Muslim historian ABU BAKR IBN UMAR AL-GUTIYYA narrated that during the reign of the Muslim caliph of Spain, Hisham II (976-1009CE), another Muslim navigator, Ibn Farrukh, from Granada, sailed from Kadesh (February 999CE) into the Atlantic, landed in Gando (Great Canary islands) visiting King Guanariga, and continued westward where he saw and named two islands, Capraria and Pluitana. He arrived back in Spain in May 999 CE.(2)

3. Columbus sailed from Palos (Delba), Spain. He was bound for GOMERA (Canary Islands)-Gomera is an Arabic word meaning ‘small firebrand’ – there he fell in love with Beatriz BOBADILLA, daughter of the first captain general of the island (the family name BOBADILLA is derived from the Arab Islamic name ABOU ABDILLA.).Nevertheless, the BOBADILLA clan was not easy to ignore. Another Bobadilla (Francisco) later, as the royal commissioner, put Columbus in chains and transferred him from Santo Dominigo back to
Spain (November 1500 CE). The BOBADILLA family was related to the ABBADID dynasty of Seville (1031-1091 CE). On October 12, 1492 CE, Columbus landed on a little island in the Bahamas that was called GUANAHANI by the natives. Renamed SAN SALVADOR by Columbus. GUANAHANI is derived from Mandinka and modified Arabic words. GUANA (IKHWANA) means ‘brothers’ and HANI is an Arabic name.Therefore the original name of the island was ‘HANI BROTHERS’. (11) Ferdinand Columbus, the son of Christopher, wrote about the blacks seen by his father in Handuras: “The people who live farther east of Pointe Cavinas, as far as Cape Gracios a Dios, are almost black in color.” At the same time, in this very same region, lived a tribe of Muslim natives known as ALMAMY. In Mandinka and Arabic languages, ALMAMY was the designation of “AL-IMAM”or “AL-IMAMU”, the leader of the prayer,or in some cases, the chief of the community,and/or a member of the Imami Muslim community. (12)

NOTES

4. A renowned American historian and linguist, LEO WEINER of Harvard University, in his book, AFRICA AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA (1920) wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the New World and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean, Central, South and North American territories, including Canada,where they were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians. (13)

B: GEOGRAPHIC EXPLORATIONS:

1. The famous Muslim geographer and cartographer AL-SHARIF AL-IDRISI (1099- 1166CE) wrote in his famous book Nuzhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq (Excursion of the longing one in crossing horizons) that a group of seafarers (from North Africa) sailed into the sea of darkness and fog (The Atlantic ocean) from Lisbon (Portugal), in order to discover what was in it and what extent were its limits. They finally reached an island that had people and cultivation…on the fourth day, a translator spoke to them in the Arabic language. (3)

2. The Muslim reference books mentioned a well-documented description of a journey across the sea of fog and darkness by Shaikh ZAYN EDDINE ALI BEN FADHEL AL-MAZANDARANI. His journey started from Tarfaya (South Morocco) during the reign of the King Abu-Yacoub Sidi Youssef (1286-1307CE) 6th of the Marinid dynasty, to Green Island in the Caribbean sea in 1291 CE (690 HE). The details of his ocean journey are mentioned in Islamic references, and many Muslim scholars are aware of this recorded historical event..(4)

3. The Muslim historian CHIHAB AD-DINE ABU-L-ABBAS AHMAD BEN FADHL AL-UMARI (1300-1384CE/700-786HE) described in detail the geographical explorations beyond the sea of fog and darkness of Mali’s sultans in his famous book Massaalik al-absaar fi mamaalik al-amsaar (The pathways of sights in the provinces of kingdoms).(5)

4. Sultan MANSU KANKAN MUSA (1312-1337 CE) was the world renowned Mandinka monarch of the West African Islamic empire of Mali. While travelling to Makkah on his famous Hajj in 1324 CE, he informed the scholars of the Mamluk Bahri sultan court (An-Nasir Nasir Edin Muhammad III-1309-1340 CE) in Cairo, that his brother, sultan Abu Bakari I (1285-1312CE) had undertaken two expeditions into the Atlantic Ocean. When the sultan did not return to Timbuktu from the second voyage of 1311 CE, Mansa Musa became sultan of the
empire. (6)

5. Columbus and early Spanish and portuguese explorers were able to voyage across the Atlantic (a distance of 2400 Km’s) thanks to Muslim geographical and navigational information. In particular maps made by Muslim traders, including AL-MASUDI (871-957CE) in his book Akhbar az-zaman (History of the world) which is based on material gathered in Africa and Asia (9). As a matter of fact, Columbus had two captain of muslim origin during his first transatlantic voyage: Martin Alonso Pinzon was the captain of the PINTA,and his brother Vicente Yanez Pinzon was the captain of the NINA. They were wealthy, expert ship outfitters who helped organize the Columbus expedition and prepared the flagship, SANTA MARIA. They did this at their own expense for both commercial and political reasons. The PINZON family was related to ABUZAYAN MUHAMMAD III (1362-66 CE), the Moroccan sultan of the Marinid dynasty (1196-1465CE). (10)

C: ARABIC ( ISLAMIC ) INSCRIPTIONS:

1. Anthropologists have proven that the Mandinkos under Mansa Musa’s instructions explored many parts of North America via the Mississippi and other rivers systems. At Four Corners, Arizona, writings show that they even brought elephants from Africa to the
area.(7)

2. Columbus admitted in his papers that on Monday, October 21,1492 CE while his ship was sailing near Gibara on the north-east coast of Cuba, he saw a mosque on top of a beautiful mountain. The ruins of mosques and minarets with inscriptions of Quranic verses have been discovered in Cuba,Mexico,Texas and Nevada. (8)

3. During his second voyage, Columbus was told by the indians of ESPANOLA (Haiti), that black people had been to the island before his arrival. For proof, they presented Columbus with the spears of these African muslims. These weapons were tipped with a yellow metal that the indians called GUANIN, a word of West African derivation meaning ‘gold alloy’. Oddly enough, it is related to the Arabic word ‘GHINAA’ which means ‘WEALTH’. Columbus brought some GUANINES back to Spain and had them tested. He learned that the metal was 18 parts gold (56.25%), 6 parts silver (18.75%) and 8 parts copper (25%), the same ratio as the metal produced in African metalshops of Guinea. (14)

4. In 1498 CE, on his third voyage to the new world, Columbus landed in Trinidad. Later, he sighted the South American continent, where some of his crew went ashore and found natives using colorful handkerchiefs of symmetrically woven cotton. Columbus noticed that these handkerchiefs resembled the headdresses and loinclothes of Guinea in their colors, style and function. He refered to them as ALMAYZARS. ALMAYZAR is an Arabic word for ‘wrapper’,’cover’,’apron’ and/or ‘skirting’ which was the cloth the Moors (Spanish or North African Muslims) imported from west Africa (Guinea) into Morocco, Spain and Portugal. During this voyage, Columbus was surprised that the married women wore cotton panties (bragas) and he wondered where these natives learned their modesty. Hernan Cortes, Spanish conqueror, described the dress of the Indian women as ‘long veils’ and the dress of Indian men as ‘breechcloth painted in the style of Moorish draperies’. Ferdinand Columbus called the native cotton garments ‘breechclothes of the same design and cloth as the shawls worn by the Moorish women of Granada’. Even the similarity of the children’s hammocks to those found in North Africa was uncanny.

5. Dr. Barry Fell (Harvard University) introduced in his book ‘Saga America-1980’ solid scientific evidence supporting the arrival, centuries before Columbus, of Muslims from North and West Africa. Dr. Fell discovered the existence of the Muslim schools at Valley of Fire, Allan Springs, Logomarsino, Keyhole, Canyon, Washoe and Hickison Summit Pass (Nevada), Mesa Verde (Colorado), Mimbres Valley (New Mexico) and Tipper Canoe(Indiana) dating back to 700-800 CE. Engraved on rocks in the arid western U.S, he found texts, diagrams and charts representing the last surviving fragments of what was once a system of schools – at both an elementary and higher level. The language of instruction was North African Arabic written with old Kufic Arabic scripts. The subjects of instruction included writing, reading, arithmetic, religion, history, geography, mathematics, astronomy and sea navigation. The descendants of the Muslim visitors of North America are members of the present Iroquois, Algonquin, Anasazi, Hohokam and Olmec native people..(16)

6. There are 565 names of places (villages, towns, cities, mountains, lakes, rivers,.. etc. ) in U.S.A. (484) and Canada (81) which derived from Islamic and Arabic roots. These places were originally named by the natives in precolumbian periods. Some of these names carried holy meanings such as: Mecca-720 inhabitants (Indiana), Makkah Indian tribe (Washington), Medina-2100 (Idaho), Medina-8500 (N.Y.), Medina-1100, Hazen-5000 (North Dakota), Medina-17000/Medina-120000 (Ohio), Medina-1100 (Tennessee), Medina-26000 (Texas), Medina-1200 (Ontario), Mahomet-3200 (Illinois), Mona-1000 (Utah), Arva-700 (Ontario)…etc. A careful study of the names of the native Indian tribes revealed that many names are derived from Arab and Islamic roots and origins, i.e. Anasazi, Apache, Arawak, Arikana, Chavin, Cherokee, Cree, Hohokam, Hupa, Hopi, Makkah, Mahigan, Mohawk, Nazca, Zulu, Zuni…etc..

Based on the above historical, geographical and linguistic notes, a call to celebrate the millennium of the Muslim arrival to the Americas, five centuries before Columbus, has been issued to all Muslim nations and communities around the world. We hope that this call will receive complete understanding and attract enough support.

FOOTNOTES:

(1)See ref 4 (2)See ref. 9 (3)See ref. 3 (4)See ref. 1, 2 and 5
(5)See ref. 6 (6)See ref. 14 (7)See ref. 21 and 22 (8)See ref. 15
(9)See ref. 4 (10)See ref. 15 (11)See ref. 15 (12)See ref. 6
(13)See ref. 20 (14)See ref. 16 (15)See ref. 7 (16)See ref. 10 &12

REFERENCES:
1. AGHA HAKIM, AL-MIRZA Riyaadh Al-Ulama(Arabic),Vol.2 P.386/Vol.4 P.175
2. AL-AMEEN, SAYED MOHSIN Aayan Ash-Shia(Arabic),Vol.7 P.158/Vol 8
P.302-3
3. AL-IDRISSI Nuzhat Al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq Al-Afaaq(Arabic)
4. AL-MASUDI Muruj Adh-Dhahab (Arabic), Vol. 1, P. 138
5. AL-ASFAHANI, AR-RAGHIB Adharea Ila Makarim Ash-Shia,Vol.16,P.343
6. CAUVET, GILES Les Berbers de L’Amerique,Paris 1912,P.100-101
7. COLUMBUS, FERDINAND The Life of Admiral Christopher Columbus,Rutgers Univ.Press, 1959, P.232
8. DAVIES, NIGEL Voyagers to the New World,New York 1979
9. ON MANUEL OSUNAY SAVINON Resumen de la Geografia Fisica…,Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 1844
10. FELL,BARRY Saga America, New York 1980
11. FELL,BARRY America BC, New York 1976
12. GORDON,CYRUS Before Columbus,New York 1971
13. GYR,DONALD Exploring Rock Art,Santa Barbara 1989
14. HUYGHE,PATRICK Columbus was Last,New York 1992
15. OBREGON ,MAURICIO The Columbus Papers,The Barcelona Letter of 1493,
The Landfall Controversy, and the Indian Guides, McMillan Co.,New York 1991 16. THACHER,JOHN BOYD Christopher Columbus,New York 1950,P.380
17. VAN SETIMA,IVAN African Presence in Early America,New Brunswick,NJ
1987
18. VAN SETIMA,IVAN They Came Before Columbus,New York 1976
19. VON WUTHENAU,ALEX Unexpected Facts in Ancient America,New York 1975
20. WEINER,LEO Africa and the Discovery of America,Philadelphia, 1920,Vol.2 P.365-6
21. WILKINS,H..T. Mysteries of Ancient South America,New York 1974
22. WINTERS,CLYDE AHMAD Islam in Early North and South America,Al-Ittihad,July 1977,P.60

BOOKS and LINKS:

Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 2, J.D. Fage (ed.). Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Buy it in hardcover: Amazon.com | Amazon.ca

General History of Africa, Vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to Sixteenth Century, UNESCO. University of California Press, 1986.
Buy it in hardcover: Amazon.com | Amazon.ca
Buy it in paperback: Amazon.com | Amazon.ca

A Short History of Africa, Roland A. Oliver. Penguin Books, 1988.
Buy it in hardcover: Amazon.com
Buy it in paperback: Amazon.com | Amazon.ca
Buy it on audiocassette: Amazon.com | Amazon.ca

Topics in West African History, A. Adu Boahen, Jacob F. Ade Ajayi, and Michael Tidy. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
Buy it in textbook binding: Amazon.com | Amazon.ca

The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade: Only 4.4% of Slaves were Shipped to North America (U.S. & Canada) The Majority 93.6% of Slaves were shipped to Central America, South America and the Caribbean Islands #slaveryfacts

Posted in A Subtle Racist Classification, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Indigenous people, Semetic People with tags , , , , , on November 28, 2013 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

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Sources and Selected Links

Facts and Figures

  • Number of Slaves Transported by Each European Country (12)

  Country   Voyages   Slaves Transported  
  Portugal (including Brazil)   30,000   4,650,000  
  Spain (including Cuba)   4,000   1,600,000  
  France (including West Indies)   4,200   1,250,000  
  Holland   2,000   500,000  
  Britain   12,000   2,600,000  
  British North America, U.S.   1,500   300,000  
  Denmark   250   50,000  
  Other   250   50,000  
  Total   54,200   11,000,000  
  • Number of Slaves Delivered to Each Country / Destination  (12)

  Country / Destination   Slaves Delivered     %  
  Brazil   4,000,000     35.3  
  Spanish Empire (including Cuba)   2,500,000     22.1  
  British West Indies   2,000,000     17.7  
  French West Indies (including Cayenne)   1,600,000     14.1  
  British North America & U.S.   500,000     4.4  
  Dutch West Indies (including Surinam)   500,000     4.4  
  Danish West Indies   28,000     0.2  
  Europe (including Portugal, Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, etc.   200,000     1.8  
  Total   11,328,000     100.0  
  • Number of Slaves Leaving African Ports (12)

  African Port   Number of Slaves Departing     %  
  Senegambia (including Arguin), Sierra Leone   2,000,000     15.4  
  Windward Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Ivory Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Gold Coast (Ashanti)   1,500,000     11.5  
  Slave Coast (Dahomey, Adra, Oyo)   2,000,000     15.4  
  Benin to Calabar   2,000,000     15.4  
  Cameroons / Gabon   250,000     1.9  
  Loango   750,000     5.8  
  Congo / Angola   3,000,000     23.1  
  Mozambique / Madagascar   1,000,000     7.7  
  Total Leaving African Ports   13,000,000     100.0  
  • First Employment of Slaves in the Americas (12)

  First Employment   Number of Slaves     %  
  Sugar Plantations   6,000,000     54.5  
  Coffee Plantations   2,000,000     18.2  
  Mines   1,000,000     9.1  
  Domestic Labor   1,000,000     9.1  
  Cotton Fields   500,000     4.5  
  Cocoa Fields   250,000     2.3  
  Building   250,000     2.3  
  Total   11,000,000     100.0  

       These data were derived from the W.E.B. Du Bois database of slaving voyages, which was later combined with other databases to form the comprehensive Voyages database of nearly 35,000 slaving expeditions, estimated to represent 80% of the total  (32).

  Period   Number of Slaves Accounted For     %  
  1450-1600   409,000     3.6  
  1601-1700   1,348,000     11.9  
  1701-1800   6,090,000     53.8  
  1801-1900   3,466,000     30.6  
  Total Slave Exports   11,313,000     100.0  
  • Abolition Dates in the New World

Country   Date of Abolition   Comments
Upper Canada   1793   Ontario between 1791 and 1840
Haiti   1794   Revolution of slaves began in 1791
Lower Canada   1803   Quebec between 1791 and 1840
Argentina   1813    
Chile   1823    
Federal Republic of Central America   1824   Included Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Mexico   1829    
Jamaica (British Empire)   1834    
Guadeloupe (French Empire)   1848    
Peru   1851    
Surinam (Dutch Empire)   1863    
United States   1865   Following the Civil War
Puerto Rico   1873    
Cuba   1880    
Brazil   1888    
  • U.S. Census Data by Race – 1800 to 1860 (84)

Census Year Total Population

Breakdown By Race

Total,  %  Black
White Total Black Free Black Slave
1860 31,443,321 26,922,537 4,441,830 488,070 3,953,760

14.1

1850 23,191,876 19,553,068 3,638,808 434,495 3,204,313 15.7
1840 17,063,353 14,189,705 2,873,648 386,293 2,487,355 16.8
1830 12,860,702 10,532,060 2,328,642 319,599 2,009,043 18.1
1820 9,638,453 7,866,797 1,771,656 233,634 1,538,022 18.4
1810 7,239,881 5,862,073 1,377,808 186,446 1,191,362 19.0
1800 5,308,483 4,306,446 1,002,037 108,435 893,602 18.9

Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster

Image

Sources and Selected Links

Primary Sources

  1. Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite Jr., The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record    hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/index.php

  2. fizzog’s photostream, Gate of No Return, Cape Coast Castle,    www.flickr.com

  3. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Reading Room,_Images of African-American Slavery and Freedom    www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

  4. Circumcisioninfo.com

  5. Alex Haley, Roots: The Saga of an American Family,  Doubleday: Reissue edition (August 17, 1976), copyright 1976 by Alex Haley

  6. Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O’Rourke, Power and Plenty: Trade, War and the World Economy in the Second Millennium, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. In the UK, Princeton University Press, Woodstock, Oxfordshire. c. 2007 by Princeton University Press.

  7. wayfaring stranger, The door of no return, Gorée Island, www.flickr.com

  8. Mark Moxon, La Maison des Esclaves (Slave House) Image    www.moxon.net/senegal/ile_de_goree.html

  9. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, A History of Public Health in South Carolina,    www.scdhec.net

  10. MSN Encarta, Emancipation Proclamation,    encarta.msn.com

  11. Wikipedia, Fort Wagner,    en.wikipedia.org

  12. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York, c. 1997 Hugh Thomas

  13. R. Reynolds, An Accurate MAP of Africa From the Latest Improvements and Regulated by Astronomical Observations From A New Universal Collection, 1771, Engraved for Drakes Voyages, London: T. Cooke, University of Florida Map & Imagery Library    www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPAFRICA-D.HTML

  14. United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section, Map No. 4045 Rev. 4, AFRICA, January 2004    www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/africa.pdf

  15. Slavery in America, Map of West African Slave Ports c. 1750,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  16. NASA, Astronomy Picture of the Day, Earth at Night, 2000 November 27,    antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html

  17. Slavery in America, Slave Trade From Africa to the Americas 1650-1860,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  18. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Nigeria,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

  19. Slavery in the North, Slavery in Massachusetts,    www.slavenorth.com

  20. Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, A History of Slavery in Africa, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, c1983, second edition c2000 Paul E. Lovejoy

  21. Joseph C. Miller, Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade: Statistical Evidence on Causality, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 11:385-423

  22. James Ciment, Atlas of African-American History, Checkmark Books, An Imprint of Facts On File, Inc., c2001 by Media Projects Inc.

  23. Charles T. Webber, The Underground Railroad, Oil on Canvas at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Subscription Fund Purchases, Accession Number 1927.26,    www.cincinnatiartmuseum.org    [inscribed, verso: This picture is painted for the love of my dear wife Frances Augusta Webber-C.T.W. Dec 22, 1891]

  24. Ohio Memory, An Online Scrapbook of Ohio History,    Underground Railroad Painting, omp.ohiolink.edu

  25. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Senegal,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

  26. Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitochondria,    micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html

  27. Genetics Home Reference, Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions, Y chromosome,    ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome=Y;jsessionid=E08860AEBFD0E58ED766FE844F97C806

  28. PBS.org, African American Lives, Who Am I? A Genealogy Guide& African American Lives DVD c. 2006 Kunhardt Productions, Inc, Educational Broadcasting Corporation, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.    www.pbs.org/wnet/aalives/genealogy.html

  29. Ancestry.com, Slave Registers of former British Colonial Dependencies, 1812-1834,    www.ancestry.com

  30. Ancestry.com, U.S. Census Collection,    ancestry.com/?rc=locale%7E&us=0   [contains key word searchable census records from 1790 to 1930. Paid membership required]

  31. Cyndi’s List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet, African-American,    www.cyndislist.com/african.htm

  32. Voyages, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database,    www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces   [this site contains the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade database known as the Voyages Database]

  33. BeyondBooks.com, Guest Experts, Professor Ira Berlin,    http://www.beyondbooks.com/chat/1999/berlinarchive.asp   [an interview with Professor Ira Berlin, a noted historian of southern and African American life. Berlin is Professor of History at the University of Maryland, and has authored a number of books on African American history]

  34. Family Tree of Beth Nolan – Tasmania Australia, Compiled by Beth (Nolan) Stott,    stott.customer.netspace.net.au/famtree2.htm   [a typical family tree]

  35. University of Massachusetts Lowell, African-American Roots Project,    www.uml.edu/roots/Default.asp

  36. National Geographic Genographic Project, A Partnership Between National Geographic Society and IBM, Gene Project to Trace Humanity’s Migrations,    reference.aol.com/natgeo/_a/gene-project-to-trace-humanitys/20050413141909990001

  37. Visit Zambia, New DNA test results trace Oprah Winfrey’s ancestry to Liberia / Zambia,    www.visitzambia.co.zm/lk/news/new_dna_test_results_trace_oprah_winfrey_s_ancestry_to_liberia_zambia   [discussion of Oprah Winfrey’s DNA analysis and the tribes she is likely descended from]

  38. Mitochondria Interest Group Website, MIG icon image: Rat brain dendrite illustrating 6 mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang. NINDS, NIH,tango01.cit.nih.gov/sig/home.taf?_function=main&SIGInfo_SIGID=60    [image of a rat brain dendrite illustrating six mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang, NINDS, NIH.]

  39. Library of Congress, American Memory, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875, Feb. 27, 1869, Fifteenth amendment to the Constitution,    memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=015/llsl015.db&recNum=379    [resolution by the Senate and the House of Representatives, regarding the 15th amendment to the Constitution, providing voting rights to all adult males including former slaves]

  40. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave,    sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/07.html    [contains the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, online]

  41. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage, The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, Oxford University Press, New York, c. 2006 David Brion Davis

  42. Street Law & The Supreme Court Historical Society Present… Landmark Cases Supreme Court, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),    www.landmarkcases.org/dredscott/home.html    [a description of the Dred Scott case and Supreme Court decision. Provides a teacher’s guide for covering the material with students.]

  43. The Louisiana Purchase, A Heritage Explored, An Online Educational Resource from LSU Libraries Special Collections,    www.lib.lsu.edu/special/purchase/history.html#outline1    [an interesting history of the Louisiana Purchase]

  44. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children & Families, HHS NEWS, Campaign Launched in Nashville to Identify, Assist Victims of Human Trafficking,www.act.hhs.gov/news/press/2007/human_trafficking_victims.htm

  45. PBS.org, Africans in America, Judgement Day, Dred Scott’s fight for freedom,    www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html    [a very good description of Dred Scott’s life at the time he was pursuing his freedom in the courts]

  46. Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Collection, Scott v. Sandford, Taney, C.J., Opinion of the Court, www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0060_0393_ZO.html     [transcript of the opinion of Chief Justice Taney. Each Justice wrote his own opinion, and all of the documents are included on this website]

  47. Christine’s Genealogy Website, Who are your people?,    ccharity.com

  48. Guardian Unlimited, Church apologizes for benefiting from slave trade,    www.guardian.co.uk/religion/Story/0,,1705628,00.html

  49. The Evangelist, Official Publication of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany, Church’s failures of two millennia include repression, Crusades, Inquisition, www.evangelist.org/year2000/0699fait.htm

  50. msn Encarta, John Paul IIJohn Paul’s Achievements,    encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552499_2/John_Paul_II.html

  51. Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves (Paperback), Mariner Books, Reprint Edition (February 10, 2006), c. 2005 by Adam Hochschild, Hardcover Edition published by Houghton Mifflin, New York (January 7, 2005)

  52. CNN.com Transcripts, Live From President’s Day, Aired February 16, 2004, Miles O’Brien, CNN Anchor, and Rick Shenkman, Presidential Historian, transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0402/16/lol.01.html    [a humorous interview about the Presidents on Presidents Day, sharing little known facts]

  53. Wikipedia, Franklin Pierce,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Pierce

  54. United States Senate, Historical Minute Essays, The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner,    www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/The_Caning_of_Senator_Charles_Sumner.htm

  55. Wikipedia, Ain’t I a Woman?,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ain’t_I_a_Woman%3F

  56. New Jersey State Bar Foundation, Students’ Corner, Forty Acres and a Mule,    www.njsbf.org/njsbf/student/respect/fall02-2.cfm   [a concise discussion of the origin of the phrase ’40 acres and a mule,’ a promise made to freed slaves as the Civil War was in its final months. Unfortunately, the benefits turned out to be short lived.]

  57. Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, What About My 40 Acres & A Mule?    www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1994/4/94.04.01.x.html    [an interesting discussion by Gerene L. Freeman of the promise of 40 acres and a mule, in the context of teaching a predominantly African-American group of students about playwrights of African descent who emerged as a result and/or in spite of the American slave system.]

  58. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Citizen Information Service, Massachusetts Facts, Part Four, Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War Hero, www.sec.state.ma.us/cis/cismaf/mf4.htm    [provides a brief biography of Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War hero and member of the Massachusetts 54th Regiment, a black brigade that became famous for the assault on Fort Wagner. Carney was the first African-American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest honor. The site includes an account of the battle of Fort Wagner in Carney’s own words.]

  59. Wikipedia, Strange Fruit,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strange_Fruit

  60. PBS, Independent Lens, Strange Fruit,    www.pbs.org/independentlens/strangefruit/film.html    [includes a sound clip of the song ‘Strange Fruit,’ sung by Billie Holiday]

  61. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Finding Oprah’s Roots – Finding Your Own, First EditionCrown Publishers, New York, c. 2007 by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

  62. African Ancestry, trace your dna . find your roots,    www.africanancestry.com    [a commercial site that offers DNA testing. One of the labs used in the PBS African American Lives genealogical study of prominent African-Americans, hosted by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.]

  63. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Ghana,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gh.html

  64. Wikipedia, Sojourner Truth,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sojourner_Truth

  65. New Orleans Convention & Visitors Bureau, A Brief History of New Orleans,    www.neworleanscvb.com/static/index.cfm/contentID/sectionID/1/subsectionID/0

  66. Blupete.com, History of Nova Scotia, Book #1: Acadia, Part 6 — The Deportation of the Acadians, Ch. 04 – Introduction,    www.blupete.com/Hist/NovaScotiaBk1/Ch04.htm

  67. Wikipedia, Henry Box Brown,    en.widipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Box_Brown

  68. eSSORTMENT, Henry ‘box’ brown information,    va.essortment.com/henryhenry_rnls.htm

  69. Amistad Research Center,    www.tulane.edu/~amistad/amessays.htm

  70. Exploring Amistad at Mystic Seaport, Supreme Court Justices 1841,    amistad.mysticseaport.org/discovery/people/bio.justices.html#thompson.list

  71. Wikipedia, List of Presidents of the United States,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States

  72. University of South Florida, Florida Center for Instructional Technology, Exploring Florida, Key West: Civil War,    fcit.usf.edu/Florida/docs/k/keys15htm

  73. Keys Historeum, Presented by the Historical Preservation Society of the Upper Keys, History of Key West,    www.keyshistory.org/keywest.html

  74. The Floridians, A Social History of Florida, Florida Under Civil Strife, The Civil War and Reconstruction, The Road to Secession,    www.floridahistory.org/floridians/civilw.htm

  75. Florida National Guard Heritage Center, Civil War,    www.floridaguard.army.mil/history/CivilWar.asp?did=1305

  76. Fort Taylor.org, Key West, Florida, Fort Taylor Features    www.forttaylor.org/features.html

  77. Shotgun’s Home of the American Civil War, Chronology of the American Civil War    www.civilwarhome.com/timeline.htm

  78. New York Press, January 5, 2001, William Bryk, Mr. Wood Is Mayor, Volume 14, Issue 1    www.newyorkpress.com/print.cfm?content_id=3400

  79. Google Book Search, text of mayor wood’s message to council 1861, Harper’s Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A.D. to 1902, Page 435, by Benson John Lossing, John Fiske, Woodrow Wilson – United Staes – 1901,    books.google.com/books?q=text+of+mayor+wood%27s+message+to+council+1861&btnG=Search+Books

  80. Google Book Search, the national cyclopaedia of american biography fernando wood mayor of new york, page 388, by James Terry White – 1893    books.google.com/books?q=the+national+cyclopaedia+of+american+biography+fernando+wood+mayor+of+new+york

  81. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Online Exhibitions, The Dred Scott Decision and its Bitter Legacy,    www.gilderlehrman.org/collection/online/scott/index.html

  82. BBC, Long lost roots of Black Britons revealed by groundbreaking BBC TWO documentaryMotherland: A Genetic Journey,  www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2003/02_february/05/motherland.shtml    [Describes a BBC Documentary about the Motherland Project, The study took DNA samples from 229 volunteers, all of whom had four African-Caribbean grandparents. It was found that 13% of the ancestors of today’s Black Britons of Caribbean descent are of European origin. Analysis of the male and female lines showed that 27% have a Y chromosome passed from father to son that traces back to Europe (the male line), whereas only 2% have mitochondrial DNA that traces to Europe, passed from mother to child (the female line).]

  83. Science Museum (UK), Genetic Journey to the Motherland, www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/antenna/motherland/index.asp    [Information about the Motherland Project. Using DNA analysis, hundreds of British Afro-Caribbeans discovered the part of Africa their forebears came from. Some of the results are surprising.]

  84. U.S. Census Bureau, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056.html

  85. Waynet.org, Levi Coffin House State Historic Site,    www.waynet.org/levicoffin/default.htm

  86. Vicki Betts, University of Texas at Tyler, Files by Newspaper Titles, Atlanta Southern Confederacy, March 1861 – May 1863, F. Geutebruck    www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/southern_confederacy.htm

  87. Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Opinions, Amistad, Opinion of Justice Story    www.law.cornell.edu/background/amistad/opinion.html    [Opinion of the court in the Amistad case, delivered by Justice Story]

  88. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Sierra Leone,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sl.html

Selected Links & Sources

Image Collections

Map Collections

Songs, Narratives, Plays and Online Exhibitions

Museums, Libraries, Institutes, Databases

Genealogy

Resources for Teachers and Students

Miscellaneous


Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster

Egyptians and Hebrews [Asiatic-Africans] in America before Christ/Columbus 1000-800 B.C. . (The Indigenous Americans)

Posted in African Diaspora, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, Ashkenazi Hebrews L2a1, Asiatic African, Blood type O, Blood Types Americas, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Egypt, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Habeshas, Indigenous people, North America / North Africa, O-positive blood, Semetic People, Semitic, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, The United States and the Arab World with tags on August 16, 2011 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

Did ancient Hebrews reach the shores of the North and South American continents thousands of years before Christopher Columbus?

What evidence is there for Hebrew and Israelite occupation of the Western Hemisphere even a thousand years before Christ?

Was trans-Atlantic commerce and travel fairly routine in the days of king Solomon of Israel? Read here the intriguing, fascinating saga of the TRUE DISCOVERERS OF AMERICA!

A stone in a dry creek bed in New Mexico, discovered by early settlers in the region, is one of the most amazing archaeological discoveries in the Western Hemisphere. It contains engraved on its flank the entire Ten Commandments written in ancient Hebrew script! Hebrew scholars, such as Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis University near Boston, have vouched for its authenticity.

I visited the site of the huge boulder, near Las Lunas, New Mexico, in 1973 and photographed the Hebrew inscriptions. A local newspaper reporter guided me to the mysterious site, located out in the middle of the New Mexico desert. We watched for rattlesnakes, as we hiked in to the spot where the boulder lies, unmoved and in situ for who knows how many mysterious centuries. Who put it there? Who wrote the incredible inscription of the TEN COMMANDMENTS in an ancient Hebrew dialect?

In his new book The Origins and Empire of Ancient Israel, author-historian Steven M. Collins points out that the “Las Lunas Stone” inscription in archaic Hebrew was written in the Hebrew letters of the style of the Moabite Stone, dated to about 1,000 B.C. This would place the writing on the stone to the time of the kingdom of ancient Israel under its most affluent and powerful king, Solomon, who reigned from 1014 B.C. to 974 B.C.

Exactly how old the writing is, however, is not known. George Morehouse, a geologist, studied it and concluded it is between 500 and 2000 years old, based on the weathered patina on the rock. However, the inscriptions have received periodic scrubbings, says Collins, and therefore some of the ancient evidence of weatherization could have been removed in the process. Collins points out that the punctuation in the inscription matches that found in ancient Greek manuscripts of the fourth century.

Dr. Barry Fell states that separation points found in the artifact date to as early as 1200 B.C.

Evidence of Ancient Egyptians:

Literally hundreds of inscribed Phoenician, Celtic and Basque stone grave markers have been found in Susquehanna Valley of Pennsylvania, dated to 800-600 B.C., over 2,000 years before the fateful voyage of Columbus! It must be said, therefore, that Christopher Columbus did not really “discover” America. Rather, he and his intrepid sailors rediscovered the “New World”!

Incredible as it may seem, the presence of ancient Egyptians has been found in the writing system of the Wabanaki/Micmac Indians in Maine, a sub-tribe of the Algonquins. It has even been documented, says Collins, that the ancient Egyptians sailed the Pacific Ocean as far as Polynesia and Hawaii, searching for gold, about 1,000 B.C. – during the very time of Solomon’s Empire in Israel.

One proof of this fact is an inscription in ancient Ogam and Libyan – the language of Egyptian merchantmen – found near the Rio Grande River of Texas. The inscription states than an Egyptian-Libyan king by the name of Shishonq visited North America a number of times. It is translated as, “A crew of Shishonq the king took shelter in this place of concealment.” Says Dr. Barry Fell, several kings of this name ruled Egypt and Libya between 1000 and 800 B.C.

Interestingly, the Bible itself mentions a king of Egypt by the name of “Shishak” (“Shishonq”) who invaded the Kingdom of Judah during the time of Rehoboam, son of Solomon, after the kingdom of Israel separated from allegiance to the throne of David. Shishak was no doubt an ally of Jeroboam, the king of Israel, at that time. He was a mighty king and plundered the Temple and riches of the kingdom of Judah (see I Kings 14:25-26).

Steve Collins declares:

“It is significant that Dr. Fell noted the time period of ‘1000-800 B.C.’ as marking a period of significant Old World exploration of the New World. This time frame exactly parallels Bible records showing international travel and commerce flourished with fleets undetaking multi-year voyages and visiting other continents.

This time frame begins with the reigns of Kings David and Solomon, but continues through much of the history of the northern kingdom of Israel, the dominant partner in the Phoenician alliance until Israel fell circa 721 B.C. The conclusion is inescapable that the record of ancient history verifies the biblical accounts.

The Bible is not a detailed history of all that happened in the ancient world, but it confirms what archaeology and epigraphy have shown about the real state of commerce and travel in the ancient world”

(Collins, page 227, emphasis mine except boldface).

“A date of 800-700 B.C. for this stele confirms that the triple alliance of Israel, Egypt and Phoenicia lasted long after the lifetime of King Solomon. The Bible records that the ten tribes of Israel forsook worshiping the Creator God after Solomon’s death, and adopted the religious customs of Egypt, Tyre and Sidon. Biblical accounts show that Israel and Phoenicia were still very closely allied during the reign of King Ahab of Israel (circa 850 B.C.), and there is no evidence that their alliance suffered a breach until approximately 721 B.C., when Israel ceased to be a nation in the Mideast. . . .

Therefore the Iowa stele showing that these ancient nations were still working together around 800 B.C. in the New World is consistent with biblical accounts” (ibid., p.212).

In addition to these discoveries, another stele exhibiting the ancient Egyptian-Libyan script was unearthed on Long Island, New York. Dr. Barry Fell states that it also probably dates to around the ninth century B.C.

Still another amazing discovery was made in Oklahoma, where another stele was found which contained references to the gods Baal and Ra, with an inscription which was “an extract from the Hymn to the Aton by Pharaoh Akhnaton.” Although the dating of Akhnation is purported to be in the 13th century B.C., new Egyptian dynastic dating methods indicate he was much closer to 800 B.C.

Immanuel Velikovsky points out that Akhnaton was a member of the 18th dynasty in Egypt, which co-existed with the divided kingdoms of Israel and Judah during the 800s B.C. He was a contemporary of king Jehoshaphat in Jerusalem, and reigned from 870-840 B.C. (see Ages in Chaos, p.229). This Oklahoma stele is written in Iberian-Punic, a language descended from Phoenician-Hebrew, and Barry Fell declares that it is “scarcely older than 800 B.C.”

(see Collins, p.212, Fell, America B.C., p.159).

REFERENCES:

They Came Before Columbus – Dr Ivan Van Sertima, YouTube

Amazon.com: They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence .

Bryan Wilhite: Africa and the Pre-Columbian Contacts with America

When the Earth was called Muu Le Muria Washutaw Muurs 2/4 …

Before Columbus or the Egypt Pyramids Washitaw Muurs 1 of 4 …

 

 

Egyptians and Semitic People  in Ancient America

Egyptians and Hebrews in America Before Christ —

Islam and Muslims in America before Columbus

The African Civilizations in  Americas – Before BC

Pre-Columbian Muslims in the Americas

Once Reviled, Black Hebrews Now Fêted – Forward.com

Hispanic Muslims In America Before Coloumbus.  

African Hebrew  Slavery and Land of Israel  American Aliyah … –

Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

RaceandHistory.com -AFRICAN BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA

MtDna Migration Map of (Haplogroup L2a1 North Africa and South West Asia)

Posted in afri asiatic, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, DNA, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 30, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

egypt-nubian_wedding-copy

l2a1-asiatic-african-geodna-map-copy

This is Highlighted feature Map of the migrational route of Haplogroup L2a1 mtDNa

Haplogroup -L2a1 @ positions HVR1

16223T16278T16294T16309G, 16368C and 16519C.

(Note: mtDna results above from Genographic is HVR1 sequence only. Definitive results are acquired from FGS (full genome sequence) Test.

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Middle East and North Africa Related Ethnicites

Part of the “AfrI-Asiatic-Semitic Family”.   The process was very simple and pain-less.

This Map shows my L2a1 Northern Nile Valley migration as well as West Asia from  Nat’l Genographic

It took all of 3 minutes to extract saliva from my inner cheek.   place the swab back in the container that’s enclosed in the package with

(instructional dvd included..)

I then sent off my package “anonymously” with a “generated ID” number to follow the process “Online”…   4 weeks later results are in to check securely online in the privacy of your home.

At completion you will be assigned a (Paternal) YDNA or (Maternal) mtDNAHaplogroup (from the Greek word: ἁπλούς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Once this process is done you will recieve a Genetic Migration Map of Whatever Region your DNA Originates...

The Americas, Africa, Madagascar , Asia, Europe , Australia etc..

My Parents‘s Ethnic Ancestral Origins and Migrations

“The Americas” and “North Africa” (NileValley)(West Asia)”

(Indigenous American) and (Nubian-Egyptian)  

My Nationality from my parents genetic origins would be stated as 

Nubian-Native American or Indigenous American Kushite

BAM   !! U now have an Ethnic Origin The cost are from $79-$149 and takes about 4-6 weeks to process.

Excerpt from Genetic – Ethiopian Study : copy and paste the link below in your web browers to view:

(http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182106)

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33“African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins) 

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309”} L2a1 samples.

EXCERPT FROM GENETIC STUDY 2012.

“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea.  10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and  multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes have an African and or American Origin, but as a Haplogroup remains to be 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transitionnp16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)....

(NOTE): You have to do extra research such as,

Dna data Bases or Forums for comparative matches as well as ,

Public record Genetic studies, to pin-point the Highest Frequencies !! of your Personal DNA number sequence).

DNA-animation

THE  GOVt  in all countries and Monarchs alike .. WorldWide have DNA DATABASES

They know who you are ..   but do you know who you Are ?

(With the Scare tatics and  Biological Threats and

Exotic Flu Viruses this Science is Imperative !

(ex. the swine flu and vaccine ready H1N1 companies)

To know who You are)...

Something to ponder on ...

(the term “African-American” is a

(Corporate Constitutional definition/term:

that was implemented in December of 1988,

to hide your True Ethnic Nationality..)

OFFICE OF MANGEMENT AND BUDGET:

Federal Register Notice on Oct.30, 1997

Revisions to the standard for the Classification of Federal Data On Race and Ethnicity

Copy and paste link into your web browser to view site:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/fedreg/ombdir15.html

AFRICAN AMERICAN CELEBRITIES, ACTORS AND MUSICIANS and THIER DNA GENETIC GEOGRAPHIC COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:

1. Morgan Freeman mtDna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara

2. Oprah Winfrey – Haplogroup L3b Kpelle

3. Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone  his (moms)- Angola.

4. Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

5. Dr. May Angelo (R.I.P.) the Mende people of Liberia and Sierra leone who migrated from Western Sudan..

6. Dr. Mae Jemison L1a listed as West Africa via African Ancestry…

7. Tina Tuner Haplogroup L2a Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Niger, South Sudan, Kenya.

8. AfricaNews – Exclusive: Isaiah Washington mtdna on Dual citizenship – Sierra Leone

9. India Arie- Nigeria  

10. Chris Tucker- Y-Dna is  E3b Mbundu from Angola  and his Mtdna is L1c* Bamileke of Cameroon

11. Don Cheadle has Afro-Asiatic male Y-chromosomes R1b was found in Cameroon

12. Chris Rock has Central African-Asiatic Y-chromosome B21a  has notable frequencies in North Cameroon from Uldeme tribe.

13. Forest Whittiker is from  Igbo Nigeria

14. Danny Glover Nigeria- Igbo

15. T.D. Jakes – are mtDna L1c and Y-chromo E3b Nigerian (Igbo-people)

16. Judge Hatchett is from NigeriaYoruba/Hausa...

17. John Legend’s mtDna belongs to the Mende from Sierra Leone and his Y-Dna belongs to the Fula of Guinea Bissau..

18. Wanda Sykes from the hit show Curb Your Enthusiasm belongs to the Tikar and Fulani  from Cameroon.

19. Erykah Badu  maternal ancestry is from Cameroon with the Bamileke who migrated from Egypt.

20. Q-Tip from Tribe called Quest maternal ancestry belongs to the Jola People of Guniea-Bisaau.

21. Michael K. Williams who played Omar from the Wire maternal ancestry is Mende from Sierra Leone.

22. Quest Love from the Roots is Mende from Sierra Leone.

23. Black Thought from the Roots maternal ancestry goes back to Senegal with the Mandinka.

24. President Barack Hussein Obama -American-Kenyan.

25. Issac Hayes- Ghana..  R.I.P.

26. Whoopi Goldberg – Guinea Bissau Kpelle

27. Blair Underwood –  is a descendant of the Babungo people of Cameroon.

28. Marcus Garvey – Maternal Dna traces back to Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal his Paternal DNA traces to Iberia (Spain & Portugal).

29. Martin Luther King Jr. – Maternal DNA traces back to Mende from Sierra Leon his paternal is from Ireland.

Most of the individuals that were tested with African Ancestry had West African Ancestry?

*Wikipedia.org/Billy Gamble…

Genetic Genealogy and the Ancestries of African Americans by Dr.Rick Kittles.pdf

Lets Go people .. What are u waiting for ?

Nubia.Sudan.Meroe.Pyramids.

Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian Ancestry,

First-generation Egyptian immigrants, or Descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the United States.

In the 2007 U.S. census, the number of people with Egyptian Ancestry was estimated at 195,000,

Although some estimates range from 700,000 to 2 million.

The large majority of Egyptians in the U.S. are Coptic Orthodox

Some Christians in Egypt are increasingly marginalized.

NOTE:

One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

Northeastern Virginiaand theWashington, DC, Metropolitan area.

Other Egyptian American communities are concentrated in

Jersey City, New Jersey, Levittown,

New YorkSteinway Village in Queens, and

New YorkBay Ridge in Brooklyn, New York,

As well as in California, mainly in and around the

Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas,

And parts of Florida and, increasingly, Philadelphia.

African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora.

It is estimated that the current population of recent

African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.

Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S.

EthiopiaEritreaEgypt,  Somalia,

NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone, and South Africa.

Title: Reconstructing ancient L2a1 mitochondrial DNA links between Africans and Europeans

Authors: Cerezo M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Perego UA, Gómez-Carballa A, Brisighelli F, Lancioni H, López-Soto M, Carracedo Á, Capelli C, Torroni A, Salas A / Click link below:

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/suppl/2012/03/01/gr.134452.111.DC1/Cerezo_GR_2011_L Europe_manuscript_Supplemental_Data_S2_final_version.pdf

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2012/03/21/gr.134452.111.full.pdf+html

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  Egyptian population Haplogroup L link below …

http://www.fsigenetics.com/article/S1872-4973(08)00136-1/abstract?cc=y

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA and  Study of Human Evolution

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins

Investigation in the mtdna genetic structure of  Barbadians Haplogroup L …

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  U.S. “Hispanic Haplogroup L…

BioMed Central | Additional Files | The RHNumtS compilation ..

.Figure 2

Africa | Africa Map | Travel Africa | African Safari

Africa the Continent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Evidence of the Early Penetration of Negroes into Prehistoric Egypt”

African diaspora – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Egyptian American – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of  the newly 53 African colonized countries

“The socalled Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau”

NJ State Police  mtdna Micro-Chip Technology called Gene-Chip..

Revisions to the U.S. OMB Standards for Negro Racial Classification of Federal Data …

H.R. 2647-NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2010 CONFERENCE ..

Terracotta Goddess Isis from 18th Dynasty Collections

ብልልይ።ግምብል

Egypt mtDNA and the Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ Dna DiversitY.. The Maternal Hamito-Semitic.. mtDna Haplogroup L

Posted in anthrolpology, Blood type O, Cushitic, DNA, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, Indigenous mtDna (mother's) of Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, O-positive blood, Semitic with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

Meritaten Tasherit 18th Dynasty

egypts_awakening-mamoud

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Diversity of 58 individuals from

Upper Egypt, more than half (34 individuals) from Gurna,

Whose population has an Ancient Cultural History, Were studied by sequencing The Control-Region and screening diagnostic RFLP markers.

This Sedentary Population:

(meaning= inhabiting the same location through out life, non nomadic)

Presented similarities to the Ethiopian Population by the

Haplogroups L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the

West Eurasian component (defined by Haplogroups H to K and T to X) and Particularly by a High frequency (17.6%) of AfriAsiatic Haplogroup M1.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from Upper Egypt (Gurna)sedentary population …

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna

(of modern Upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I  5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 4.9%, L2a1* 20%,

L3* 11.0%, M1  14.9%, N1b  8.8%, T 5.9%, U  8.8%, L2* 2.0%

U4  5.9%, U6 2.9%, L3e* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L1c* 1.0%

L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%, L3f*6.9%. L3d*1.0%.

Percentages above are based on mtdna frequencies of

Southern Upper Egypt/Nile Valley collectively..

Percentages below are based onmtdna frequency in

Northern Alexandria/Lower Egypt ( Saunier July 2008)..

The Breakdown is predominantly European 67.5% followed by African @ 20.6% and Asian @ 11.9%.

European: R0 and subgroups (31.4%), I (3.2%), J (7.6%), K (4.7%), T (9.4%), U (9.0%), W (0.7%) X (1.4%)

African Haplogroups: L0 (2.2%), L1 (2.5%),  L2 (3.6%) and L3 (12.3%)..

Asiatic Haplogroups: M (6.9%) and N (5.1%)

Results:

The Egyptian Population Data set has a Low Random Match Probability..

The Egyptian Population also shows a Large number of Unique Haplotypes,

Therefore indicating a High mtDna Diversity within the Country

Overall 238 different haplotypes were defined by 228 variable positions.

Of the 238 different Haplotypes, 31 were shared within the database of 277 individuals.

The Haplotype most common in this dataset was observed in five individuals

There were 17 points of Heteroplasmy identified in 15 individuals (5.4% of the database)

At 16 positions: One Sample indicated three positions of point heteroplasmy>

(16519, 73 and 195)…

Other remarks: Egypt is distinctive Bio-geographically, as it is centrally located,

Among three surrounding continents its home Africa, Asia and Europe..

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are Nilotic and Indigenous and are typically Supra and sub Saharan..

Haplogroup L2a (mtDNA) has notable frequencies of 22% among the

Hebrew Affiliated Fulani of Nile Valley to Niger to The Gambia

They are at least 70,000-111,100 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !!

L2a1 also has (49%) MtDna collectively in,

Sudan, Nile- Valley/Nubia, Ethiopia, and Egypt

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the Nile Valley Civilizations)……

Queen Ahmose Nefertari/ New Kingdom 19th Dynasty

L2a is also in the Great Rift Valley regions @

16% Kenya/Sudan and 33% in Mozambique.

Today, the term is most often used to refer to

The Valley of the East African Rift,

The divergent plate boundary which extends from

The Afar Triple Junction southward

Across Eastern Africa, and is in the process of splitting

The African Plate into two new separate plates.

Geologists generally refer to these incipient plates as

The Nubian and Somalian subplates or protoplates.

East African-Asiatic: Plate of Nubia/Somalia and ArabiaAs for haplogroups M1 and U, they are African/Westasian/Eurasian haplotypes, at 30,000 B.P.

Other West-asian/Eur-asian, Haplotypes have been found in 12,000 year old bones in Morocco.

Haplogroups N and I Mtdna are possibly attributable to Arab ancestry, about 15% non-Arab in upper Egypt. But still, most of that would easily be attributable to the Neolithic input from “AsiA” very little of this would be attributable to Arabs.

To sum up, there doesn’t seem to be majority ‘Arab’ genetic component to the Egyptian DNA pool, 20% absolute maximum. A lot of the non African DNA is traceable to the Neolithic farming expansion that swept across North Africa, so it would be a lot lower in reality.

In upper Egypt a maximum of 20% of the Y chromosomes are Non –African.

{MMother’s mtDNA L2a1 has been shown to be prevalent in North Africa }..

{Since the Dynastic times, of Ethiopian-Nubian and Egyptian Kingdoms} …..

Sesostris the Ist 12th Dynasty from Altes Museum inBerlin

So how these people are supposed to have Magically Changed appearance in the past few thousand

years with so little foreign input I’d like to know

Egyptians are Indigenous “African-Egyptian”, Not Euro/Arabs.. They are in essence “African-Arabs”.

They are part African/Asiatics: (Hamito-Semitic) and are members of

The Nile Valley  and the Great Rift Valley , which could be equally known as

The East African Rift , Nile Valley Civilizations…

(“Nile Valley, “North Africa”, “Horn of Africa” and “West Asian Arab Africans”.)

{copy and paste national geographic link on egyptian mummies and dna}

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/080606-egypt-mummies.html

An important influence on the subsequent genetic landscape

Of the continent is likely to have been the LGM.

Paleovegetational studies have indicated that, between 30,000 and 11,000 years ago,

Much of the continent was extremely arid (Adams and Faure 1997).

The Sahara advanced hundreds of kilometers further south, and the Equatorial Rainforests

Were reduced to a small fraction of their present size, leaving open woodland and savanna in much of the Congo basin.

This may have formed a refuge area from which modern humans later dispersed:

Some with haplogroup L2a East and West, with L1b west;

Perhaps even some with L1a East and L1d Southward.

The origins of these expansions may lie earlier,

At the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ~40,000 years ago.

Queen Meryt-Amen the 19th Dynasty

The Valley of the Queens, is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. In ancient times, it was known as Ta-Set-Neferu, meaning –‘the place of the Children of the Pharaoh’, because along with the Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties (1550–1070 BCE) many princes and princesses were also buried with various members of the nobility. The tombs of these individuals were maintained by mortuary priests who performed daily rituals and provided offerings and prayers for the deceased nobility.

The distributions and ages of L1a, L1c/L3e, and L1d testify to the habitation of East, and Central, and southern Africa, respectively, by modern humans, ~40,000 years ago.

Similarly, L1b, L3b, and L3d imply that West Africa has been inhabited since at least 20,000–30,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L1b is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa

(particularly geographically adjacent areas, connected by the West African coastal pathway)

but little in East, southeastern, or southern Africa.

It is also common in so called African Americans

(~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

By contrast, the commoner haplogroup L3b (fig. 8c) is predominantly West African,

with a substantial representation again in today’s socalled African Americans.

It has also spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

And Its sister clade, Haplogroup L3d (fig. 9a), is also mainly West African and African American.

A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1), matching a Fulbe/Fulani lineage,

At considerable elevated Frequencies.

L3e (fig. 9b) is the most widespread, frequent, and ancient of the African L3 clades, comprising approximately one-third of all L3 types in sub-Saharan Africa.

This haplogroup has recently been dissected in some detail by Bandelt et al. (2001),

Who suggest an origin for the haplogroup in the Central Africa/Sudan region ~45,000 years ago.

As they recognized, L3e1 in particular is common amongst SouthEastern African Bantu speakers,

Along with some L3e2 and L3e3 lineages.

L3e also represents approximately one-third of all African mtDNA lineages in Brazil.

Alves-Silva et al. (2000)

Finally, there are two small sister clades, L3e3 and L3e4.

L3e3 is primarily West African,But with its root type present at elevated frequency in the

Southeast and with some southeastern African derivatives. There is also a Kenyan/Kikuyu derivative,

Again raising a possible connection with the Eastern stream.

L3e4 is present in East, Central, and West Africa, with One individual in the Southeast,

But is too rare to draw conclusions from.

The area occupied by Cameroon is not always considered as part of the geographic region known as West Africa.

Taking into account its haplogroup composition it could also be considered a genetic outsider.

There are numerous lineages

(L0a, L0a1a, L0a2, L2a1e, L4g, and L5)

that have a more CentralEastern than Western Assignation.

(Pereira et al. 2001Salas et al. 2002Kivisild et al. 2004).

The L4g haplogroupis most frequent in Eastern and

NorthEastern Africa and waspreviously Dated to ~40–45 kya

(Salas et al. 2002Go; Kivisildet al. 2004Go).

Haplogroup L4g (previously designated L3g) is present in both Eastern Tanzanian

Clickspeaking populations at high frequencies (60%Hadza, 48% Sandawe) but is Absent in the SAK.

History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDna …

The only L4 Saudi haplotype belongs to the L4a1 subclade defined by 16207T/C transversion.

Although it has no exact matches its most related types are found in Ethiopia [30].

Four L5 lineages have been found in Saudi Arabia but all have the same

Haplotype that belongs to the L5a1 subclade defined in the

HVSI region by the 1635516362 motif [30]. It has matches in Egypt and Ethiopia.

L6 was found the Most Abundant clade in Yemen [30].

BioMed Central |  Macro-Haplogroup L mtDNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula …

HAPLOGROUP L2A:

Haplogroup L2a is Nilotic and the most common and widely distributed sub- Saharan African Haplogroup and is also frequent in the Americas (~19%).

The wide distribution of L2a in Africa makes identifying geographical origins of lineages difficult.

(Excerpt from: The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182259/

The Main Puzzle is the almost Ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a,

North Africa Tunisian Bay : Golfe de Tunisia Port Saïd { Carthage}Which we suggest may have become”Prevalent “somewhere in

North-Central Africa  { Prehistoric Central North Africa }

Spreading East and West along the Sahel, during the Last Glacial Period or some what earlier..

Example: Modern day Sahel, Tunisia near Libya and Algeria..

Note: The Jerba Islands of Tunisia/Carthage is located in South Eastern Tunisia,

Tunisia, is inhabited by four ethnic groups: Berbers, Arabs, sub-Saharans, and Jews/Hebrews.

(click link below for isolated Sub/Supra Saharan mtdna of jerba/tunisia)

Isolated Haplogroups of Jerba Island Tunisia: L1b, L2a1L2a1c1, L2d2, L3b, L3b1, L3e1a, L3f, M and U

The Island of Jerba/Tunisia is said to be Inhabited First, by the Descendants of  the Mousterian Population

Between the 5th and 6thMillienia B.C. (Tlatli, 1967), Who were later replaced by Berbers of  the Ketama

and Lemata tribes ( Khaldoun 1852).

The First Arab settlement on the Island Occurred in the 7th Century A.D.

Another study shows results also point to a less Ancient western sub-Saharan gene flow to Tunisia, including Haplogroups L2a and L3b.

This conclusion points to an Ancient African gene flow to Tunisia before 20,000 BP.

These findings parallel the more recent findings of both archaeology and linguistics on the prehistory of Africa.

The present work suggests that sub-Saharan contributions to North Africa have experienced several complex population processes after the occupation of the region by anatomically modern humans.

Our results reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued to evolve in  supra-Saharan Africa.

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33) “African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins)

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309″} L2a1 samples.

EXCERPT FROM GENETIC STUDY 2012.

“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea. 10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes has African and American Origins, but the Haplogroup is 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transition @ np“16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)….

PCR AMPLIFICATIONS:

PCR amplification of (a) 27 selected NumtS in 4 healthy subjects from

Different ethnic groups ex..  L2a1-c1/16086C in (North Africa) Figure 2

Costa‘s link to mtDna diversity of Tunisia

Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian …

BioMed Central | Full text | The RHNumtS compilation:  North Africa L2a1c1…

Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers.pdf

Tunisia’s reproductive mtDna groups Isolates on Jerba Island.pdf

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] mtDNA sequences from Tunisian …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/Tunisia and Morrocan Haplogroup L

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA  L2a and L3a Variation in Mauritania and Mali

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] New Egyptian mtDNA sequences

European Journal of Human Genetics – Table 1 for article: The Canary Islands and North Central/NW Africa…

Haplogroup L2a has frequencies of 14% among Algerian Arab/Berbers and

10% among Bilād al-Sūs Morrocan Arab/Berbers in

The Sousse Valley North Africa..

We recognize, however, that the origins of these haplogroups may be more ancient than we can trace

(L2, for example, may be well >70,000 years old )….. and that, in such cases,

evidence of the earlier distribution of these clusters may have been erased by subsequent demographic processe.

We have attempted partly to disentangle the structure of L2a, retaining as irreducible on present evidence three major squares close to the root of the cluster. These reticulations link eight main clusters by single-step mutations.

We assume that the main reticulations of the network are due to the existence of rapid transitions at positions 16189 and 16192

(Howell et al. 2000), which approach saturation due to the high time depth of African lineages.

We also assume that position 16309 is more stable than the two known fast sites and therefore is not responsible for the main reticulations.

On these grounds, clusters α1-α2-α3, as well as β1-β2-β3, might be collapsed into two main clusters,

One of them with the basal motif of “(L2a)” and the other harboring the transition at “16309″ (L2a1).

Several instances in which 16309 must nevertheless evolve in parallel can then be read off the network..

Full report link below on genetic mtdna migrations:

Haplogroup L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309 (Salas et al. 2002).

The most extensive pan-African haplotype

(16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the L2a1 haplogroup.

This sequence is also observed in West Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in

North Africa among the Maure, Hausa, Fulbe, Tuaregs , Hebrews and others; in

Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the

Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in

East Africa among the Kenyan/KikuyuClosely related variants are observed among

The Tuareg in North and West Africa and among the

East African Dinka of Sudan and Eastern Somalians. (Ely et. al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997).

Also striking is the presence in Sakai, Mani of  Thailand of an unequivocal representative

With this  motif (16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309)

Of the sub-Supra Saharan African L2a haplogroup (Torroni et al. 2001),

Which again is compatible with the physical characteristics of this Negrito group.

Although the suggestion that the first spreading out of Africa of modern humans could have carried

some L2 lineages in addition to the L3 ancestors (Watson et al. 1997)…

(Note: my thoughts are the Sakai, and  Mani people of Thailand who genetically belong to the

Motif: 16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309 could very well belong to L2a1 by 16309 as according to the updated

Haplogroup Phylotree 2010 by Van Mannis) ex: Coding region 12693, 15784, and HVS1: (16309) for L2a1.

A compliation 0f 185 mtDNAs sampled across North Africa showed that about Half of the

Lineages belonged to the L Haplogroups otherwised observed mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa

And  that most of the rest fell into Haplogroup U6 (Sala et al. 2002) Which perhaps Originated

In the Near East and Spread into North Africa ~30 thousand years (KY) ago (KYA) (Maca-Meyer et. al. 2003).

A proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages, in higher frequencies as geographic proximity to sub-Saharan Africa increases.

The distribution of the main L haplogroups in North Africa somewhat reflects the known trans-Saharan slave routes:

West is dominated by L1b, L2b, L2c, L2d, L3b and L3d;

the Center by L3e and some L3f and L3w;

the East by L0a, L3h, L3i, L3x and, in common with the Center, L3f and L3w;

while, the ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a is almost everywhere.

Another major contribution to the pool of North Afri- can populations was the sub-Saharan one.

It is known that a proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages

(designated as haplogroups L0-L6)

Japan mtDna Genome Variation in  Sakai Eastern Asia from Thailand…

Joshua Project – Sakai, Mani of Thailand Ethnic People

The mtDna of the  trans-Saharan slave trade

HAPLOGROUP L2a

mtDNA phylo tree Build 10 (10 Aug 2010)

PhyloTree.org | sub-haplogroup |Haplogroup L

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Mitotool.org Macro-Haplogroup L  PhyloTree and Ethnic Groups..

Comparison of Craniofacial features of African-Asiatic Human Groups.

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in  Prehistoric Egypt”

Click link for Origin Date of mtDna>{TB5}

L1b 30,550 (16,250) B.P.
L2a 55,150 (19,350) B.P.
L2a1 33,700 (13,400) B.P.
L2d 121,900 (34,200) B.P.
L3e 49,250 (11,750) B.P.
L3e1a 26,750 (12,000) B.P.
L3e1 32,150 (11,450) B.P.
L3b 21,600 (6,850)  B.P.
L1c2 44,100 (10,650) B.P.
L3d 30,250 (8,450) B.P.
L3f 36,300 (12,800) B.P.

University College London 2004. mtdna study..

nile-valley-in-egypt

Afterword:

According to the profile of West African Dna study, on

Nilotic – Haplogroup L2a

The Percentages clearly shows an clear Eastern Distribution:

Eastern Africa 82%,

Western African 69%,

North-West African 27%,

South Africans 3% Kung Khwe

As well as Cabo Verde Islands 20% and

Fulani people from East-West, Central and North Africa at 22%

Chart on pg.5 (click counter clock-wise to view)

Shows Sahara, Horn of Africa and Congo regions as Well as Krings 1999. Nile Valley mtdna% ....

Click Link below:

http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers/MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

Egyptian Triad Statue. Menkaura The Goddess Hathor and Goddess BatNorth Africans tend to cluster with West Africans, suggesting that the sub-Saharan component of

North Africans Originates primarily from West rather than East Africa

(as expected, on geographical grounds).

Unlike other North Africans,Egyptians are closer to East Africans

than to West Africans. [Rando et al. 1999].)

PC2 has a large contribution from the Eastern lineage groups L3g and L3*;

However L2a, L1b1a, and L3e2* also make a similar contribution.

And though Egypt in the North as well, Egyptians tend to Genetically cluster with East Africans

mtDna Lineages of  Ethiopians, Egyptians and Hebrew Yemenis, Populations MDS plot (fig.3)

Clustered together with the Egyptian Population

In between the Near Eastern and West African as well as Southern African Clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic and Cushitic Speaking Populations of Ethiopia,

Were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182106/

A recent study on mtDNA suggested that modern Nubians and Egyptians are much more similar to one another than either is to southern Sudanese populations and that the divergence between the two northern populations may have occurred during the past few hundred or few thousand years (Krings et al. 1999).

Forensic Misclassification of Ancient Nubia:

http://www.cas.gsu.edu/anthropology/images/ANTH/Forensic_Misclassification_PDF.pdf

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NOTE: Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North-Central Africa with an  Origin Date of 55,150 B.P.

Would place L2a in the Upper Paleolithic era in North Africa beginning around 50,000 years before the present (ybp),

As well as the Mousterian Pluvial period circa 50,000 B.C. and  lasting 20,000 years, and finally ending around 30,000 ybp.

Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia or Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago

All the stone tools are very much alike and Unsophisticated.

However after 50,000 years ago there is “Sharp Increase” in the diversity of Artifacts.

For the First Time Bone Artifacts, and the First Art appear in the fossil record in Africa.

The First Evidence of Human Fishing is also noted from Artifacts in places like Blombos cave in South Africa.

After 50,000 years ago, Firstly in Africa, it was found that Human Artifacts could be placed into Many different categories,

such as {Projectile Points, Engraving Tools, Knife Blades, and Drilling and Piercing Tools}

All of the above are Found in (Al’kebu-lan) AFRICA...

Frequencies of  North West- East Asiatic Africans

(Haplogroup L, mtdna % chart)

Origin Population Number tested %
East Africa Somalia 26 Watson et al. (1997) 50.00%
East Africa Sudan 112 Afonso et al. (2008) 72.50%
East Africa Ethiopia 270 Kivisild et al. (2004) 52.20%
North Africa Libya (Jews) 83 Behar et al. (2008) 3.60%
North Africa Tunisia (Jews) 37 Behar et al. (2008) 2.20%
North Africa Morocco (Jews) 149 Behar et al. (2008) 1.34%
North Africa Tunisia 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 48.40%
North Africa Tunisia (Takrouna) 33 Frigi et al. (2006) 3.03%
North Africa Tunisia (Zriba) 50 Turchi et al. (2009) 8.00%
North Africa Morocco 56 Turchi et al. (2009) 26.80%
North Africa Morocco (Berbers) 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 3.20%
North Africa Algeria (Mozabites) 85 Turchi et al. (2009) 12.90%
North Africa Algeria 47 Turchi et al. (2009) 20.70%
Europe Italy (Latium) 138 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Italy (Volterra) 114 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.60%
Europe Italy (Basilicata) 92 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.20%
Europe Italy (Sicily) 154 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.00%
Europe Spain 312 Alvarez et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Spain (Galicia) 92 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.30%
Europe Spain (North East) 118 Pereira et al. (2005) 2.54%
Europe Spain (Priego de Cordoba) 108 Casas et al. (2006) 8.30%
Europe Spain (Zamora) 214 Alvarez et al. (2010) 4.70%
Europe South Iberia 310 Casas et al. (2006) 7.40%
Europe Spain (Canaries) 300 Brehm et al. (2003) 6.60%
Europe Spain (Balearic Islands) 231 Picornell et al. (2005) 2.20%
Europe Portugal 594 Achilli et al. (2007) 6.90%
Europe Portugal 549 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.83%
Europe Portugal (North) 187 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.21%
Europe Portugal (Central) 239 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.02%
Europe Portugal (South) 123 Pereira et al. (2005) 11.38%
Europe Portugal (Madeira) 155 Brehm et al. (2003) 12.90%
Europe Portugal (Açores) 179 Brehm et al. (2003) 3.40%
Middle East Yemen 115 Kivisild et al. (2004) 45.70%
Middle East Yemen (Jews) 119 Behar et al. (2008) 16.81%
Middle East Bedouins (Israel) 58 Behar et al. (2008) 15.50%
Middle East Palestinians (Israel) 117 Achilli et al. (2007) 13.68%
Middle East Jordania 494 Achilli et al. (2007) 12.50%
Middle East Iraq 116 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.48%
Middle East Syria 328 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.15%
Middle East Saudi Arabia 120 Abu-Amero et al. (2007) 6.66%
Middle East Lebanon 176 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.84%
Middle East Druzes (Israel) 77 Behar et al. (2008) 2.60%
Middle East Kurds 82 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.44%
Middle East Turkey 340 Achilli et al. (2007) 1.76%
South America Colombia (Antioquia) 113 Bedoya et al. (2006) 8.00%
South America Mexico (North-Central) 223 Green et al. (2000) 4.50%
South America Argentina 246 Corach et al. (2009) 2.03%

Funerary Boat from Egypt Middle Kingdom 12th Dynasty

Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population …

Mtdna Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt.

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins .

Ancient Egyptian Origins

ብልልይ።ጋምብለ

Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor

This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptianwith an M78Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita-Boyce Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://ingiagzennay.free.fr/Keita-Boyce.pdf

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Ychromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2%)Lower Egypt, (27.3%)Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)Lower Egypt, (24.2%) – Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

(Which group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the Bantu migrations?

But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site is dated, before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78 (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors” of  Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a Proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty “New Kingdom”

Ancient Y-DNA samples shows Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty belonged to Haplogroup  E1b1a/M2/E-V38:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2/E-V38, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

A genetic kinship analysis was done to investigate a possible family relationship between Ramesses III and Unknown man E, Who may actually be his son Pentawer. An ancient Egyptian Prince of the 20th dynasty, and son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. They amplified 16 Y-chromosomal, short tandem repeats (AmpF\STR yfiler PCR amplification kit; Applied Biosystems). Eight polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome were also amplified (Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits; Applied Biosystems). The Y-chromosomal Haplogroups of Ramesses III and unknown man E was screened using the Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor we determined the Y-chromosomal Haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal micro satellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2⇓). Although the mummy of Ramesses III’s wife Tiy was not available for testing, the identical Ychromosomal DNA and Autosomal half allele sharing of the two male mummies strongly suggest a Father-Son relationship.

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

http://www.academia.edu/2308336/Revisiting_the_harem_conspiracy_and_death_of_Ramesses_III_anthropological_forensic_radiological_and_genetic_study

Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M268%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on they-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000 ;)

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Y– chromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are8,000 B.P. and older)

The AfriAsiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arabmales are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

http://www.thegeneticatlas.com

E1b1a (V100) This population is one of two important populations to spring out of the Ethiopian Plateau, E1b1a effect became the most dominant population in Subsaharan Africa

E1b1a (M2) This population grew in enough numbers in the Ethiopian lowlands to be able to cross into the territories of Paleo Africans on their West in Sudan E1b1a (L576) This population represents an East to West thrust in Africa, only E1b1a lineage able to survive crossing the A1b1 territories E1b1a (L86.1) This mutation indicates that the population crossed the A1b1 dominated Grassland into the regions West of the great Lakes E1b1a (M58) Expansion between the Great Lakes & Midwest Africa E1b1a (M116.2) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M149) Very small minority in South Africa E1b1a (M155) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M10) Dispersed between Cameroon & Tanzania E1b1a (L485) An important lineage that emerged in the Eastern Benue valley in Central Nigeria E1b1a (L514) Marker for a strong lineage that played a major role in turning West Africa into their new territor E1b1a (M191) This marker indicates that the main body of (L485) reached the Benue River in Nigeria and Cameroon E1b1a (P252) A population that followed the Benue river South, an important marker of the Bantu expansion in Nigeria E1b1a (P9.2) The population that remained in the Benue region, expanded into West into Nigeria & South to Gabon E1b1a (P115) Eastern limit expansion population, reaching Southwestern Central Africa, with possible presence in other Fang regions E1b1a (P116) South of the Benue expansion in Southern Cameroon & Gabon E1b1a (U175) An important lineage that emerged in the Western region of Benue in Nigeria and Niger E1b1a (U209) This population represents the backbone of the Bantu expansion, emerged and expanded out of the Bantu Urheimat E1b1a (U290) A primary marker of African slavery in the USA, Important lineage in Southern Cameroon E1b1a (M154) Found in Western Cameroon & South Africa E1b1a (P268) Found in Gambia, could possibly indicate an early expansion out of Central Africa or late emergence out of an L86.1* that lived amongst (L485) or (U175) E1b1a (M329) The E1b1a population that remained in the Ethiopian lowlands.

_______________________

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

_

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

______________________________________________ Continue reading

The ብጃ Beja The Egyptian (Ta-seti) ጥሰቲ Warriors known as the FuzZy Wuzzies/ Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty

Posted in anthrolpology, Beja, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Eritrea, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, Nomadic, North Africa, Sahara, Sudan, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

old-kingdom-official

Ta Seti Fuzzy Wuzzy Beja 2

The WARRIORS ?


በጃ Beja the Ta-Seti Archers

Of

Nubia-Egypt

The  Beja በጃ (Ge’ez language:)(Arabic: البيجا‎) are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

The term Bejawi comes from Ta-Itjawypeople of Itjawy“.

Ta-Seti Neferet, the mother of Egyptian King Amenhemet I‘s was of a peoples from Upper Egypt known as Ta-Seti. He built a great city state called “Amenemhat-itj-tawy” (“Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands“), more simply called Itjtawy.

Amenemhat’s Ta-Seti army and conscripts came to be known Ta-Itj-tawy. In modern languages this is pronounced Bigawy, Bedjawi or Bejawi, Beja.

The Beja are found mostly in Sudan, but also in parts of Eritrea, and Egypt. They formerly were classified as belonging to the Hamitic race (a classification now generally regarded as scientifically incorrect).

Most of them live in the Sudanese states of Red Sea around Port Sudan, River Nile, Al Qadarif and Kassala, as well as in Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba Regions in Eritrea, and southeastern Egypt.

Other Beja ethnic groups are endemic to Egypt’s Western Desert and to Yemen. Some Beja groups are nomadic.

bedscha2

In Ancient Egyptian times, the Beja በጃ were known as Ta-Seti ታሰቲ

and were renowned for their skill as “archers in the Egyptian army”.

The Beja በጃ have also been named Blemmyesin Roman times,

ቡጋስ “Buga”s in  አፁሚተ Axumite inscriptions in Ge’ez,

and ፉዝዝይ ዉዝዝይ ”  “Fuzzy Wuzzyby Rudyard Kipling.


The Bejas attach a high importance to their “Hair”.  Their Prominent Crown of Fuzzy Hair”

(it is called tiffa in their language) and has characterized the Beja for centuries….

http://www.ancienthistoricalsociety.org/BejaTribe.html

Ta-Seti Beja (fuzzy wuzzy)

(Bejas believe that they are the descendants of a female Lioness deity and her Hue-man consort…)

The Prophecy of Neferti is an Ancient Egyptian literary text, wriiten for

King SnoFru from the 4th Dynasty Old Kingdom:

“Then a King will come from the South,  Amen ye the Justified by name.

SoN of a Ta-seti Womb-man, child of Upper Egypt..

He will take the White Crown and He will wear the Red Crown, He will join the two Mighty Ones..

Rejoice O’ People of his time..

The Sun of wombMan, will make his name for all Eternity ! ..

Asiatic invaders will fall to his Sword..

Libyans will fall to his Flame..

Rebels to his wrath , Traitors to his Might !

As the serpent on his brow, subdue the rebels for him..

One will build the Walls -of- the- Ruler to Bar Asiatics from entering Egypt”..

Beja Young Man  ..  photo by Vit HassanThe Egyptian Beja groups are believed to be the descendants of

The Maahes Caste of High Priests of Amen and their Soldiers.

Ta-Seti (beja) WarriorsEgyptian- Priest-Kings ; Pinudjem, Psusennese and Masaharta are acknowledged as

The patriarchal ancestors of Egypt’s Western Desert Maahes by Egyptian Bejas.

Hereditary Chief Sheikh Beja Khawr al`allaqi is a descendant of one of Egypt’s oldest surviving lineages.

Egyptologist, Emile Brugsch traced the clan of the Khawr kiji through the matriarchal Female line to the 20th Dynasty.

The Khawr kiji claim their Ancestress Maternally was the Mother of an even “earlierDynasty.

Most Egyptian deities first appeared as very local cults and throughout their history retained those local centres of worship, with

most major cities and towns widely known as the home of these deities.

The Goddess Isis originally was an independent and popular deity established in predynastic times, prior to 3100 B.C.,

at Sebennytos in the Northern Delta’s Lower Egypt.

Beja worshiped the Goddess Isis“(Eye-Sis) at Philae until the 6th century. After the temple was closed down officially in the 6th century

A.DGoddess Isis, wall painting 1360 B.C.

Queen Tiye of the 20th Dynasty THE NEW KINGDOM..

Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty .. the New Kingdom,

Queen Tiye ( 1398 B.C.-1338 B.C.) also spelled ( Taia, Tiy and Tiyi)


She was the daughter of the Royal Family,  Yuya and his Wife Tjuyu @ Amarna..Family Royal Temple@ Amarna of Yuya and Thuya

Tiye became the Great Royal Wife of the Egpytian Pharaoh Amenhotep III and the matriarch of the “Amarna Family”.Amenhotep III

The Amarna Family’s lineage can be traced back to the Royal Family of Ancient egypt..Amenhotep III and Queen Tyie

Tiye’s Father, Yuya , was a wealthy landowner from a Southern Upper Egypt town of Akhmin.

There it is said that he served as a Priest and Superintendent of Oxen...

Tiye’s Mother, Thuya was involved in many Religious sects, as her many titles attested..

( singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min..)

These traits suggest that she was a member of the Royal Family..

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. he had been born of a secondary wife of his father

and needed a stronger bond to the Royal lineage...

Amenhotep III Head  Statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child perhaps between the ages of 6-12 yrs old.

Tiye and Amehotep had at least 6 children, out of the six, one went on to become Pharaoh, his name is Akhenaten.Amehotep IV aka Akhenaten

Tiye’s eldest daughter Sitamun, was said to have married her father Amenhotep III, and become entitled , the

Royal Great Wife , as well…

The Great Land of Mother Al’kebu-Lan.. (Africa)

The Mother Land

Map of Egypt/Sudan's Nubia Nation. year of 1910

Names for Ancient Nile Valley Egypt

as a source for population classifications…

The Ancient Egyptians called their land many things

including ta-meri ታመሪ and km.t. ከሚተ.

Also, They called Upper Egypt- ta-shemu ታ ስሀሙ , “the sedge”, and

Lower Egypt- ta-mehu ታ መሁ or “the papyrus thicket”.

One of the most popular names for Egypt in ancient Egyptian is km.t (ከሚት) (read “Kemet”), meaning “blacks”.

The word is composed of the noun km , which translates into “black”, and determinative t, which makes the word a plural.

The use of  ከሚት km.t “blacks” in terms of a place was generally in contrast to the “Desert” or “Red land”: the desert beyond the Nile valley.

When used to mean people, ከሚት km.t “people of  Kemet”, “black people” is usually translated “Egyptians”, some writers argue.

Debate has centered around whether the ‘kmt’ term is an ethnic, cultural, spiritual reference, or a combination of the three.

Some scholars suggest that the term refers to the ‘racial’ or ethnic characteristics of the people.

Still, other scholars disagree with this position, and hold that k.m.t refers to the color of the land, or soil, and not that of the people.

It is of note that terms meaning land, such as ta, orateb, are No where to be found in the name km.t Land,

However is found in other names, typically as ta, like in terms:

British East Africa Map of Ethiopia Tana land of the Ta Nahesi.jpg

Ta-Nahisi ታ ናሂሲ , and Ta-Seti ታ ሰቲ , which translate to

“land of the southerners”, and “land of the bow” respectively,

The latter a reference to the Nehesy or “Nubian” weapon of choice…

The Nile river was sometimes called “Ar” አር or “Aur” ዐኡር

(Coptic ‘laro‘).

The land itself may have been given its oldest name,

‘Kem’ ከም or Kemi’ ከሚ ..

which signifies darkness, based on the black color of the sediments from it….

Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

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