The ብጃ Beja The Egyptian (Ta-seti) ጥሰቲ Warriors known as the FuzZy Wuzzies/ Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty

Posted in anthrolpology, Beja, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Eritrea, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, Nomadic, North Africa, Sahara, Sudan, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

old-kingdom-official

Ta Seti Fuzzy Wuzzy Beja 2

The WARRIORS ?


በጃ Beja the Ta-Seti Archers

Of

Nubia-Egypt

The  Beja በጃ (Ge’ez language:)(Arabic: البيجا‎) are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

The term Bejawi comes from Ta-Itjawypeople of Itjawy“.

Ta-Seti Neferet, the mother of Egyptian King Amenhemet I‘s was of a peoples from Upper Egypt known as Ta-Seti. He built a great city state called “Amenemhat-itj-tawy” (“Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands“), more simply called Itjtawy.

Amenemhat’s Ta-Seti army and conscripts came to be known Ta-Itj-tawy. In modern languages this is pronounced Bigawy, Bedjawi or Bejawi, Beja.

The Beja are found mostly in Sudan, but also in parts of Eritrea, and Egypt. They formerly were classified as belonging to the Hamitic race (a classification now generally regarded as scientifically incorrect).

Most of them live in the Sudanese states of Red Sea around Port Sudan, River Nile, Al Qadarif and Kassala, as well as in Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba Regions in Eritrea, and southeastern Egypt.

Other Beja ethnic groups are endemic to Egypt’s Western Desert and to Yemen. Some Beja groups are nomadic.

bedscha2

In Ancient Egyptian times, the Beja በጃ were known as Ta-Seti ታሰቲ

and were renowned for their skill as “archers in the Egyptian army”.

The Beja በጃ have also been named Blemmyesin Roman times,

ቡጋስ “Buga”s in  አፁሚተ Axumite inscriptions in Ge’ez,

and ፉዝዝይ ዉዝዝይ ”  “Fuzzy Wuzzyby Rudyard Kipling.


The Bejas attach a high importance to their “Hair”.  Their Prominent Crown of Fuzzy Hair”

(it is called tiffa in their language) and has characterized the Beja for centuries….

http://www.ancienthistoricalsociety.org/BejaTribe.html

Ta-Seti Beja (fuzzy wuzzy)

(Bejas believe that they are the descendants of a female Lioness deity and her Hue-man consort…)

The Prophecy of Neferti is an Ancient Egyptian literary text, wriiten for

King SnoFru from the 4th Dynasty Old Kingdom:

“Then a King will come from the South,  Amen ye the Justified by name.

SoN of a Ta-seti Womb-man, child of Upper Egypt..

He will take the White Crown and He will wear the Red Crown, He will join the two Mighty Ones..

Rejoice O’ People of his time..

The Sun of wombMan, will make his name for all Eternity ! ..

Asiatic invaders will fall to his Sword..

Libyans will fall to his Flame..

Rebels to his wrath , Traitors to his Might !

As the serpent on his brow, subdue the rebels for him..

One will build the Walls -of- the- Ruler to Bar Asiatics from entering Egypt”..

Beja Young Man  ..  photo by Vit HassanThe Egyptian Beja groups are believed to be the descendants of

The Maahes Caste of High Priests of Amen and their Soldiers.

Ta-Seti (beja) WarriorsEgyptian- Priest-Kings ; Pinudjem, Psusennese and Masaharta are acknowledged as

The patriarchal ancestors of Egypt’s Western Desert Maahes by Egyptian Bejas.

Hereditary Chief Sheikh Beja Khawr al`allaqi is a descendant of one of Egypt’s oldest surviving lineages.

Egyptologist, Emile Brugsch traced the clan of the Khawr kiji through the matriarchal Female line to the 20th Dynasty.

The Khawr kiji claim their Ancestress Maternally was the Mother of an even “earlierDynasty.

Most Egyptian deities first appeared as very local cults and throughout their history retained those local centres of worship, with

most major cities and towns widely known as the home of these deities.

The Goddess Isis originally was an independent and popular deity established in predynastic times, prior to 3100 B.C.,

at Sebennytos in the Northern Delta’s Lower Egypt.

Beja worshiped the Goddess Isis“(Eye-Sis) at Philae until the 6th century. After the temple was closed down officially in the 6th century

A.DGoddess Isis, wall painting 1360 B.C.

Queen Tiye of the 20th Dynasty THE NEW KINGDOM..

Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty .. the New Kingdom,

Queen Tiye ( 1398 B.C.-1338 B.C.) also spelled ( Taia, Tiy and Tiyi)


She was the daughter of the Royal Family,  Yuya and his Wife Tjuyu @ Amarna..Family Royal Temple@ Amarna of Yuya and Thuya

Tiye became the Great Royal Wife of the Egpytian Pharaoh Amenhotep III and the matriarch of the “Amarna Family”.Amenhotep III

The Amarna Family’s lineage can be traced back to the Royal Family of Ancient egypt..Amenhotep III and Queen Tyie

Tiye’s Father, Yuya , was a wealthy landowner from a Southern Upper Egypt town of Akhmin.

There it is said that he served as a Priest and Superintendent of Oxen...

Tiye’s Mother, Thuya was involved in many Religious sects, as her many titles attested..

( singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min..)

These traits suggest that she was a member of the Royal Family..

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. he had been born of a secondary wife of his father

and needed a stronger bond to the Royal lineage...

Amenhotep III Head  Statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child perhaps between the ages of 6-12 yrs old.

Tiye and Amehotep had at least 6 children, out of the six, one went on to become Pharaoh, his name is Akhenaten.Amehotep IV aka Akhenaten

Tiye’s eldest daughter Sitamun, was said to have married her father Amenhotep III, and become entitled , the

Royal Great Wife , as well…

The Great Land of Mother Al’kebu-Lan.. (Africa)

The Mother Land

Map of Egypt/Sudan's Nubia Nation. year of 1910

Names for Ancient Nile Valley Egypt

as a source for population classifications…

The Ancient Egyptians called their land many things

including ta-meri ታመሪ and km.t. ከሚተ.

Also, They called Upper Egypt- ta-shemu ታ ስሀሙ , “the sedge”, and

Lower Egypt- ta-mehu ታ መሁ or “the papyrus thicket”.

One of the most popular names for Egypt in ancient Egyptian is km.t (ከሚት) (read “Kemet”), meaning “blacks”.

The word is composed of the noun km , which translates into “black”, and determinative t, which makes the word a plural.

The use of  ከሚት km.t “blacks” in terms of a place was generally in contrast to the “Desert” or “Red land”: the desert beyond the Nile valley.

When used to mean people, ከሚት km.t “people of  Kemet”, “black people” is usually translated “Egyptians”, some writers argue.

Debate has centered around whether the ‘kmt’ term is an ethnic, cultural, spiritual reference, or a combination of the three.

Some scholars suggest that the term refers to the ‘racial’ or ethnic characteristics of the people.

Still, other scholars disagree with this position, and hold that k.m.t refers to the color of the land, or soil, and not that of the people.

It is of note that terms meaning land, such as ta, orateb, are No where to be found in the name km.t Land,

However is found in other names, typically as ta, like in terms:

British East Africa Map of Ethiopia Tana land of the Ta Nahesi.jpg

Ta-Nahisi ታ ናሂሲ , and Ta-Seti ታ ሰቲ , which translate to

“land of the southerners”, and “land of the bow” respectively,

The latter a reference to the Nehesy or “Nubian” weapon of choice…

The Nile river was sometimes called “Ar” አር or “Aur” ዐኡር

(Coptic ‘laro‘).

The land itself may have been given its oldest name,

‘Kem’ ከም or Kemi’ ከሚ ..

which signifies darkness, based on the black color of the sediments from it….

Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

Asiatic Afro-Arabs of Africa: North Africa-Ifriqiya* / Horn of Africa and SouthWest Asia.. (Nubians, Tuareg and Beja “Sahara” People)

Posted in Afro Arabs, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Tuareg with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 28, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

afroasiatic-westasia-map

nubian-lil-girls1
800px-nomad-tuaregs Afro-Asiatic Arabs of Africa..

Afro-Arab (sometimes referred to as African Arab) refers to people who possess both African and/or Arab ancestry. In addition, it may refer to Arabs who are not descended from recent African ancestry, but who live on the African continent.

There are large communities of Afro-Arabs in East Africa, North -Africa and Nile Valley Regions

West-Asia’s Middle east, and  through recent migrations, Western Europe.

The phrase Afro-Arab may also refer to African Union efforts to improve co-operation between Africa and countries of the Arab world.

Tuareg Barber and Tuareg Teen... Afro-Asiatic Family

The Arabs of the Middle East have very old connections to the African continent, and in addition more than half the Arab world now exists in Africa (in terms of area, and possibly population too), i.e. from

Egypt and Sudan in the east to Mauritania in the west, although much of the North African population are Berbers (a separate, native ethnic group speaking an Afro-Asiatic language) or Arabized Berbers.

The Islamic world covers even more area, ie. /Niger Sahara and Nigeria in the west and many other West African nations too.

So this intermingling of peoples from the African continent, along with the spread of Islam, has resulted in Large Populations of African Arab peoples covering a vast area of Africa and Asia.

Present-day Sudan is home to millions of Arabs, with 40% of the population identifying themselves,

Under the ethnic group of ‘Arabs’ Even though the option of ‘Afro-Arabs’ is also available…

.


Nubian.Woman with Henna Tattoos from Aswan Upper Egypt

Afro-Arabs within West Asia’s Middle East itself are for the most part descendants of

Black African slaves who were brought there during the Arab slave trade.

Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar as well East Africa hosts a significant Afro-Arab population

Along the Swahili Coast, such as in Zanzibar, Mombasa, Lamu, Malindi, the Comoros, Bagamoyo, and Ujiji.

 'Antarah Ibn Shaddād al-'Absī عنترة بن شداد العبسي

‘Antarah Ibn Shaddād al-‘Absī عنترة بن شداد العبسي

One of the most famous Afro Arabs of ancient times was the Pre Islamic Hero like figure Antar Ibn Shadded.

Antarah Ibn Shaddād al-‘Absī عنترة بن شداد العبسي was a pre-Islamic Arab hero and poet  born (525-608) famous for both his poetry and his adventurous life. What many consider his best or chief poem is contained in the Mu’allaqat. The account of his life forms the basis of a long and extravagant romance.

Antar was in Laiwa, He was born the son of Shaddād, a well respected member of the Arabian tribe of BanuAbs, and of Zabaibah,

An Ethiopian Female whom Shaddad had Enslaved after a Tribal War.

The tribe neglected Antar at first, and he grew up in servitude.

Although it was fairly obvious that Shaddad was his father, his

Ethiopian Dark Skin made it easier to classify him among the African-Asiatic slaves.

Antara claimed attention and respect for himself by his remarkable personal qualities and courage in battle, excelling as an accomplished poet and a mighty warrior. In 1898 the French painter Étienne Dinet published his translation of a 13th-century epic Arab poem Antar which brought Antar bin Shaddad to European notice.[2] It has been followed by a number of derivative works such as Diana Richmond’s Antar and Abla which furthered western exposure to the Antar bin Shaddad legends.

(Antarah ibn Shaddad)

The Zanj Rebellions took place near the city of Basra, located in southern Iraq over a period of fifteen years (869-883 AD). They grew to involve over 500,000 slaves who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over “tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq” .

The major revolt is said to have been led by Ali ibn Muhammad,

Who claimed to be a descendent of Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib.

Not all part takers in the Zanj revolt where of Black African descent,

Many where Slaves of Indian, Iranian and of Slavic ancestry.

The majority that where forced to work in the Iraqi salt marshes where however of Zanj (East African Bantu) Ancestry

Because the East European Slavs would simply die in the humid heat of the salt marshes.

It is believed that many of today’s Basra area “Afro Arabs” are Descending from one of these Zanj Groups though many May have settled that area under different circumstances via the Arab-African.

In Medieval HistoryIfriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabicإفريقية‎) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western LibyaTunisia, and Eastern Algeria.

This area included what had been the Roman province of Africa, whose name it inherited

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italy, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia.

Its Capital was Qayrawan (Kairouan) in Central Tunisia.

Arabic Thought and its Place in History, De Lacy O’Leary, London: Kegan, Paul [1922], p. 227-8 says: “Gradually the Arabs spread all along North Ifriqiya*/Africa and down to the desert edge, their tribes as a rule occupying the lower ground, whilst the older population had its chief centres in the mountainous districts.

During the invasion of 45 (A.H.) the city of Kairouan (Qairouan, Qayrawan) was founded some distance south of Tunis.

The site was badly chosen, and is now marked only by ruins and a scanty village, but for some centuries it served as the capital city of Ifrikiya, which was the name given to the province lying next to Egypt, embracing the modern states of Tripoli, Tunis, and the Eastern part of Algeria up to the meridian of Bougie.”

From their base in Kairouan the Aghlabids Conquered Sicily, beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was displaced by the Normans, effecting lasting changes in Sicilian culture.

Nubian la bezza

Nomadic

Arabs

Etymology of the word Arab

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

Sources

  • Ibn KhaldunHistoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l’Afrique; traduite de l’arabe par le baron de Slane; nouv. éd / pub. sous la direction de Paul Casanova, et suivie d’une bibliographie d’Ibn Khaldoun. 4 vols. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1925-34.
  • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de l’Afrique du Nord, des origines à 1830, édition originale Paris: Payot, 1931, réédition Payot, Paris, 1961


The DNA Bill “S.1858” Nobody Noticed… So what’s your Dna Ethnic Origin ?

Posted in afri asiatic, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nubians with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

 

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

 

yannis-nubian-twin-from-dongolanubia-copy3

The Bill Nobody Noticed: National DNA Databank

S.1858, known as The Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act of 2007, is justified as a “national contingency plan” in that it represents preparation for any sort of public health emergency. The bill states that the federal government should “continue to carry out, coordinate, and expand research in newborn screening” and “maintain a central clearinghouse of current information on newborn screening… ensuring that the clearinghouse is available on the Internet and is updated at least quarterly”. Sections of the bill also make it clear that DNA may be used in genetic experiments and tests. Read the full bill: http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xp…

Twila Brase, president of the Citizens’ Council on Health Care warns that this new law represents the beginning of nationwide genetic testing. Brase states that S.1858 and H.R. 3825, the House version of the bill, will:

• Establish a national list of genetic conditions for which newborns and children are to be tested.

• Establish protocols for the linking and sharing of genetic test results nationwide.

• Build surveillance systems for tracking the health status and health outcomes of individuals diagnosed at birth with a genetic defect or trait.

• Use the newborn screening program as an opportunity for government agencies to identify, list, and study “secondary conditions” of individuals and their families.

• Subject citizens to genetic research without their knowledge or consent.

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

Read her entire analysis of the implications of this bill here :http://www.cchconline.org/pdf/S_1858_NB…

Brase states that under this bill, ”The DNA taken at birth from every citizen is essentially Owned by the Government”, and “Every Citizen born becomes a potential subject of Government-Sponsored Genetic Research. All 50 states are now routinely providing results of genetic screenings to the Department of Homeland Security and this bill will establish the legality of that practice plus include DNA.

Ron Paul has also vigorously argued against this bill making the following comments before the US House of Representatives:

I cannot support legislation…that exceeds the Constitutional limitations on federal power or in any way threatens the liberty of the American people. I must oppose it.

S. 1858 gives the federal bureaucracy the authority to develop a model newborn screening program. Madame Speaker, the federal government lacks both the constitutional authority and the competence to develop a newborn screening program adequate for a nation as large and diverse as the United States. …”

“Those of us in the medical profession should be particularly concerned about policies allowing government officials and state-favored interests to access our medical records without our consent …

My review of S. 1858 indicates the drafters of the legislation made no effort to ensure these newborn screening programs do not violate the privacy rights of parents and children, in fact, by directing federal bureaucrats to create a contingency plan for newborn screening in the event of a ‘public health’ disaster, this bill may lead to further erosions of medical privacy.

As recent history so eloquently illustrates, politicians are more than willing to take, and people are more than willing to cede, liberty during times of ‘emergency.”

http://www.cchconline.org/pdf/S_1858_NB…

http://infowars.net/articles/may2008/02Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

Egyptians, E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Nubians and Hebrews are the Same Ethnic People: NILE VALLEY: North Africa / Sahara / Horn of Africa and West Asia..

Posted in Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, L2a1, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Semetic People, Semitic, Sephardic Hebrews, The Axumite Kingdom, The Sahel with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻


This is the Ancient Nuzi Map of Eden, which supports the existence of the African Eden.

Link To Photo Of Original Clay Tablet

The Nuzi Map – made of clay may have been made 120 years before The Flood of Noah or possibly closer to Creation.

Cocoa "Nubia" Baby

nubian-girl-with-henna-tatoos

The Nuzi Map portrays the main city within Eden/Aad as being South of the cited mid-point. That is, on the Nuzi Map the city of Aid appears to be perhaps as far south as the Dahlak Archipelago to the Northeast of Asmara, Eritrea (Ethiopia) or nearer the Sudan/Eritrean border or even further to the North perhaps nearer the Suakin Archipelago and Port Sudan.   It is very probable that ruins of Eden will be found throughout this entire area.”Land of Ham and Shem MapThe Nuzi map proves the existence of the 4 rivers chronicled in the “Holy Bible”.

Those 4 rivers traverse around the entire country of Ethiopia/HaBashan. Eden is located in Ethiopia.

The term for Eden was Aden/Adin/Aad – which also means: To give pleasures, has the same prime root word as Eden or Adan, to be soft pleasant or voluptuous land.  Basically, this was the best place in the whole world to live flourish and be fruitful.

Egypt-Ethiopia/Kush-Nubia-Sudan was some of the places where man walked with GOD in the cool of the day ‘Where the Son of God’ met with man-kind. It would be the same place where, people would return after the Deluge – they would return to their nativityAfrika.

NOTE: When the word Ethiopia is used it referred to ALL of AFRICA and not just the current location.  Africa, Ethiopia, Egypt, Nubia are different words for the same people!

We now see that the Fertile Crescent was connected to the other Fertile Crescent in the Nile Valley and along the Nile River that traversed through the center of Africa and beginning in what is now call Uganda.

Where they from the same source?

Do you really believe that people never traveled UP and DOWN the Whole Nile in all the thousands of years man has lived on this Earth-planet?

And since they did, some people stayed where they traveled and mini-civilizations flourished.

The locale where the Biblical Adam and Eve, otherwise known as the

The Adamite Unit: (the Wombman and the Hue-Man) was probably born is now

Sudan/Ethiopia/Kenya at the Breast of the East African continent.

The Egyptians has identified this region as the (Mouth of the Nile) were the “Original” people resided.

Tekeze River ተከዘ ሪቨር of Eritrea/EthiopiaThe Tekeze River on the Nuzi map is not shown on many modern maps, flows into the Atbara River, which is one of the three main tributaries of the Nile River.  And, it appears that the Tekeze River is the river that is clearly shown on the ancient Nuzi Map and is very close to Aad/Eden.

The Tekeze River begins in modern Ethiopia on the Ethiopian/Eritrean border, traverses West-northwest through Ethiopia and Eritrea, and then flows into the Atbara as it enters the Sudan.

The Atbara then flows northwest through Sudan until it meets the Nile at the town of Atbarah, Sudan.

Nubia's Atbarah River of the Nile.jpgThis city of Atbarah is located on the Southeast corner of the big bend of the Nile

(i.e. South of the 5th cataract or waterfall).

Remember Indigenous peoples “never” used the phrase CATARACT that was a European invention to divide the Family of Africa.

Thus, the Nuzi Map reveals that the Edenic City of Aad is in very close proximity to the Tekeze River,

Which begins due South of the Dahlak Archipelago (Ethiopia). Therefore, Eden is in Africa near the “East or Horn of Africa”.

(Excerpted from an internet site) “Ekowa©

African Presence In Early Asia, Edited by Runoko Rashidi & Ivan Van Sertima.

African Origins Of Civilization, by Cheikh Anta Diop.


The (four ) major ethnic groups of Ethiopia today are

The Tigrais, Amharas, Afar and Oromos.

Together, they account for approximately three-quarters of the total national population.

Amhara, Tigrais, and Gurages

Speak semetic languages and Are considered to be descendants of Southern Arabian Conquerors,

who trace their Ancestry back to Ancient (Queen of  Sheba,Moses and King Solomon.

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba Ethiopian- Afro Queen of Sheba : Makeda ማከዳ

(click link to see Ethiopian/Yemenis mtDna breakdown)…

articlerender.fcgi &  mtdna TB1

Whereas Tigrais still live in the area of the Ancient Aksum kingdom, the Amharas and Gurages have expanded inland.

The Semitic-speaking Axumites, or Habash sometimes Amharic~ Abesha, አበሻ `ābešā; (Abyssinians), had their capital city, Aksum,

In the western part of the province of Tigray.

During the first 6 centuries (1a.d.– 6a.d) they controlled territories North to Upper Egypt, east to the Gulf of Aden and

Southern Arabia, south to the Omo River, and west to the Cushite Kingdom of Meroë  (Munro-Hay 1991).

Because Amharas have largely taken the role of the political and cultural elite in the country,

Amhara Ethiopian Boy

There is a process of “Amharization,” which can be understood, at least partly, as a matter of prestige and

which leads to the cultural assimilation of other minority populations.

Afar Ethiopians Girls

The Oromos and the Hamer People as well as the Afars speak Omotic or Cushitic languages and are purported to have connectionsto

Ancient Egyptians, Ethiopian women from Hamer tribe

Since the land of Cush—the son of Biblical Ham—is generally considered to be in the vicinity of the Ancient cities of Meroë and

Napata, located in present-day Sudan.

Yet it should be stressed here that the split between the Cushitic and Semitic languages, branches of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic

family, is ancient, probably predating the Holocene

(see, e.g., Militarev [2003]).

Ethiopian Boy

The linguistic reconstructions of Semitic vocabulary, related to farming and agriculture, have supported the theory that the

origin of Semitic languages is in the Near East (Diakonoff 1988; Militarev 2003).

On the other hand, the finding of all major branches of the Afro-Asiatic language tree in Africa/Ethiopia,

Including those that are not spoken elsewhere in the world, suggests that the homeland of the Afro-Asiatic

language family may have been somewhere close to Africa’s southwestern Ethiopia (Ehret 1995).

However, both cultural and historic evidence show tight connections between East Africa and the Semitic cultural substrate in

the Near East and southern Arabia, Which points to four distinct phases of Semitic cultural intrusion into Ethiopia:

Falasha Ethiopians

First, related to the Sabaens in the 1st millennium b.c.;

Second, as the arrival of Falasha Jews from southern Arabia in the first 2 centuries a.d.;

Third, during the 4th–6th centuries, when Syrian missionaries brought,

Christianity to Aksumites/Axumites አፁሚተand to their descendants,

The Tigrais ቲግራኢስ and the Amharas አምሃራስ :

And fourth, because of the influence of Muslim Arabs, which primarily affected

The southeastern parts of the country..

(Levine 1974).Falasha ፋላስሃ  Ethiopians from Gondar ጎንዳር 2006The ethnonym “Ethi-op-ians”—the people with the “burnt face”—was coined by the Greeks, although it may originally have been applied

to the Nubians, who were (also) part of the Cushite/Kushite kingdoms.

(Harris 1971)

{A total of 168 different mtDNA Haplotypes} were observed in

270 Ethiopians and Eritreans, and 72 Haplotypes were recovered in 115 Yemeni samples

(fig. 2; tablesA1A6 [online only]).

Approximately one-half of both Ethiopian (52.2%) and Yemeni (45.7%)

mtDNA lineages belonged to the L clades specific to sub-Saharan Africa (fig. 2A;table 1),

Whereas the other half was divided between derived subclades of haplogroups M and N (fig. 2B; table 1) that are,

With the exception of M1 and U6 lineages, more common outside Africa.

Consistent with the coexistence of Sub/SupraSaharan African and Eurasian

mtDNA lineages of “Ethiopian, Egyptian, and Yemeni” populations, the MDS plot (fig. 3) ClusteredTogether with Egyptians,

In between the Near Eastern and the West African and southern African clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic- and Cushitic-speaking populations of Ethiopia

were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

(P>.05) in FSTdistances between themselves (table A7).

Virgin Mary and angels on mural in Abreha and Atsbeha church

Ethiopian Painting 2005 by Sean McClean

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century BC)

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century AD)

(Ethic) definition: a set of moral principles, esp. ones relating

to or affirming a “specified group” , field or form of conduct.

(Opia) Origin Greek- meaning: Ops, Op, Eye , Face ....

African-Hebrew Jesus (Yeshua)* and Disciples (circa) 300 A.D.

Ancient Man and his Civilizations African Hebrews?

Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow across the Gate of Tears..

Extensive Female-Mediated mtdna Gene Flow from Nilotic Sub-Saharan Africa into Yemen

Ethiopian Y-Chromosome and mtdna Polymorphism. PDF (929 K)

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Menyelek

https://www.care.org/careswork/countryprofiles/56.asp

The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora..

NORTH-EAST AFRICA

The African Origin of Eden. Jonh G.Jackson. 1933

African presence in Ancient World and Nile Valley  By Runoko Rashidi

People of Ethiopia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Garden of Eden – Tribes of Atlantis

Abreha wa Atsbeha church | Pictures and Paintings

http:Abraha  references.html

Egypt, Ethiopia – Sudan, Abyssinia, the Freemasonic Orientalist ?

Abyssinia

Nubia – Crystalinks

http://hearts-4-hope.org

Zagwe dynasty

The History of Ethiopian Jews

Halakha Matrilineal Hebrew Birthright

Halakha Female Hebrew Inheritence

African-Asiatic- Hebrew  Black Sabbath Roots …

Falasha (Ethiopian) Jewish History

African Jews – Wikipedia

Black Hebrew Israelites – Wikipedia

Judeo-Christian History of the Nile Valley

Queen of Sheba (960 B.C.)

Queen of Sheba

Ethiopian Treasures – Queen of Sheba, Aksumite Kingdom – Aksum

Ancient History Sourcebook: Accounts of Meröe, Kush, and Axum

Jews and Judaism from Africans in the African diaspora – Wikipedia

Rastafari religious movement

The Origin of Hebrew Civilization is Afroasiatic – ColorQ’s Bible …

Will-Smith-film-about-the-last-of-the-Nubian-Dynasty-when-Blacks-of-Ethiopian-Descent-ran-Egypt

Halle Salassie

Reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation’s history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate.

The Kingdom of አክሱም-Aksum: The አፁሚተ – Axumite Empire of Ethiopia and Eritrea’s Horn of Africa..

Posted in Aksum, Axum, Cushitic, Egypt, Eritrea, Erythraean Sea, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, L2a1, Levant, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, Oman mtDna, Sahara, Saudi Arabia mtDna, Semetic People, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, The Axumite Kingdom, The Sahel, Yemen mtDna with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

 

 

Kings of Axum

The Axumite Empire or Aksumite Empire

(The Kingdom of Axum or Aksum), (Ge’ez: አክሱም),

Important trading Nation in North-Eastern Africa,

Growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca.

Aksumite Empire Map

4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD.

Its Ancient Capital is found in Northern Ethiopia.

The Kingdom used the name “Ethiopia” as early as the 4th century.

It is also the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba.

Aksum was also the first major empire to convert to Christianity.

Aksum is mentioned in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for “Ivory”,

which was exported throughout the ancient world, and states that the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century AD was “Zoscales”

Who, besides ruling in Aksum also controlled two harbours on the Red Sea:

Adulis (near Massawa) and Avalites (Assab) located in Eritrea. He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature.

Axum data mapThe Kingdom of Aksum was ideally located to take advantage of the new trading situation.

Adulis soon became the main port for the export of “African goods”, such as Ivory, Incense, Gold, and Exotic animals.

In order to supply such goods the kings of Aksum worked to develop and expand an inland trading network.

A rival, and much older trading network that tapped the same interior region of Africa was that of the “Kingdom of Kush”,

which had long supplied “Egypt” with African goods via the “Nile” corridor.

By the 1st century AD, however, Aksum had gained control over territory previously “Kushite”.

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea explicitly describes how ivory collected in

Kushite territory was being exported through the port of “Adulis” instead of being taken to Meroë, the capital of “Kush”.

During the 2nd and 3rd centuries the Kingdom of Aksum continued to expand their control of the southern Red Sea basin.

A caravan route to “Egypt” was established which bypassed the Nile corridor entirely…

Aksum succeeded in becoming the principal supplier of African goods to the Roman Empire, not least as a result of the transformed

Indian Ocean trading system.

Aksum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories and prolific work on Ethiopian history, but most scholars now agree that it was an “indigenous” development…

Scholars like Stuart Munro-Hay point to the existence of an older D’mt or Da’amot kingdom, prior to any Sabaean migration ca. 4th or 5th c. BC, as well as to evidence of Sabaean immigrants having resided in the region for little more than a few decades.

Furthermore, Ge’ez, the ancient Semitic language of Eritrea and Ethiopia,  is now known,  Not to have derived from Sabaean,

and there is evidence of a Semitic speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.

Axumite Erythraen Sea Map 1st century C.E.

Note:

The Axumite አፁሚተ population consisted of Semitic-speaking people (collectively known as Habeshas), people of Ethiopia and Eritrea

And they are also Cushitic-speaking people, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking people (the Kunama and Nara).

Habesha Women

 

The Axsumite Kings had the official title  ነገሠ ፡ ነገሠተ ngś ngśtKing of Kings (later vocalization Ge’ez ንጉሠ ፡ ነገሥት nigūśa nagaśt,

Modern Ethiosemitic nigūse negest).

Aksumites did own slaves, and a modified feudal system was in place to farm the land.


The Empire of Axsum:

at its height extended across most of presentday

Eritrea, Northern EthiopiaYemen, Southern Saudi Arabia and Northern Sudan.

 

The capital city of the Empire was Aksum, now in Northern Ethiopia.

Today a smaller community, the city of Aksum was once a bustling metropolis, cultural and economic center.

Two hills and two streams lie on the east and west expanses of the city; perhaps providing the initial impetus for settling this area.

Along the hills and plain outside the city,

The Aksumites had cemeteries with elaborate “grave stones” called “stelae, or obelisks”.

Axumite Obelisk

 

Other important cities included Yeha, Hawulti, Matara, Adulis, and Qohaito, the last three of which are now in Eritrea.

 

In the 3rd century, Aksum began interfering in South Arabian affairs, controlling at times the westerTihama region among other areas.

By the  late 3rd century it had begun Minting its own “currency” and was named by Mani as one of the four great powers of his time along with Persia, Rome, and China.

Coinage of King Endubis of Axumite Ethiopia227-235CE

Note:

Endubis (c.270 – c.300) was a King of Axum.

He was among the earliest rulers of Axum, and Africa for that matter, (he was also, the very first King) tomint coins”.

These coins were issued in Gold and Silver...

On the coins of Endubis so far recovered, either of two mottos were engraved.

On some coins he described himself as

“BACIΛEYC AΧWMITW”, “King of Axum”.

On others appeared the motto “BICI ΔAXY”, “bisi Dakhu”;

(this is the first appearance of the title “bisi”),

which S. C. Munro-Hay believes, is related to

the Ge’ez word be’esya – translation “man of “…

 

They converted to Christianity in 325 or 328 under King Ezana and was the first state ever, to use the image of the “Cross” on its coins..

At its height, Axsum controlled Northern Ethiopia, Eritrea,

Nubia, Upper Egypt, Djibouti, Yemen, and Southern Saudi Arabia, totalling 1.25 million km².

Axumite-Silk Route

It was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Persian Empire of the day and declined after the 7th century due to unknown reasons,

but informed speculation suggests the rise of Islam heavily impacted its ability to trade with

the Far East in the era when shipping was limited to coastal navigation as well as cut it off from its principal markets

in Alexandria, Byzantium and Southern Europe.

Under Emperor Ezana,

Axum adopted Christianity in place of its former polytheistic and Judaic religions around 325 A.D.

This gave rise to the present day Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

(only granted autonomy from the Coptic Church in 1959), and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church

(granted autonomy from the Ethiopian Orthodox church in 1993).

Since the schism with orthodoxy following the Council of Chalcedon (451),

It has been an important Miaphysite church, and its scriptures and liturgy are still in Ge’ez.

It was a cosmopolitan and culturally important state.

It was a meeting place for a variety of cultures:

EthiopianEgyptianSudanicArabic, and Indian.

The Major Aksumite cities had SabeanHebrewNubianChristian, and even Buddhist minorities.

Belay Zeleke በላይ ዘለከ The Patriot and Last Hero of Abyssinia-Ethiopia…

Posted in Africa, Ethiopia, Habeshas, The Axumite Kingdom with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Belay Zeleke በላይ ዘለከ was born in 1896 in the Wollo province of Ethiopia to a mother of Wollo Borena and to a father of Gojam Berenta Origins.  At a very young age in a mysterious situation, Belay Zeleke killed his uncle which prompted him to flee his village and live as a fugitive isolated from his family and friends for the subsequent 15 years.  In his solitary life, Belay Zeleke learned to be courageous and decisive.

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Abyssinian- Italian War in Adwa 1896

Italio- Abyssinian War of Adowa 1896

Subsequently in 1896, Benito Mussolini, the Prime Minister from Italy had suffered a humiliating defeat in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) at the hands of the Negus King Menelik II .

Negus-King of Ethiopia Emperor_Menelik_II

Italian forces were demolished by Ethiopian army forces at the Battle of Adwa. Over ten thousand Italians lay dead. The defeat was victorious for Ethiopians, and yet disastrous for Italian expansion in Africa.

Italy’s humiliation and trample had not been overlooked. The memory of Adwa’s victory sustained, and they felt the need to strike.

Mussolini the modern Caesar of his day, puts his attention toward Ethiopia. He saw this conquest as a means of restoring Roman grandeur.

On October 3, 1935, the Italian dictator launches his first foreign military adventure. He invades the kingdom of Ethiopia as the League of Nations (currently called The United Nations) weakly stands by.

Italy- Abyssinian War of Adowa 1896

Italy- Abyssinian War of Adowa 1896

In 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia.  Like the many patriotic Ethiopians, Belay Zeleke felt the need to defend his country and led an insurgency movement against the occupation in Gojam.  Soon, he became known for being remorseless among Italian generals and they fought him as hard as they could. Not only did he defeat the Italian army that was sent to destroy him, he also took into custody the army’s general and executed him by hanging.  After driving the Italian army out of Gojam and some parts of Wollo, he put himself in charge of these particular regions much to the gladness of the population.  His courageous heroism inspired thousands of Ethiopians to resist the occupation and many wanted to be like him.

The Ethiopian patriots librated Addis Ababa on 6 May 1941 and this victory officially ended Italian occupation. Fascist Italy’s attempts to colonize Ethiopia came to an abrupt end on this day. Emperor Haile Selassie returned to Addis Ababa on 5 May 1941 after spending the preceding 5 years in exile in Europe. This particular victory was realized as a result of the world-famous swift resistance by Ethiopian patriots.  The contributions made by Belay Zeleke to the struggle and ultimately to the victory of Ethiopia against the colonialist aggression of Fascist Italy were enormous.

Throughout Ethiopia, – particularly in Addis Ababa – signs of Italian presence in the past remain intact to date.  Yet unlike most of the different parts of Ethiopia, there are no physical signs of Italian invasion in the province of Gojjam.  It is believed that Belay Zeleke never let the Italian troops camp anywhere in Gojam let alone build construction to leave a legacy of any sort.

 

Belay Zeleke from Gojam Ethiopia

Belay was so successful in stopping the Italians, that his fellow country men gave him the grand title of  Le’ul Belay or Princely Belay. They also gave him the name and title Atse Bagulbatu which means “Self Made Emperor”. Belay replied, that he did not need any further name or title, as his mother already named him Belay.

His name Belay simply means “One who is Above Others

Upon the Emperor Haile Selassie’s victorious return to Ethiopia in 1941, Belay Zeleke was put in charge of a small region in Gojam when he had assumed a higher rank to be able to play a much bigger role in reconstructing and administering the region.

He declined the position in protest and started living life as an outlaw.  Soon he was caught and sent to jail accused of being a threat to the monarchy.  After making unsuccessful attempts to break out of jail, the patriot Belay Zeleke and his brother Ejjegu was then brutally executed by public hanging on January 12, 1945. His execution was bitterly received by many Ethiopians. In his honor Gojjam road was named after him.

In a heartbreaking error of judgment, an Ethiopian hero who gave the country freedom was given death in return.  And it will always be remembered as an act of giving a National Hero a grave injustice.

Belay Zeleke Ethiopian Patriot

REFERENCES:

http://www.ambaras.com/2014/12/02/belay-zeleke/

Capital Ethiopia News – Sculpture of Hero Erected

Belay Zeleke, The last Hero of Ethiopia | Abesha United.com – the …

ETHIOPIAN OF THE MILLENNIUM – NOMINEES – ETHIOPIAN PATRIOTS, BELAY …

The Kingdom of Kush ኩስህ/Cush ችስህ is thy Kingdom.. Nubian and Upper Egyptian Pharaohs.. and actor Will Smith set to play Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa..

Posted in Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Indigenous people, Nubians, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

kush-400ac

nubian-boy-sail-boat-2-profile-copy

Nubian Boy and Camel

The Kingdom of Kush

Confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is

Now the Republic of Sudan. It was one of the earliest civilizations to develop in the Nile River Valley.

Having also been referred to as Nubia, and as Ethiopia in ancient Greek and Greco-Roman records,

The Kushites left their mark on various aspects of the Ancient World and their legacy is still readily discernible from the various archaeological field sites scattered through out modern Sudan.Temple of Taharqa @ Nubia

The first cultures arose in Sudan before the time of a unified Egypt. The earliest signs of which show a continuity in developing Nile valley cultures comes from the Khartoum Neolithic, where we see the beginnings of food production in the region. As these centers evolved, local societies began to amalgamate into confederations, depending on different strategies distinct from earlier semi-nomadic lifestyles.

One such polity, called the “A-group” emerged in lower Sudan around 3800 BC, and were contemporaneous with the pre-dynastic Naqada people of Upper Egypt, sharing an almost identical culture. After the demise of the A-group, archaeological evidence attesting to permanent settlements is scant.

The culture called the “C-group”, who founded the Kingdom of Kush began to appear consistently in Egyptian accounts and the archaeological record. It is through Egyptian, Hebrew, and Greco-Roman records that most of our knowledge of Kush comes.

The Egyptians took control of Kush in ca. 1520 BC, but their grip on the area would decline over the next 500 years, until the Kushites became independent.

The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the “Pan-grave culture”.

The Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt, especially Ammon and Isis. Curiously, during Egypt’s expansion into Kushite territory during the New Kingdom, upon discovering the site at Gebel-Barkal

The Egyptians believed they’d found the remnants of an Ancient Egyptian kingship and culture as well as the origin of Ammon and the Hedjet (or “white crown“)

In Ancient Egypt, Libyan princes had taken control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945 BC, founding the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty that would rule for some 200 years.

Sheshonq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. However, Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis, and Kushites threatened from the south.

Around 727 BC the Kushite king Piye invaded northward, seizing control of Thebes and eventually the DeltaHis dynasty,

The Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, continued until about 653 BC. The 25th dynasty was based at Napata, in what is now The Sudan. Alara is universally regarded as the founder of the 25th Kushite dynasty by his successors.

Nubian Pharaoah Taharqa collection statues

The power of the 25th Dynasty reached a climax under the

Pharaohs Piye and Taharka.

Pharaoh Taharka spent half his time as ruler of Egypt restoring its earlier cultural achievements while also fending off Assyrian power in the east. In 674, he defeated an invading Assyrian army under the leadership of Esarhaddon.

Three years later, he would be defeated in three battles that would force Kush out of Egypt altogether.

Why the Kushites chose to enter Egypt at this crucial point of foreign domination is subject to debate. Archaeologist Timmothy Kendall offers his own hypotheses, connecting it to a claim of legitimacy associated with Gebel Barkal.

Kendall cites the stele of Pharaoh Piye, which states that

Amun of Napata granted me to be ruler of every foreign country,” and “Amun in Thebes granted me to be ruler of the Black Land (Kemit)”.

Noteworthy is that according to Kendall,

“foreign lands” in this regard seems to include Lower Egypt while Kemit seems to refer to a United Upper Egypt and Nubia…

The name given this civilization comes from the Old Testament where Cush (Hebrew: כוש) was one of the sons of Ham (Genesis 10:6) who settled in NorthEast Africa.

In the Bible and at different times in the Ancient World, a large region covering Sudan, modern day Southern Egypt, and parts of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somaliland was known as “Cush”. Cush/Kush also referred to areas in “Asia”.

The Hebrew Bible refers to “Cush” on a number of occasions, though various English translations translate this as “Nubian”, “Ethiopia”, “Sudan”, and “Cushite” (Unseth 1999).

This is due to the fact that the Greeks referred to all dark skinned people as Cushites.

Moses‘ wife, Tzipporah, is described as a Kushite in the book of Numbers 12:1. Some contend that this Cush was in southern Arabia. See Biblical Cush for a full discussion. All of this is complicated by the fact that the Septuagint translated “Cush” as “Aethiopia“, leading to the misleading conclusion that “Cush/Kush” should be equated with the borders of present day “Ethiopia”.


Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa 25th Dynasty

Will Smith puts on Pharaoh Hat…

will-smith

Randall White set to write Columbia Drama….

By MICHAEL FLEMING

Will Smith

may next morph into a god.Pharaoh Taharqa and his Queen

“Braveheart” scribe Randall Wallace will write “The Last Pharaoh,” a Columbia drama crafted as a vehicle for Smith to play

Taharqa, the (Kushite- Nubian) pharaoh who battled Assyrian invaders in Ancient Egypt.

Smith, James Lassiter and Ken Stovitz will produce for Overbrook Entertainment.

Smith, who has long wanted to play the pharaoh, brought Wallace the “Taharqa story”.

The film will focus on his battles with Assyrian leader Esarhaddon starting in 677 B.C.

Smith next stars for Columbia in “Seven Pounds,” a reteam with “Pursuit of Happyness” director Gabriele Muccino that Overbrook produced with Escape Artists.

Wallace will next direct a Mike Rich-scripted Disney film about Triple Crown-winning racehorse Secretariat and its owner, Penny Chenery.

He also just signed on to a Jerry Bruckheimer-produced Disney adaptation of the WWII battle saga “Killing Rommel,” which Wallace will write with

author Steven Pressfield

www.Kemetology.com

What and Where is Nubia – nubianet

Will Smith’s Lesson for Jerusalem – Forward.com

Black pharaoh trove uncovered in  Nubia-North Sudan

Will Smith: A Film about Blacks of Ethiopian Descent Ruled Nubia/Egypt..



ቢልልይ ጋምበላ