The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade: Only 4.4% of Slaves were Shipped to North America (U.S. & Canada) The Majority 93.6% of Slaves were shipped to Central America, South America and the Caribbean Islands #slaveryfacts


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Facts and Figures

  • Number of Slaves Transported by Each European Country (12)

  Country   Voyages   Slaves Transported  
  Portugal (including Brazil)   30,000   4,650,000  
  Spain (including Cuba)   4,000   1,600,000  
  France (including West Indies)   4,200   1,250,000  
  Holland   2,000   500,000  
  Britain   12,000   2,600,000  
  British North America, U.S.   1,500   300,000  
  Denmark   250   50,000  
  Other   250   50,000  
  Total   54,200   11,000,000  
  • Number of Slaves Delivered to Each Country / Destination  (12)

  Country / Destination   Slaves Delivered     %  
  Brazil   4,000,000     35.3  
  Spanish Empire (including Cuba)   2,500,000     22.1  
  British West Indies   2,000,000     17.7  
  French West Indies (including Cayenne)   1,600,000     14.1  
  British North America & U.S.   500,000     4.4  
  Dutch West Indies (including Surinam)   500,000     4.4  
  Danish West Indies   28,000     0.2  
  Europe (including Portugal, Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, etc.   200,000     1.8  
  Total   11,328,000     100.0  
  • Number of Slaves Leaving African Ports (12)

  African Port   Number of Slaves Departing     %  
  Senegambia (including Arguin), Sierra Leone   2,000,000     15.4  
  Windward Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Ivory Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Gold Coast (Ashanti)   1,500,000     11.5  
  Slave Coast (Dahomey, Adra, Oyo)   2,000,000     15.4  
  Benin to Calabar   2,000,000     15.4  
  Cameroons / Gabon   250,000     1.9  
  Loango   750,000     5.8  
  Congo / Angola   3,000,000     23.1  
  Mozambique / Madagascar   1,000,000     7.7  
  Total Leaving African Ports   13,000,000     100.0  
  • First Employment of Slaves in the Americas (12)

  First Employment   Number of Slaves     %  
  Sugar Plantations   6,000,000     54.5  
  Coffee Plantations   2,000,000     18.2  
  Mines   1,000,000     9.1  
  Domestic Labor   1,000,000     9.1  
  Cotton Fields   500,000     4.5  
  Cocoa Fields   250,000     2.3  
  Building   250,000     2.3  
  Total   11,000,000     100.0  

       These data were derived from the W.E.B. Du Bois database of slaving voyages, which was later combined with other databases to form the comprehensive Voyages database of nearly 35,000 slaving expeditions, estimated to represent 80% of the total  (32).

  Period   Number of Slaves Accounted For     %  
  1450-1600   409,000     3.6  
  1601-1700   1,348,000     11.9  
  1701-1800   6,090,000     53.8  
  1801-1900   3,466,000     30.6  
  Total Slave Exports   11,313,000     100.0  
  • Abolition Dates in the New World

Country   Date of Abolition   Comments
Upper Canada   1793   Ontario between 1791 and 1840
Haiti   1794   Revolution of slaves began in 1791
Lower Canada   1803   Quebec between 1791 and 1840
Argentina   1813    
Chile   1823    
Federal Republic of Central America   1824   Included Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Mexico   1829    
Jamaica (British Empire)   1834    
Guadeloupe (French Empire)   1848    
Peru   1851    
Surinam (Dutch Empire)   1863    
United States   1865   Following the Civil War
Puerto Rico   1873    
Cuba   1880    
Brazil   1888    
  • U.S. Census Data by Race – 1800 to 1860 (84)

Census Year Total Population

Breakdown By Race

Total,  %  Black
White Total Black Free Black Slave
1860 31,443,321 26,922,537 4,441,830 488,070 3,953,760

14.1

1850 23,191,876 19,553,068 3,638,808 434,495 3,204,313 15.7
1840 17,063,353 14,189,705 2,873,648 386,293 2,487,355 16.8
1830 12,860,702 10,532,060 2,328,642 319,599 2,009,043 18.1
1820 9,638,453 7,866,797 1,771,656 233,634 1,538,022 18.4
1810 7,239,881 5,862,073 1,377,808 186,446 1,191,362 19.0
1800 5,308,483 4,306,446 1,002,037 108,435 893,602 18.9

Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster

Image

Sources and Selected Links

Primary Sources

  1. Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite Jr., The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record    hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/index.php

  2. fizzog’s photostream, Gate of No Return, Cape Coast Castle,    www.flickr.com

  3. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Reading Room,_Images of African-American Slavery and Freedom    www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

  4. Circumcisioninfo.com

  5. Alex Haley, Roots: The Saga of an American Family,  Doubleday: Reissue edition (August 17, 1976), copyright 1976 by Alex Haley

  6. Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O’Rourke, Power and Plenty: Trade, War and the World Economy in the Second Millennium, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. In the UK, Princeton University Press, Woodstock, Oxfordshire. c. 2007 by Princeton University Press.

  7. wayfaring stranger, The door of no return, Gorée Island, www.flickr.com

  8. Mark Moxon, La Maison des Esclaves (Slave House) Image    www.moxon.net/senegal/ile_de_goree.html

  9. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, A History of Public Health in South Carolina,    www.scdhec.net

  10. MSN Encarta, Emancipation Proclamation,    encarta.msn.com

  11. Wikipedia, Fort Wagner,    en.wikipedia.org

  12. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York, c. 1997 Hugh Thomas

  13. R. Reynolds, An Accurate MAP of Africa From the Latest Improvements and Regulated by Astronomical Observations From A New Universal Collection, 1771, Engraved for Drakes Voyages, London: T. Cooke, University of Florida Map & Imagery Library    www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPAFRICA-D.HTML

  14. United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section, Map No. 4045 Rev. 4, AFRICA, January 2004    www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/africa.pdf

  15. Slavery in America, Map of West African Slave Ports c. 1750,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  16. NASA, Astronomy Picture of the Day, Earth at Night, 2000 November 27,    antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html

  17. Slavery in America, Slave Trade From Africa to the Americas 1650-1860,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  18. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Nigeria,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

  19. Slavery in the North, Slavery in Massachusetts,    www.slavenorth.com

  20. Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, A History of Slavery in Africa, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, c1983, second edition c2000 Paul E. Lovejoy

  21. Joseph C. Miller, Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade: Statistical Evidence on Causality, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 11:385-423

  22. James Ciment, Atlas of African-American History, Checkmark Books, An Imprint of Facts On File, Inc., c2001 by Media Projects Inc.

  23. Charles T. Webber, The Underground Railroad, Oil on Canvas at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Subscription Fund Purchases, Accession Number 1927.26,    www.cincinnatiartmuseum.org    [inscribed, verso: This picture is painted for the love of my dear wife Frances Augusta Webber-C.T.W. Dec 22, 1891]

  24. Ohio Memory, An Online Scrapbook of Ohio History,    Underground Railroad Painting, omp.ohiolink.edu

  25. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Senegal,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

  26. Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitochondria,    micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html

  27. Genetics Home Reference, Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions, Y chromosome,    ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome=Y;jsessionid=E08860AEBFD0E58ED766FE844F97C806

  28. PBS.org, African American Lives, Who Am I? A Genealogy Guide& African American Lives DVD c. 2006 Kunhardt Productions, Inc, Educational Broadcasting Corporation, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.    www.pbs.org/wnet/aalives/genealogy.html

  29. Ancestry.com, Slave Registers of former British Colonial Dependencies, 1812-1834,    www.ancestry.com

  30. Ancestry.com, U.S. Census Collection,    ancestry.com/?rc=locale%7E&us=0   [contains key word searchable census records from 1790 to 1930. Paid membership required]

  31. Cyndi’s List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet, African-American,    www.cyndislist.com/african.htm

  32. Voyages, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database,    www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces   [this site contains the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade database known as the Voyages Database]

  33. BeyondBooks.com, Guest Experts, Professor Ira Berlin,    http://www.beyondbooks.com/chat/1999/berlinarchive.asp   [an interview with Professor Ira Berlin, a noted historian of southern and African American life. Berlin is Professor of History at the University of Maryland, and has authored a number of books on African American history]

  34. Family Tree of Beth Nolan – Tasmania Australia, Compiled by Beth (Nolan) Stott,    stott.customer.netspace.net.au/famtree2.htm   [a typical family tree]

  35. University of Massachusetts Lowell, African-American Roots Project,    www.uml.edu/roots/Default.asp

  36. National Geographic Genographic Project, A Partnership Between National Geographic Society and IBM, Gene Project to Trace Humanity’s Migrations,    reference.aol.com/natgeo/_a/gene-project-to-trace-humanitys/20050413141909990001

  37. Visit Zambia, New DNA test results trace Oprah Winfrey’s ancestry to Liberia / Zambia,    www.visitzambia.co.zm/lk/news/new_dna_test_results_trace_oprah_winfrey_s_ancestry_to_liberia_zambia   [discussion of Oprah Winfrey’s DNA analysis and the tribes she is likely descended from]

  38. Mitochondria Interest Group Website, MIG icon image: Rat brain dendrite illustrating 6 mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang. NINDS, NIH,tango01.cit.nih.gov/sig/home.taf?_function=main&SIGInfo_SIGID=60    [image of a rat brain dendrite illustrating six mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang, NINDS, NIH.]

  39. Library of Congress, American Memory, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875, Feb. 27, 1869, Fifteenth amendment to the Constitution,    memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=015/llsl015.db&recNum=379    [resolution by the Senate and the House of Representatives, regarding the 15th amendment to the Constitution, providing voting rights to all adult males including former slaves]

  40. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave,    sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/07.html    [contains the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, online]

  41. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage, The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, Oxford University Press, New York, c. 2006 David Brion Davis

  42. Street Law & The Supreme Court Historical Society Present… Landmark Cases Supreme Court, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),    www.landmarkcases.org/dredscott/home.html    [a description of the Dred Scott case and Supreme Court decision. Provides a teacher’s guide for covering the material with students.]

  43. The Louisiana Purchase, A Heritage Explored, An Online Educational Resource from LSU Libraries Special Collections,    www.lib.lsu.edu/special/purchase/history.html#outline1    [an interesting history of the Louisiana Purchase]

  44. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children & Families, HHS NEWS, Campaign Launched in Nashville to Identify, Assist Victims of Human Trafficking,www.act.hhs.gov/news/press/2007/human_trafficking_victims.htm

  45. PBS.org, Africans in America, Judgement Day, Dred Scott’s fight for freedom,    www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html    [a very good description of Dred Scott’s life at the time he was pursuing his freedom in the courts]

  46. Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Collection, Scott v. Sandford, Taney, C.J., Opinion of the Court, www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0060_0393_ZO.html     [transcript of the opinion of Chief Justice Taney. Each Justice wrote his own opinion, and all of the documents are included on this website]

  47. Christine’s Genealogy Website, Who are your people?,    ccharity.com

  48. Guardian Unlimited, Church apologizes for benefiting from slave trade,    www.guardian.co.uk/religion/Story/0,,1705628,00.html

  49. The Evangelist, Official Publication of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany, Church’s failures of two millennia include repression, Crusades, Inquisition, www.evangelist.org/year2000/0699fait.htm

  50. msn Encarta, John Paul IIJohn Paul’s Achievements,    encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552499_2/John_Paul_II.html

  51. Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves (Paperback), Mariner Books, Reprint Edition (February 10, 2006), c. 2005 by Adam Hochschild, Hardcover Edition published by Houghton Mifflin, New York (January 7, 2005)

  52. CNN.com Transcripts, Live From President’s Day, Aired February 16, 2004, Miles O’Brien, CNN Anchor, and Rick Shenkman, Presidential Historian, transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0402/16/lol.01.html    [a humorous interview about the Presidents on Presidents Day, sharing little known facts]

  53. Wikipedia, Franklin Pierce,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Pierce

  54. United States Senate, Historical Minute Essays, The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner,    www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/The_Caning_of_Senator_Charles_Sumner.htm

  55. Wikipedia, Ain’t I a Woman?,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ain’t_I_a_Woman%3F

  56. New Jersey State Bar Foundation, Students’ Corner, Forty Acres and a Mule,    www.njsbf.org/njsbf/student/respect/fall02-2.cfm   [a concise discussion of the origin of the phrase ’40 acres and a mule,’ a promise made to freed slaves as the Civil War was in its final months. Unfortunately, the benefits turned out to be short lived.]

  57. Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, What About My 40 Acres & A Mule?    www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1994/4/94.04.01.x.html    [an interesting discussion by Gerene L. Freeman of the promise of 40 acres and a mule, in the context of teaching a predominantly African-American group of students about playwrights of African descent who emerged as a result and/or in spite of the American slave system.]

  58. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Citizen Information Service, Massachusetts Facts, Part Four, Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War Hero, www.sec.state.ma.us/cis/cismaf/mf4.htm    [provides a brief biography of Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War hero and member of the Massachusetts 54th Regiment, a black brigade that became famous for the assault on Fort Wagner. Carney was the first African-American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest honor. The site includes an account of the battle of Fort Wagner in Carney’s own words.]

  59. Wikipedia, Strange Fruit,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strange_Fruit

  60. PBS, Independent Lens, Strange Fruit,    www.pbs.org/independentlens/strangefruit/film.html    [includes a sound clip of the song ‘Strange Fruit,’ sung by Billie Holiday]

  61. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Finding Oprah’s Roots – Finding Your Own, First EditionCrown Publishers, New York, c. 2007 by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

  62. African Ancestry, trace your dna . find your roots,    www.africanancestry.com    [a commercial site that offers DNA testing. One of the labs used in the PBS African American Lives genealogical study of prominent African-Americans, hosted by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.]

  63. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Ghana,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gh.html

  64. Wikipedia, Sojourner Truth,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sojourner_Truth

  65. New Orleans Convention & Visitors Bureau, A Brief History of New Orleans,    www.neworleanscvb.com/static/index.cfm/contentID/sectionID/1/subsectionID/0

  66. Blupete.com, History of Nova Scotia, Book #1: Acadia, Part 6 — The Deportation of the Acadians, Ch. 04 – Introduction,    www.blupete.com/Hist/NovaScotiaBk1/Ch04.htm

  67. Wikipedia, Henry Box Brown,    en.widipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Box_Brown

  68. eSSORTMENT, Henry ‘box’ brown information,    va.essortment.com/henryhenry_rnls.htm

  69. Amistad Research Center,    www.tulane.edu/~amistad/amessays.htm

  70. Exploring Amistad at Mystic Seaport, Supreme Court Justices 1841,    amistad.mysticseaport.org/discovery/people/bio.justices.html#thompson.list

  71. Wikipedia, List of Presidents of the United States,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States

  72. University of South Florida, Florida Center for Instructional Technology, Exploring Florida, Key West: Civil War,    fcit.usf.edu/Florida/docs/k/keys15htm

  73. Keys Historeum, Presented by the Historical Preservation Society of the Upper Keys, History of Key West,    www.keyshistory.org/keywest.html

  74. The Floridians, A Social History of Florida, Florida Under Civil Strife, The Civil War and Reconstruction, The Road to Secession,    www.floridahistory.org/floridians/civilw.htm

  75. Florida National Guard Heritage Center, Civil War,    www.floridaguard.army.mil/history/CivilWar.asp?did=1305

  76. Fort Taylor.org, Key West, Florida, Fort Taylor Features    www.forttaylor.org/features.html

  77. Shotgun’s Home of the American Civil War, Chronology of the American Civil War    www.civilwarhome.com/timeline.htm

  78. New York Press, January 5, 2001, William Bryk, Mr. Wood Is Mayor, Volume 14, Issue 1    www.newyorkpress.com/print.cfm?content_id=3400

  79. Google Book Search, text of mayor wood’s message to council 1861, Harper’s Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A.D. to 1902, Page 435, by Benson John Lossing, John Fiske, Woodrow Wilson – United Staes – 1901,    books.google.com/books?q=text+of+mayor+wood%27s+message+to+council+1861&btnG=Search+Books

  80. Google Book Search, the national cyclopaedia of american biography fernando wood mayor of new york, page 388, by James Terry White – 1893    books.google.com/books?q=the+national+cyclopaedia+of+american+biography+fernando+wood+mayor+of+new+york

  81. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Online Exhibitions, The Dred Scott Decision and its Bitter Legacy,    www.gilderlehrman.org/collection/online/scott/index.html

  82. BBC, Long lost roots of Black Britons revealed by groundbreaking BBC TWO documentaryMotherland: A Genetic Journey,  www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2003/02_february/05/motherland.shtml    [Describes a BBC Documentary about the Motherland Project, The study took DNA samples from 229 volunteers, all of whom had four African-Caribbean grandparents. It was found that 13% of the ancestors of today’s Black Britons of Caribbean descent are of European origin. Analysis of the male and female lines showed that 27% have a Y chromosome passed from father to son that traces back to Europe (the male line), whereas only 2% have mitochondrial DNA that traces to Europe, passed from mother to child (the female line).]

  83. Science Museum (UK), Genetic Journey to the Motherland, www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/antenna/motherland/index.asp    [Information about the Motherland Project. Using DNA analysis, hundreds of British Afro-Caribbeans discovered the part of Africa their forebears came from. Some of the results are surprising.]

  84. U.S. Census Bureau, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056.html

  85. Waynet.org, Levi Coffin House State Historic Site,    www.waynet.org/levicoffin/default.htm

  86. Vicki Betts, University of Texas at Tyler, Files by Newspaper Titles, Atlanta Southern Confederacy, March 1861 – May 1863, F. Geutebruck    www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/southern_confederacy.htm

  87. Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Opinions, Amistad, Opinion of Justice Story    www.law.cornell.edu/background/amistad/opinion.html    [Opinion of the court in the Amistad case, delivered by Justice Story]

  88. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Sierra Leone,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sl.html

Selected Links & Sources

Image Collections

Map Collections

Songs, Narratives, Plays and Online Exhibitions

Museums, Libraries, Institutes, Databases

Genealogy

Resources for Teachers and Students

Miscellaneous


Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster
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2 Responses to “The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade: Only 4.4% of Slaves were Shipped to North America (U.S. & Canada) The Majority 93.6% of Slaves were shipped to Central America, South America and the Caribbean Islands #slaveryfacts”

  1. Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

    THIS PROPOSAL IS NOT JUST ABOUT MONETARY COMPENSATION!!!!!!!

    REPARATIONST 10 Point Action Plan

    Introduction
    In 2013 Caribbean Heads of Governments established the Caricom Reparations Commission [CRC] with a mandate to prepare the case for reparatory justice for the region’s indigenous and African descendant communities who are the victims of Crimes against Humanity [CAH] in the forms of genocide, slavery, slave trading, and racial apartheid.

    This document, prepared by the CRC, proposes the delivery of this mandate within the formulation of the Caricom Reparations Justice Program [CRJP]. The CRC asserts that victims and descendants of these CAH have a legal right to reparatory justice, and that those who committed these crimes, and who have been enriched by the proceeds of these crimes, have a reparatory case to answer.

    The CRJP recognizes the special role and status of European governments in this regard, being the legal bodies that instituted the framework for developing and sustaining these crimes. These governments, furthermore, served as the primary agencies through which slave based enrichment took place, and as national custodians of criminally accumulated wealth.

    THE CRC ASSERTS THAT EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS:
    •Were owners and traders of enslaved Africans • Instructed genocidal actions upon indigenous communities
    •Created the legal, financial and fiscal policies necessary for the enslavement of Africans
    •Defined and enforced African enslavement and native genocide as in their ‘national interests’
    •Refused compensation to the enslaved with the ending of their enslavement
    •Compensated slave owners at emancipation for the loss of legal property rights in enslaved Africans
    •Imposed a further one hundred years of racial apartheid upon the emancipated
    •Imposed for another one hundred years policies designed to perpetuate suffering upon the emancipated and survivors of genocide
    •And have refused to acknowledge such crimes or to compensate victims and their descendants

    Context
    The CRC is committed to the process of national international reconciliation. Victims and their descendants have a duty to call for reparatory justice.

    Their call for justice is the basis of the closure they seek to the terrible tragedies that engulfed humanity during modernity. The CRC comes into being some two generations after the national independence process, and finds European colonial rule as a persistent part of Caribbean life.

    The CRC operates within the context of persistent objection from European governments to its mandate.

    The CRC, nonetheless, is optimistic that the CRJP will gain acceptance as a necessary path to progress.

    The CRC sees the persistent racial victimization of the descendants of slavery and genocide as the root cause of their suffering today.

    The CRC recognizes that the persistent harm and suffering experienced today by these victims as the primary cause of development failure in the Caribbean.

    It calls upon European governments to participate in the CRJP with a view to prepare these victims and sufferers for full admission with dignity into the citizenry of the global community. The CRC here outlines the path to reconciliation, truth, and justice for VICTIMS AND THEIR DESCENDANTS.

    CRJP: Ten Point Action Plan

    1. FULL FORMAL APOLOGY
    The healing process for victims and the descendants of the enslaved and enslavers requires as a precondition the offer of a sincere formal apology by the governments of Europe. Some governments in refusing to offer an apology have issued in place Statements of Regrets.

    Such statements do not acknowledge that crimes have been committed and represent a refusal to take responsibility for such crimes. Statements of regrets represent, furthermore, a reprehensible response to the call for apology in that they suggest that victims and their descendants are not worthy of an apology. Only an explicit formal apology will suffice within the context of the CRJP.

    2. REPATRIATION
    Over 10 million Africans were stolen from their homes and forcefully transported to the Caribbean as the enslaved chattel and property of Europeans. The transatlantic slave trade is the largest forced migration in human history and has no parallel in terms of man’s inhumanity to man.

    This trade in enchained bodies was a highly successful commercial business for the nations of Europe. The lives of millions of men, women and children were destroyed in search of profit. The descendants of these stolen people have a legal right to return to their homeland.

    A Repatriation program must be established and all available channels of international law and diplomacy used to resettle those persons who wish to return. A resettlement program should address such matters as citizenship and deploy available best practices in respect of community re-integration.

    3. INDIGENOUS PEOPLES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
    The governments of Europe committed genocide upon the native Caribbean population. Military commanders were given official instructions by their governments to eliminate these communities and to remove those who survive pogroms from the region.

    Genocide and land appropriation went hand in hand. A community of over 3,000,000 in 1700 has been reduced to less than 30,000 in 2000. Survivors remain traumatized, landless, and are the most marginalized social group within the region.

    The University of the West Indies offers an Indigenous Peoples Scholarship in a desperate effort at rehabilitation. It is woefully insufficient. A Development Plan is required to rehabilitate this community.

    4. CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
    European nations have invested in the development of community institutions such as museums and research centers in order to prepare their citizens for an understanding of these CAH.

    These facilities serve to reinforce within the consciousness of their citizens an understanding of their role in history as rulers and change agents.

    There are no such institutions in the Caribbean where the CAH were committed. Caribbean schoolteachers and researchers do not have the same opportunity.

    Descendants of these CAH continue to suffer the disdain of having no relevant institutional systems through which their experience can be scientifically told. This crisis must be remedies within the CJRP.

    5. PUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS
    The African descended population in the Caribbean has the highest incidence in the world of chronic diseases in the forms of hypertension and type two diabetes.

    This pandemic is the direct result of the nutritional experience, physical and emotional brutality, and overall stress profiles associated with slavery, genocide, and apartheid. Over 10 million Africans were imported into the Caribbean during the 400 years of slavery.

    At the end of slavery in the late 19th century less than 2 million remained. The chronic health condition of Caribbean blacks now constitutes the greatest financial risk to sustainability in the region. Arresting this pandemic requires the injection of science, technology, and capital beyond the capacity of the region.

    Europe has a responsibility to participate in the alleviation of this heath disaster. The CRJP addresses this issue and calls upon the governments of Europe to take responsibility for this tragic human legacy of slavery and colonisation.

    6. ILLITERACY ERADICATION
    At the end of the European colonial period in most parts of the Caribbean, the British in particular left the black and indigenous communities in a general state of illiteracy. Some 70 percent of blacks in British colonies were functionally illiterate in the 1960s when nation states began to appear.

    Jamaica, the largest such community, was home to the largest number of such citizens. Widespread illiteracy has subverted the development efforts of these nation states and represents a drag upon social and economic advancement.

    Caribbean governments allocate more than 70 percent of public expenditure to health and education in an effort to uproot the legacies of slavery and colonization. European governments have a responsibility to participate in this effort within the context of the CRJP.

    7. AFRICAN KNOWLEDGE PROGRAM
    The forced separation of Africans from their homeland has resulted in cultural and social alienation from identity and existential belonging. Denied the right in law to life, and divorced by space from the source of historic self, Africans have craved the right to return and knowledge of the route to roots.

    A program of action is required to build ‘bridges of belonging’. Such projects as school exchanges and culture tours, community artistic and performance programs, entrepreneurial and religious engagements, as well as political interaction, are required in order to neutralize the void created by slave voyages.

    Such actions will serve to build knowledge networks that are necessary for community rehabilitation.

    8. PSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION
    For over 400 years Africans and their descendants were classified in law as non-human, chattel, property, and real estate. They were denied recognition as members of the human family by laws derived from the parliaments and palaces of Europe.

    This history has inflicted massive psychological trauma upon African descendant populations. This much is evident daily in the Caribbean.

    Only a reparatory justice approach to truth and educational exposure can begin the process of healing and repair. Such an engagement will call into being, for example, the need for greater Caribbean integration designed to enable the coming together of the fragmented community.

    9. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
    For 400 years the trade and production policies of Europe could be summed up in the British slogan: “not a nail is to be made in the colonies”.

    The Caribbean was denied participation in Europe’s industrialization process, and was confined to the role of producer and exporter of raw materials. This system was designed to extract maximum value from the region and to enable maximum wealth accumulation in Europe.

    The effectiveness of this policy meant that the Caribbean entered its nation building phase as a technologically and scientifically ill-equipped- backward space within the postmodern world economy.

    Generations of Caribbean youth, as a consequence, have been denied membership and access to the science and technology culture that is the world’s youth patrimony. Technology transfer and science sharing for development must be a part of the CRJP.

    10. DEBT CANCELLATION
    Caribbean governments that emerged from slavery and colonialism have inherited the massive crisis of community poverty and institutional unpreparedness for development. These governments still daily engage in the business of cleaning up the colonial mess in order to prepare for development.

    The pressure of development has driven governments to carry the burden of public employment and social policies designed to confront colonial legacies. This process has resulted in states accumulating unsustainable levels of public debt that now constitute their fiscal entrapment.

    This debt cycle properly belongs to the imperial governments who have made no sustained attempt to deal with debilitating colonial legacies. Support for the payment of domestic debt and cancellation of international debt are necessary reparatory actions.

    http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/11/us-caribbean-slavery-idUSBREA2A1ZR20140311

    • This repeated refusal to admit massive and longstanding horrific, wrongdoing against Africans is an atrocity. Most every other SIMILARLY MISTREATED peoples are offered not only an apology but land, property, financial compensation, and in some instances, relief from paying taxes, in essence: reparatory justice.

      This is an excellent document and noteworthy of being carried out. This is most assuredly, a thousand year old + practice of Crimes Against Humanity case… I hope and pray that the CRJP 10 Point Action Plan will come into fruition. Asante, for keeping me abreast of this significant proposal! You are a Gem!

      Sincerely,

      Imani Pamoja

      PS: Years back, I signed a petition in regards to demanding reparations here in America, but nothing ever came of it.

      Sent from my iPad

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