Archive for Egypt

MtDna Migration Map of (Haplogroup L2a1 North Africa and South West Asia)

Posted in afri asiatic, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, DNA, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 30, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

egypt-nubian_wedding-copy

l2a1-asiatic-african-geodna-map-copy

This is Highlighted feature Map of the migrational route of Haplogroup L2a1 mtDNa

Haplogroup -L2a1 @ positions HVR1

16223T16278T16294T16309G, 16368C and 16519C.

(Note: mtDna results above from Genographic is HVR1 sequence only. Definitive results are acquired from FGS (full genome sequence) Test.

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Middle East and North Africa Related Ethnicites

Part of the “AfrI-Asiatic-Semitic Family”.   The process was very simple and pain-less.

This Map shows my L2a1 Northern Nile Valley migration as well as West Asia from  Nat’l Genographic

It took all of 3 minutes to extract saliva from my inner cheek.   place the swab back in the container that’s enclosed in the package with

(instructional dvd included..)

I then sent off my package “anonymously” with a “generated ID” number to follow the process “Online”…   4 weeks later results are in to check securely online in the privacy of your home.

At completion you will be assigned a (Paternal) YDNA or (Maternal) mtDNAHaplogroup (from the Greek word: ἁπλούς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Once this process is done you will recieve a Genetic Migration Map of Whatever Region your DNA Originates...

The Americas, Africa, Madagascar , Asia, Europe , Australia etc..

My Parents‘s Ethnic Ancestral Origins and Migrations

“The Americas” and “North Africa” (NileValley)(West Asia)”

(Indigenous American) and (Nubian-Egyptian)  

My Nationality from my parents genetic origins would be stated as 

Nubian-Native American or Indigenous American Kushite

BAM   !! U now have an Ethnic Origin The cost are from $79-$149 and takes about 4-6 weeks to process.

Excerpt from Genetic – Ethiopian Study : copy and paste the link below in your web browers to view:

(http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182106)

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33“African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a1}  complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps  None of those sequences, (shown below) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309”} L2a1 samples.

 

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins) 

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

 

*(ANCESTRAL ORIGINS CONT’D FOR L2A1:)*

 

5. L2a1a2- has (PAKISTAN) (ITALY), (MOZAMBIQUE), (YEMEN), (USA) Origins

6. L2a1a3- has (GABON), (CHAD), (PORTUGAL) Origins

7. L2a1c1- has (TUNISIA), (USA) Origins

8. L2a1c6- has (SPAIN), (PORTUGAL) Origins

9.  L2a1d1- has (ETHIOPIA), (EGYPT) Origins

10. L2a1c8- has (CAMEROON), (ISRAEL) Origins

11. L2a1m- has (OMAN), (YEMEN), (ARABIA), (ISRAEL) Origins

12. L2a1k- has (CZECH REP.), (SLOVAK REP.) Origins

13. L2a1c4- has (SPAIN) (ANDALUSIA) Origins

14. L2a1c4a- has (TUNISIA), (BURKINA FASO), (USA) Origins

15. L2a1a2a1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (TUNISIA), (EGYPT), (USA) Origins

16. L2a1c1a- has (PORTUGAL), (USA) Origins 

17. L2a1n- has (USA), (ISRAEL) Origins

18. L2a1o- has (LIBYA), (ISRAEL) Origins

19. L2a1p- has (USA) Origins

20. L2a1b- has (EGYPT) Origins

21. L2a1b1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (MOZAMBIQUE), (KUWAIT), (KENYA) Origins

22. L2a1c- has (CHAD), (GABON), (SPAIN), (USA) Origins

23. L2a1c5- has (USA), (GABON), (EGYPT) Origins

24. L2a1c2- has (BURKINA FASO), (DOMINICAN) Origins

25. L2a1c3- has (ISRAEL), (SPAIN), (GUINEA BISSAU) Origins

 

 

**EXCERPT FROM GENETIC STUDY 2012.**

“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea.  10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and  multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes have an African and or American Origin, but as a Haplogroup remains to be 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transitionnp16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)....

(NOTE): You have to do extra research such as,

Dna data Bases or Forums for comparative matches as well as ,

Public record Genetic studies, to pin-point the Highest Frequencies !! of your Personal DNA number sequence).

DNA-animation

THE  GOVt  in all countries and Monarchs alike .. WorldWide have DNA DATABASES

They know who you are ..   but do you know who you Are ?

(With the Scare tatics and  Biological Threats and

Exotic Flu Viruses this Science is Imperative !

(ex. the swine flu and vaccine ready H1N1 companies)

To know who You are)...

Something to ponder on ...

(the term “African-American” is a

(Corporate Constitutional definition/term:

that was implemented in December of 1988,

to hide your True Ethnic Nationality..)

OFFICE OF MANGEMENT AND BUDGET:

Federal Register Notice on Oct.30, 1997

Revisions to the standard for the Classification of Federal Data On Race and Ethnicity

Copy and paste link into your web browser to view site:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/fedreg/ombdir15.html

AFRICAN AMERICAN CELEBRITIES, ACTORS AND MUSICIANS and THIER DNA GENETIC GEOGRAPHIC COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:

1. Morgan Freeman mtDna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara

2. Oprah Winfrey – Haplogroup L3b Kpelle

3. Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone  his (moms)- Angola.

4. Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

5. Dr. May Angelo (R.I.P.) the Mende people of Liberia and Sierra leone who migrated from Western Sudan..

6. Dr. Mae Jemison L1a listed as West Africa via African Ancestry…

7. Tina Tuner Haplogroup L2a Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Niger, South Sudan, Kenya.

8. AfricaNews – Exclusive: Isaiah Washington mtdna on Dual citizenship – Sierra Leone

9. India Arie- Nigeria  

10. Chris Tucker- Y-Dna is  E3b Mbundu from Angola  and his Mtdna is L1c* Bamileke of Cameroon

11. Don Cheadle has Afro-Asiatic male Y-chromosomes R1b was found in Cameroon

12. Chris Rock has Central African-Asiatic Y-chromosome B21a  has notable frequencies in North Cameroon from Uldeme tribe.

13. Forest Whittiker is from  Igbo Nigeria

14. Danny Glover Nigeria- Igbo

15. T.D. Jakes – are mtDna L1c and Y-chromo E3b Nigerian (Igbo-people)

16. Judge Hatchett is from NigeriaYoruba/Hausa...

17. John Legend’s mtDna belongs to the Mende from Sierra Leone and his Y-Dna belongs to the Fula of Guinea Bissau..

18. Wanda Sykes from the hit show Curb Your Enthusiasm belongs to the Tikar and Fulani  from Cameroon.

19. Erykah Badu  maternal ancestry is from Cameroon with the Bamileke who migrated from Egypt.

20. Q-Tip from Tribe called Quest maternal ancestry belongs to the Jola People of Guniea-Bisaau.

21. Michael K. Williams who played Omar from the Wire maternal ancestry is Mende from Sierra Leone.

22. Quest Love from the Roots is Mende from Sierra Leone.

23. Black Thought from the Roots maternal ancestry goes back to Senegal with the Mandinka.

24. President Barack Hussein Obama -American-Kenyan.

25. Issac Hayes- Ghana..  R.I.P.

26. Whoopi Goldberg – Guinea Bissau Kpelle

27. Blair Underwood –  is a descendant of the Babungo people of Cameroon.

28. Marcus Garvey – Maternal Dna traces back to Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal his Paternal DNA traces to Iberia (Spain & Portugal).

29. Martin Luther King Jr. – Maternal DNA traces back to Mende from Sierra Leon his paternal is from Ireland.

Most of the individuals that were tested with African Ancestry had West African Ancestry?

*Wikipedia.org/Billy Gamble…

Genetic Genealogy and the Ancestries of African Americans by Dr.Rick Kittles.pdf

Lets Go people .. What are u waiting for ?

Nubia.Sudan.Meroe.Pyramids.

Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian Ancestry,

First-generation Egyptian immigrants, or Descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the United States.

In the 2007 U.S. census, the number of people with Egyptian Ancestry was estimated at 195,000,

Although some estimates range from 700,000 to 2 million.

The large majority of Egyptians in the U.S. are Coptic Orthodox

Some Christians in Egypt are increasingly marginalized.

NOTE:

One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

Northeastern Virginiaand theWashington, DC, Metropolitan area.

Other Egyptian American communities are concentrated in

Jersey City, New Jersey, Levittown,

New YorkSteinway Village in Queens, and

New YorkBay Ridge in Brooklyn, New York,

As well as in California, mainly in and around the

Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas,

And parts of Florida and, increasingly, Philadelphia.

African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora.

It is estimated that the current population of recent

African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.

Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S.

EthiopiaEritreaEgypt,  Somalia,

NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone, and South Africa.

Title: Reconstructing ancient L2a1 mitochondrial DNA links between Africans and Europeans

Authors: Cerezo M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Perego UA, Gómez-Carballa A, Brisighelli F, Lancioni H, López-Soto M, Carracedo Á, Capelli C, Torroni A, Salas A / Click link below:

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/suppl/2012/03/01/gr.134452.111.DC1/Cerezo_GR_2011_L Europe_manuscript_Supplemental_Data_S2_final_version.pdf

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2012/03/21/gr.134452.111.full.pdf+html

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  Egyptian population Haplogroup L link below …

http://www.fsigenetics.com/article/S1872-4973(08)00136-1/abstract?cc=y

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA and  Study of Human Evolution

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins

Investigation in the mtdna genetic structure of  Barbadians Haplogroup L …

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  U.S. “Hispanic Haplogroup L…

BioMed Central | Additional Files | The RHNumtS compilation ..

.Figure 2

Africa | Africa Map | Travel Africa | African Safari

Africa the Continent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Evidence of the Early Penetration of Negroes into Prehistoric Egypt”

African diaspora – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Egyptian American – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of  the newly 53 African colonized countries

“The socalled Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau”

NJ State Police  mtdna Micro-Chip Technology called Gene-Chip..

Revisions to the U.S. OMB Standards for Negro Racial Classification of Federal Data …

H.R. 2647-NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2010 CONFERENCE ..

Terracotta Goddess Isis from 18th Dynasty Collections

ብልልይ።ግምብል

Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Family: E-PN2= M78, M35, M2/E-V38. The Egyptian Triad Paternal DNA

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor

This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptianwith an M78Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita-Boyce Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://ingiagzennay.free.fr/Keita-Boyce.pdf

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Ychromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2%)Lower Egypt, (27.3%)Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)Lower Egypt, (24.2%) – Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

(Which group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the Bantu migrations?

But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site is dated, before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78 (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors” of  Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a Proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty

Mummified Ramesses III 20th Dynasty “New Kingdom”

Ancient Y-DNA samples shows Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty belonged to Haplogroup  E1b1a/M2/E-V38:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2/E-V38, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

Ramsses III from tomb KV11,

A genetic kinship analysis was done to investigate a possible family relationship between Ramesses III and Unknown man E, Who may actually be his son Pentawer. An ancient Egyptian Prince of the 20th dynasty, and son of Pharaoh Ramesses III and a secondary wife, Tiye. They amplified 16 Y-chromosomal, short tandem repeats (AmpF\STR yfiler PCR amplification kit; Applied Biosystems). Eight polymorphic microsatellites of the nuclear genome were also amplified (Identifiler and AmpF\STR Minifiler kits; Applied Biosystems). The Y-chromosomal Haplogroups of Ramesses III and unknown man E was screened using the Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor we determined the Y-chromosomal Haplogroup E1b1a. The testing of polymorphic autosomal micro satellite loci provided similar results in at least one allele of each marker (table 2⇓). Although the mummy of Ramesses III’s wife Tiy was not available for testing, the identical Ychromosomal DNA and Autosomal half allele sharing of the two male mummies strongly suggest a Father-Son relationship.

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

Ramesses III-KhonsuTemple-Karnak

http://www.academia.edu/2308336/Revisiting_the_harem_conspiracy_and_death_of_Ramesses_III_anthropological_forensic_radiological_and_genetic_study

Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M268%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on they-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000😉

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Y– chromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are8,000 B.P. and older)

The AfriAsiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arabmales are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

http://www.thegeneticatlas.com

E1b1a (V100) This population is one of two important populations to spring out of the Ethiopian Plateau, E1b1a effect became the most dominant population in Subsaharan Africa

E1b1a (M2) This population grew in enough numbers in the Ethiopian lowlands to be able to cross into the territories of Paleo Africans on their West in Sudan E1b1a (L576) This population represents an East to West thrust in Africa, only E1b1a lineage able to survive crossing the A1b1 territories E1b1a (L86.1) This mutation indicates that the population crossed the A1b1 dominated Grassland into the regions West of the great Lakes E1b1a (M58) Expansion between the Great Lakes & Midwest Africa E1b1a (M116.2) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M149) Very small minority in South Africa E1b1a (M155) Very small minority in Mali E1b1a (M10) Dispersed between Cameroon & Tanzania E1b1a (L485) An important lineage that emerged in the Eastern Benue valley in Central Nigeria E1b1a (L514) Marker for a strong lineage that played a major role in turning West Africa into their new territor E1b1a (M191) This marker indicates that the main body of (L485) reached the Benue River in Nigeria and Cameroon E1b1a (P252) A population that followed the Benue river South, an important marker of the Bantu expansion in Nigeria E1b1a (P9.2) The population that remained in the Benue region, expanded into West into Nigeria & South to Gabon E1b1a (P115) Eastern limit expansion population, reaching Southwestern Central Africa, with possible presence in other Fang regions E1b1a (P116) South of the Benue expansion in Southern Cameroon & Gabon E1b1a (U175) An important lineage that emerged in the Western region of Benue in Nigeria and Niger E1b1a (U209) This population represents the backbone of the Bantu expansion, emerged and expanded out of the Bantu Urheimat E1b1a (U290) A primary marker of African slavery in the USA, Important lineage in Southern Cameroon E1b1a (M154) Found in Western Cameroon & South Africa E1b1a (P268) Found in Gambia, could possibly indicate an early expansion out of Central Africa or late emergence out of an L86.1* that lived amongst (L485) or (U175) E1b1a (M329) The E1b1a population that remained in the Ethiopian lowlands.

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Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubia

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Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

Kushite Prince Horkhemet of Nubian Dynasty Son of Shabako

______________________________________________ Continue reading

The ብጃ Beja The Egyptian (Ta-seti) ጥሰቲ Warriors known as the FuzZy Wuzzies/ Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty

Posted in anthrolpology, Beja, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Eritrea, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, Nomadic, North Africa, Sahara, Sudan, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

old-kingdom-official

Ta Seti Fuzzy Wuzzy Beja 2

The WARRIORS ?


በጃ Beja the Ta-Seti Archers

Of

Nubia-Egypt

The  Beja በጃ (Ge’ez language:)(Arabic: البيجا‎) are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

The term Bejawi comes from Ta-Itjawypeople of Itjawy“.

Ta-Seti Neferet, the mother of Egyptian King Amenhemet I‘s was of a peoples from Upper Egypt known as Ta-Seti. He built a great city state called “Amenemhat-itj-tawy” (“Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands“), more simply called Itjtawy.

Amenemhat’s Ta-Seti army and conscripts came to be known Ta-Itj-tawy. In modern languages this is pronounced Bigawy, Bedjawi or Bejawi, Beja.

The Beja are found mostly in Sudan, but also in parts of Eritrea, and Egypt. They formerly were classified as belonging to the Hamitic race (a classification now generally regarded as scientifically incorrect).

Most of them live in the Sudanese states of Red Sea around Port Sudan, River Nile, Al Qadarif and Kassala, as well as in Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba Regions in Eritrea, and southeastern Egypt.

Other Beja ethnic groups are endemic to Egypt’s Western Desert and to Yemen. Some Beja groups are nomadic.

bedscha2

In Ancient Egyptian times, the Beja በጃ were known as Ta-Seti ታሰቲ

and were renowned for their skill as “archers in the Egyptian army”.

The Beja በጃ have also been named Blemmyesin Roman times,

ቡጋስ “Buga”s in  አፁሚተ Axumite inscriptions in Ge’ez,

and ፉዝዝይ ዉዝዝይ ”  “Fuzzy Wuzzyby Rudyard Kipling.


The Bejas attach a high importance to their “Hair”.  Their Prominent Crown of Fuzzy Hair”

(it is called tiffa in their language) and has characterized the Beja for centuries….

http://www.ancienthistoricalsociety.org/BejaTribe.html

Ta-Seti Beja (fuzzy wuzzy)

(Bejas believe that they are the descendants of a female Lioness deity and her Hue-man consort…)

The Prophecy of Neferti is an Ancient Egyptian literary text, wriiten for

King SnoFru from the 4th Dynasty Old Kingdom:

“Then a King will come from the South,  Amen ye the Justified by name.

SoN of a Ta-seti Womb-man, child of Upper Egypt..

He will take the White Crown and He will wear the Red Crown, He will join the two Mighty Ones..

Rejoice O’ People of his time..

The Sun of wombMan, will make his name for all Eternity ! ..

Asiatic invaders will fall to his Sword..

Libyans will fall to his Flame..

Rebels to his wrath , Traitors to his Might !

As the serpent on his brow, subdue the rebels for him..

One will build the Walls -of- the- Ruler to Bar Asiatics from entering Egypt”..

Beja Young Man  ..  photo by Vit HassanThe Egyptian Beja groups are believed to be the descendants of

The Maahes Caste of High Priests of Amen and their Soldiers.

Ta-Seti (beja) WarriorsEgyptian- Priest-Kings ; Pinudjem, Psusennese and Masaharta are acknowledged as

The patriarchal ancestors of Egypt’s Western Desert Maahes by Egyptian Bejas.

Hereditary Chief Sheikh Beja Khawr al`allaqi is a descendant of one of Egypt’s oldest surviving lineages.

Egyptologist, Emile Brugsch traced the clan of the Khawr kiji through the matriarchal Female line to the 20th Dynasty.

The Khawr kiji claim their Ancestress Maternally was the Mother of an even “earlierDynasty.

Most Egyptian deities first appeared as very local cults and throughout their history retained those local centres of worship, with

most major cities and towns widely known as the home of these deities.

The Goddess Isis originally was an independent and popular deity established in predynastic times, prior to 3100 B.C.,

at Sebennytos in the Northern Delta’s Lower Egypt.

Beja worshiped the Goddess Isis“(Eye-Sis) at Philae until the 6th century. After the temple was closed down officially in the 6th century

A.DGoddess Isis, wall painting 1360 B.C.

Queen Tiye of the 20th Dynasty THE NEW KINGDOM..

Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty .. the New Kingdom,

Queen Tiye ( 1398 B.C.-1338 B.C.) also spelled ( Taia, Tiy and Tiyi)


She was the daughter of the Royal Family,  Yuya and his Wife Tjuyu @ Amarna..Family Royal Temple@ Amarna of Yuya and Thuya

Tiye became the Great Royal Wife of the Egpytian Pharaoh Amenhotep III and the matriarch of the “Amarna Family”.Amenhotep III

The Amarna Family’s lineage can be traced back to the Royal Family of Ancient egypt..Amenhotep III and Queen Tyie

Tiye’s Father, Yuya , was a wealthy landowner from a Southern Upper Egypt town of Akhmin.

There it is said that he served as a Priest and Superintendent of Oxen...

Tiye’s Mother, Thuya was involved in many Religious sects, as her many titles attested..

( singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min..)

These traits suggest that she was a member of the Royal Family..

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. he had been born of a secondary wife of his father

and needed a stronger bond to the Royal lineage...

Amenhotep III Head  Statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child perhaps between the ages of 6-12 yrs old.

Tiye and Amehotep had at least 6 children, out of the six, one went on to become Pharaoh, his name is Akhenaten.Amehotep IV aka Akhenaten

Tiye’s eldest daughter Sitamun, was said to have married her father Amenhotep III, and become entitled , the

Royal Great Wife , as well…

The Great Land of Mother Al’kebu-Lan.. (Africa)

The Mother Land

Map of Egypt/Sudan's Nubia Nation. year of 1910

Names for Ancient Nile Valley Egypt

as a source for population classifications…

The Ancient Egyptians called their land many things

including ta-meri ታመሪ and km.t. ከሚተ.

Also, They called Upper Egypt- ta-shemu ታ ስሀሙ , “the sedge”, and

Lower Egypt- ta-mehu ታ መሁ or “the papyrus thicket”.

One of the most popular names for Egypt in ancient Egyptian is km.t (ከሚት) (read “Kemet”), meaning “blacks”.

The word is composed of the noun km , which translates into “black”, and determinative t, which makes the word a plural.

The use of  ከሚት km.t “blacks” in terms of a place was generally in contrast to the “Desert” or “Red land”: the desert beyond the Nile valley.

When used to mean people, ከሚት km.t “people of  Kemet”, “black people” is usually translated “Egyptians”, some writers argue.

Debate has centered around whether the ‘kmt’ term is an ethnic, cultural, spiritual reference, or a combination of the three.

Some scholars suggest that the term refers to the ‘racial’ or ethnic characteristics of the people.

Still, other scholars disagree with this position, and hold that k.m.t refers to the color of the land, or soil, and not that of the people.

It is of note that terms meaning land, such as ta, orateb, are No where to be found in the name km.t Land,

However is found in other names, typically as ta, like in terms:

British East Africa Map of Ethiopia Tana land of the Ta Nahesi.jpg

Ta-Nahisi ታ ናሂሲ , and Ta-Seti ታ ሰቲ , which translate to

“land of the southerners”, and “land of the bow” respectively,

The latter a reference to the Nehesy or “Nubian” weapon of choice…

The Nile river was sometimes called “Ar” አር or “Aur” ዐኡር

(Coptic ‘laro‘).

The land itself may have been given its oldest name,

‘Kem’ ከም or Kemi’ ከሚ ..

which signifies darkness, based on the black color of the sediments from it….

Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

Sahure ሽሁረ and the 5th Dynasty the Old Kingdom of Egypt/KMT ኽምጥ 2487-2474 B.C.

Posted in Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Ethiopia, Indigenous people, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, Sahara, Semitic, Sudan, Supra-Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Egyptian Sahure from the 5th Dynasty @ the Metropolitan Museum

Sahu’re/Sa-hu-Rah was the Second King of ancient Egypt‘s 5th Dynasty.

Sahure’s birth name means “He who is Close to Re /Rah, his Horus name was Nebkhau,

It is believed he ruled Egypt from around 2487 BC to 2475 BC .

He was a son of Queen Neferhetepes, as shown in scenes from the causeway of Sahure’s Pyramid Complex in Abusir.

His father probably was Userkaf. He was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt ..Userkaf Founder of the 5th Dynasty

The First pharaoh to start the tradition of building Sun Temples at Abusir.

Userkaf’s name means “his Ka (or soul) is Powerful.” He ruled from 2465-2458 BC

And constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara.

Sahure’s consort was Queen Neferetnebty. Reliefs show Sahure and Neferetanebty with their sons Ranefer and Netjerirenre.

He was succeeded by Neferirkare, the first king known to have used separate names.

Verner speculates that Prince Ranefer took the throne as Neferirkare and

Prince Netjerirenre may have later taken the throne as (Shepseskare)

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Afri-Asiatica Familia de Afrika-Ifriqiya* and West Asia (Nubian teens from pic / Aswan Egypt)

Posted in anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., DNA, Egypt, Levant, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Supra-Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

nubian-young-men-in-aswan-egypt1The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about

375 living language (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout

North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southwest Asia, and parts of the Sahel

(including some 300 million speakers) of (Arabic Dialects).

Afro-Asiatic also includes several ancient languages, such as

Ancient Egyptian, Biblical Hebrew, and Akkadian.

The term “Afroasiatic” was coined by Maurice Delafosse (1914). It did not come into general use until it was adopted by Joseph Greenberg

(1950) to replace the earlier term Hamito-Semitic, following his demonstration that Hamitic is not a valid language family.

The Hamitic family is located in Nile Valley’s Land of Ham, example. (Cush/ Nubia/ Egypt and West Asia).


afro-asiaticmap2

The name is now most often spelled “Afro-Asiatic”, though both spellings are in use. Some replace “Afro-Asiatic” with “Afrasian”.

I myself often utter plain “ol’ Asiatic !”

Though i sometimes prefer,  Afri-Asiatic-West Asian Individual scholars have called the family

Erythraean(Tucker 1966) and “Lisramic” (Hodge 1972).

The term “Hamito-Semitic” remains in use in the academic traditions of some European countries.

Afro-Asiatic is one of the four language families of Africa identified by

Joseph Greenberg in his book The Languages of Africa (1963).

It is the only one that extends outside of Africa, via the Semitic branch.

There are no generally accepted relations between Afro-Asiatics and any other language family.

Tunisia

The name  “AFRICA came into Western use through the Romans…   it is not the native name.

The “Original people of AfRICA” never referred to it by that name.

Africa/Egypt was called:

” Ta-Meri/ Ta-mery = ታመርይ,”…  “Kampt /Kemit/kmt = ክምት ,”… or  “Sais = ሳኢስ“… by  Ancient Asiatic inhabitants…

The Romans used the name Africa terra “land of the Afri” (plural, or “Afer” singular) — for the northern part of the continent,

“The North Africa Sahara” as the province of “Africa” with its capital “Carthage”, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia.

The origin of Afer may either come from:

Phoenician `afar, dust; 
-the Afri, a tribe—possibly Berber—who dwelt in North Africa in the Carthage area;

The Greek word aphrike, meaning without cold; 
-or The Latin word aprica, meaning sunny.

The Moorish historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the origin to the

Greek word phrike (φρικε, meaning “cold and horror”),

combined with the negating prefix a-, so meaning, a land free of cold and horror.

But the change of sound from ph to f in Greek is datable to about the first century,

so this cannot really be the origin of the name

Egypt was considered part of  “ASIA” by the “Ancients,” and first assigned to “Africa” by the geographer Ptolemy (85 – 165 AD)

, who accepted Alexandria as Prime Meridian and made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the “boundary” between Asia and Africa.

As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge.

Afri (singular, Afer) was the Latin name for an ancient people located on the shores of the

Southern Mediterranean Sea near the city of Carthage, nowadays Tunisia.

The first record of their existence was made during the Punic Wars (264-146 BC) between ancient Rome and Carthage.

The name may be connected with Phoenician `afar, dust (also found in other Semitic languages), or with Berber `ifri, cave.  Back in medieval historyIfri-qi-ya or Ifriqiyah (Arabicإفريقية‎) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western LibyaTunisia, and eastern Algeria. This area included what had been the Roman province called Africa, whose name it inherited. (North Africa)

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italy, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia. Its capital was Qayrawan (Kairouan) in central Tunisia.

The classical historian Flavius Josephus asserted that the region had been invaded by

Descendants of Abraham‘s grandson Epher, who gave it their name.Imhotep

Nubia_pyramids1

Phoenicians:

The name Africa has been connected with the Phoenician word afar, which means ”dust.” It has also has been connected to two Phoenician terms friqi or pharika, which means “land of corn or fruit.” It has also been hypothesized that Africa may have derived from a Phoenician root faraqa or faraq, meaning “separation or diaspora.”

Romans:
The Romans have been given credit for popularizing the name Africa in the West. They used the name Africa terra meaning “land of the Afri” (or singular version “Afer”) for the northern part of the continent. Its capital was Carthage, which is modern-day Tunisia.
The story told by some historians is that the Romans got the term from the Carthaginians, as a native term for their country. The Latin suffix “-ica” can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar).
Another theory is that the continent was named after the Roman general “Scicipio Africanus,” but his name meant “Sicipio of Africa,” which would mean the general was named for being from Africa.
Some say the term is drawn from the Latin adjective aprica (sunny).

Greeks:
The historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the origin of “Africa” to the Greek word aprikē or aphrike. Phrike means cold and horror, when combined with the negating prefix a-, it means a land free of cold and horror.

Jewish:
The 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that Africa was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham, according to the Bible’s Genesis 25:4, whose descendants invaded Libya. The Hebrew name for the continent, Auphirah is supposedly written as Ophir in many Jewish records.

Arabic:
Some have attributed the name to the later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya (sunny place) in modern-day Tunisia. However, the Arab version is considered by most historians to be a derivative of the Latin version.

Hindi:
Another theory is that the word might stem from Sanskrit and Hindi in which the root Apara or Africa denotes that which, in geographical terms, “comes after” or to the west — in which case Africa is the western continent.

Yemeni:

Some have postulated that it is the name of a Yemenite chief named Africus who invaded North Africa in the second millennium B.C. and founded a town called Afrikyah.

Berber:
A number of historians believe the Romans got the name from a corruption of what the Berbers called the region in which they lived. The theory asserts that “Africa” stems from the Berber ifri (plural ifran), the word for “cave,” in reference to cave dwellers. The same word is found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran (also known as Ifrane) in northwestern Libya.

Egyptian:
A few historians argue that the word “Africa” is indigenous to the continent, and the idea that the Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Hindus or any Caucasoid group created the name Africa is absolutely inaccurate.
This theory asserts that Romans and Greeks began using the term only after coming in contact with African people, such as the Greek conquest of Egypt and the Roman conquest of North Africa and Egypt.
The term “Afru-ika” means “birthplace” or “Motherland,” according to historian Ivan Van Sertima. Af-rui-ka means “to turn toward the opening of the Ka, womb or birthplace.”
Another hypothesis is that the name of the 4th dynasty pharaoh, Kh-afre, reveals that an early Egyptian king had the name “Africa.” It’s believed by some that because modern Egyptologists and others often mix the order of the hieroglyphs that the ancients wrote Kh-afre is supposedly written as Afre-Kh or Africa.

Michael Jackson is Mourned from the U.S. to Africa’s Egypt.. Rest in Peace.. ( June 27, 2009 ) A.P.

Posted in Egypt, R.I.P. KIng of Pop Michael Jackson, The United States and the Arab World with tags , , on April 25, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

the King Michael Jackson

Michael Jackson teen pic

Arab world mourns Michael Jackson

By HADEEL AL-SHALCHI, Associated Press Writer

Saturday, June 27, 2009

 

(06-27) 13:06 PDT CAIRO, Egypt (AP) —

A Bahraini royal mourned him publicly, young Lebanese held a candlelight tribute, Egyptian musicians hailed him as an inspiration.

Beyond his global reach,

Michael Jackson held a special place in the Muslim world, as one of the first major Western entertainers to break through cultural barriers in the 1980s.

Some made a connection with the pop icon because of rumors, never substantiated, that he had converted to Islam. Others embraced him as one of their own after he sought refuge in the Gulf emirate of Bahrain in 2005, following a bruising trial on child molestation charges in the U.S.

“God have mercy on him. He was a Bahraini. He lived with us,” said Jassim Ali, 35, shopping for Jackson CDs on Saturday in a music store in the capital, Manama.

Jackson only spent a year in the emirate, as a guest of Sheik Abdulla bin Hamad Isa Al Khalifa, a son of Bahrain’s king and an aspiring songwriter who had Jackson kept a low profile there, largely staying close to his host.

After Jackson’s departure, the sheik sued Jackson for $7 million, saying he had failed to fulfill a joint music venture, but the two settled in November, with terms not disclosed.

The sheik said Saturday, in a statement in the Gulf Daily News, that “the world has lost a giant in the music industry.”

“We are all very saddened by that,” Al Khalifa said in comments confirmed by his spokesman.

Across the Arab world, the tributes to Jackson, who died Thursday, mirrored those elsewhere around the globe, though some argued the singer had a special appeal in the region.

“Religion is a big part of identity in this part of the world, and the idea he became Muslim boosted his popularity,” said Egyptian cultural critic Tarek el-Shinnawi.

The conversion rumors were fueled, in parts, by comments by Jackson’s brother, Jermaine, a convert to Islam, who has said his brother showed interest in the faith. In November 08, a British tabloid claimed Michael Jackson converted at a friend’s home in Los Angeles.

The Jackson brothers were raised as Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Others simply loved Michael Jackson for his music. At his peak, in the 1980s, a time without Internet and satellite TV,

the Arab world was more shielded from Western pop culture. Jackson was one of the few successful crossover artists.

In Egypt, keyboarder and music distributor Fady Badr traveled to Alexandria to take a few days off work to come to terms with the pop star’s death.

“He’s the reason I got into this business,” said 28-year old Badr.

“Everything he did was new, he had such a power of voice and style; this industry would wait for his new ideas to get us inspired.”

A manager of the Cairo Jazz Club, Shady Hamza, said that he was flooded by calls from local bands and musicians to help arrange a tribute night to the singer.

“I feel like I lost a brother,” said Hamza, 30. “He turned so many of us into the whole music thing — for a lot of musicians, Michael Jackson was their first encounter.”

In Lebanon, about 100 young fans lit candles and sang along to his songs in a downtown street lined with bars and restaurants. A few tried to moon walk while others cheered.

Qays al Zu’bi, a Bahraini lawyer who said he helped Jackson with his finances when he lived in the emirate, said the singer had qualities about him that endeared him to people in the region, including his close relationship with his children and his vision.

“He had an aura about him,” said the lawyer. “Despite the scandal in the United States, I saw mothers at the lobby of his hotel who brought their children to introduce them to Michael Jackson.”

___

Associated Press Writer Reem Khalifah in Bahrain contributed to this report.

 

http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2009/06/27/international/i123728D86.DTL

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ