Archive for Tuareg

Asiatic Afro-Arabs of Africa: North Africa-Ifriqiya* / Horn of Africa and SouthWest Asia.. (Nubians, Tuareg and Beja “Sahara” People)

Posted in Afro Arabs, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Tuareg with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 28, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻


800px-nomad-tuaregs Afro-Asiatic Arabs of Africa..

Afro-Arab (sometimes referred to as African Arab) refers to people who possess both African and/or Arab ancestry. In addition, it may refer to Arabs who are not descended from recent African ancestry, but who live on the African continent.

There are large communities of Afro-Arabs in East Africa, North -Africa and Nile Valley Regions

West-Asia’s Middle east, and  through recent migrations, Western Europe.

The phrase Afro-Arab may also refer to African Union efforts to improve co-operation between Africa and countries of the Arab world.

Tuareg Barber and Tuareg Teen... Afro-Asiatic Family

The Arabs of the Middle East have very old connections to the African continent, and in addition more than half the Arab world now exists in Africa (in terms of area, and possibly population too), i.e. from

Egypt and Sudan in the east to Mauritania in the west, although much of the North African population are Berbers (a separate, native ethnic group speaking an Afro-Asiatic language) or Arabized Berbers.

The Islamic world covers even more area, ie. /Niger Sahara and Nigeria in the west and many other West African nations too.

So this intermingling of peoples from the African continent, along with the spread of Islam, has resulted in Large Populations of African Arab peoples covering a vast area of Africa and Asia.

Present-day Sudan is home to millions of Arabs, with 40% of the population identifying themselves,

Under the ethnic group of ‘Arabs’ Even though the option of ‘Afro-Arabs’ is also available…


Nubian.Woman with Henna Tattoos from Aswan Upper Egypt

Afro-Arabs within West Asia’s Middle East itself are for the most part descendants of

Black African slaves who were brought there during the Arab slave trade.

Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar as well East Africa hosts a significant Afro-Arab population

Along the Swahili Coast, such as in Zanzibar, Mombasa, Lamu, Malindi, the Comoros, Bagamoyo, and Ujiji.

 'Antarah Ibn Shaddād al-'Absī عنترة بن شداد العبسي

‘Antarah Ibn Shaddād al-‘Absī عنترة بن شداد العبسي

One of the most famous Afro Arabs of ancient times was the Pre Islamic Hero like figure Antar Ibn Shadded.

Antarah Ibn Shaddād al-‘Absī عنترة بن شداد العبسي was a pre-Islamic Arab hero and poet  born (525-608) famous for both his poetry and his adventurous life. What many consider his best or chief poem is contained in the Mu’allaqat. The account of his life forms the basis of a long and extravagant romance.

Antar was in Laiwa, He was born the son of Shaddād, a well respected member of the Arabian tribe of BanuAbs, and of Zabaibah,

An Ethiopian Female whom Shaddad had Enslaved after a Tribal War.

The tribe neglected Antar at first, and he grew up in servitude.

Although it was fairly obvious that Shaddad was his father, his

Ethiopian Dark Skin made it easier to classify him among the African-Asiatic slaves.

Antara claimed attention and respect for himself by his remarkable personal qualities and courage in battle, excelling as an accomplished poet and a mighty warrior. In 1898 the French painter Étienne Dinet published his translation of a 13th-century epic Arab poem Antar which brought Antar bin Shaddad to European notice.[2] It has been followed by a number of derivative works such as Diana Richmond’s Antar and Abla which furthered western exposure to the Antar bin Shaddad legends.

(Antarah ibn Shaddad)

The Zanj Rebellions took place near the city of Basra, located in southern Iraq over a period of fifteen years (869-883 AD). They grew to involve over 500,000 slaves who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over “tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq” .

The major revolt is said to have been led by Ali ibn Muhammad,

Who claimed to be a descendent of Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib.

Not all part takers in the Zanj revolt where of Black African descent,

Many where Slaves of Indian, Iranian and of Slavic ancestry.

The majority that where forced to work in the Iraqi salt marshes where however of Zanj (East African Bantu) Ancestry

Because the East European Slavs would simply die in the humid heat of the salt marshes.

It is believed that many of today’s Basra area “Afro Arabs” are Descending from one of these Zanj Groups though many May have settled that area under different circumstances via the Arab-African.

In Medieval HistoryIfriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabicإفريقية‎) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western LibyaTunisia, and Eastern Algeria.

This area included what had been the Roman province of Africa, whose name it inherited

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italy, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia.

Its Capital was Qayrawan (Kairouan) in Central Tunisia.

Arabic Thought and its Place in History, De Lacy O’Leary, London: Kegan, Paul [1922], p. 227-8 says: “Gradually the Arabs spread all along North Ifriqiya*/Africa and down to the desert edge, their tribes as a rule occupying the lower ground, whilst the older population had its chief centres in the mountainous districts.

During the invasion of 45 (A.H.) the city of Kairouan (Qairouan, Qayrawan) was founded some distance south of Tunis.

The site was badly chosen, and is now marked only by ruins and a scanty village, but for some centuries it served as the capital city of Ifrikiya, which was the name given to the province lying next to Egypt, embracing the modern states of Tripoli, Tunis, and the Eastern part of Algeria up to the meridian of Bougie.”

From their base in Kairouan the Aghlabids Conquered Sicily, beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was displaced by the Normans, effecting lasting changes in Sicilian culture.

Nubian la bezza



Etymology of the word Arab

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  • Ibn KhaldunHistoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l’Afrique; traduite de l’arabe par le baron de Slane; nouv. éd / pub. sous la direction de Paul Casanova, et suivie d’une bibliographie d’Ibn Khaldoun. 4 vols. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1925-34.
  • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de l’Afrique du Nord, des origines à 1830, édition originale Paris: Payot, 1931, réédition Payot, Paris, 1961


What is a Sub-Saharan African or Sub-Artic American… a subtle racist classification

Posted in A Subtle Racist Classification, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Are you a U.S. citizen or a American National ?, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Nigeria, North Africa, Sahara, Supra-Sahara, The Sahel, What is a Sub-Saharan African ? with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻


Sub-Saharan Racial class 1956by Arabs/Western/Euro Cultures

ISSN: 1525-4488

Issue 11 (2007)


Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe

The West’s leading news organizations (CNN, BBC, International Herald Tribune, Reuters, Associated Press, Fox News, Yahoo! News, etc….), the recent commemoration of 50 years of Ghana’s restoration-of-independence (after the British conquest and occupation) occasioned, once again, the increasing absurdity that underscores these agencies’ understanding of the fundamentals of political geography in describing Africa.

The very ritualized invocation of the misleading, if not meaningless, epithet “sub-Sahara Africa” was the choice of each of these media outlets in its description of Ghana in their respective anniversary coverage. Indeed all of Africa, except the five predominantly Arab states of north Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) and Sudan, which has an African majority population but an Arab minority that has wielded supreme political power since the country’s restoration-of-independence from Britain in 1956, is also frivolously labeled “sub-Sahara Africa” by these institutions in this outlandish classificatory schema.Nubian CaptainIt is not obvious, on the face of it, which of the four possible meanings of the prefix, “sub”, these agencies attach to their “Sahara Africa.” Is it “under” or “part of”/”partly”? Or, presumably, “partially”/”nearly” or even the very unlikely (hopefully!) application of “in the style of, but inferior to,” especially considering that there is an Arab nationality sandwiched between Morocco and Mauritania (northwest Africa) which calls itself Saharan? The example of South Africa is apt here. Crucially, this is a reference underlined in the relevant literature of the epoch, especially those emanating from Western states, The United Nations (principally UNDP, FAO, UNCTAD, ILO), The World Bank and IMF, the so-called NGOs/”aid” groups, and some in academia, who are variously responsible for initiating and sustaining the operation of this dogma.Nubian Queen ElderPrior to the formal restoration of African majority government in 1994, South Africa was never designated “sub-Sahara Africa” in this portrait unlike the rest of the 13 African-led states in southern Africa. South Africa then was either termed “white South Africa” or the “South Africa sub-continent”

(as in the “India sub-continent” usage, for instance) i.e. “almost”/“partially” a continent – quite clearly a usage of “admiration” or “compliment” employed by its subscribers to essentially project and valorise the perceived geo-strategic potentials or capabilities of the erstwhile European-minority occupying regime. But soon after the triumph of the African freedom movement there, South Africa became “sub-Sahara Africa” in the quickly adjusted schema of this representation! What suddenly happened to South Africa’s “geography” to be so differently classified?! Is it African liberation/rule that renders an African state “sub-Sahara”? Does this post-1994 West-inflected South Africa-changed classification make “sub-Sahara Africa” any more intelligible?Nubian Caramel BeautyJust as in its “continent” example (above), the application of the “almost”/ “partially” or indeed “part of”/ “partly” meaning of prefix “sub-” to “Sahara Africa” focuses unambiguously on Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, each of which has 25-75% per cent of its territory (especially to the south) covered by the Sahara Desert. It also focuses on Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan, which variously have 25-75% per cent of their territories (to the north) covered by the same desert. In effect, these 10 states make up the Sahara Africa.

Anwar Sadat

The five Arab North Africa states do not, correctly, describe themselves as Africans even though they unquestionably habituate

African Geography, the African continent. The West governments, press and the transnational bodies we referred to earlier

(which are predominantly led by West personnel and interests) have consistently “conceded” to this Arab insistence on racial identity. Presumably, this accounts for the West’s ludicrous non-designation of its “sub-Sahara Africa” dogma to these states as well as the Sudan, whose successive Arab-minority regimes in the past 51 years have claimed,

But incorrectly,that The Sudan “belongs” to the Arab World…

On this subject, the West does no doubt know that what it has been engaged in, all along, is blatant sophistry and not science. This, however, conveniently suits its current self-serving propaganda packaging on Africa, which we shall be elaborating on shortly.

It would appear that we still don’t seem to be any closer at establishing, conclusively, what the West media and allied institutions mean by

“sub-Sahara Africa.” Could it, perhaps, just be a benign reference to all the countries “under” the Sahara, whatever their distances from this desert, to interrogate our final, fourth probability? Presently, there are 53 sovereign states in Africa.

If the five north Africa Arab states are said to be located “above” the Sahara, then 49 are positioned “under.”

The latter would therefore include all the five countries mentioned above whose north frontiers incorporate

the southern stretches of the Desert, countries in central Africa (the Congos, Rwanda, Burundi, etc., etc),

for instance, despite being 2000-2500 miles away, and even the southern African states situated 3000-3500 miles away!

In fact, all these 49 countries, except Sudan (alas, not included for the plausible reason already cited!), which is clearly “under” the Sahara and situated within the same latitudes as Mali, Niger and Chad, are all categorized by the West as “sub-Sahara Africa.” To Replicate this obvious farce of a classification elsewhere in the world, the following random exercise is not such an indistinct scenario:

1. Australia hence becomes “sub-Great Sandy Australia” after the hot deserts that cover much of west and central Australia.

2. East Russia, east of the Urals, becomes “sub-Siberia Asia.”

3. China, Japan and Indonesia are reclassified “sub-Gobi Asia.”

4. Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam become “sub-Himalaya Asia.”

5. Europe is “sub-Arctic Europe.”

6. Most of England, central and southern counties, is renamed “sub-Pennines Europe.”

7. East/southeast France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia are “sub-Alps Europe.”

8. The Americas become “sub-Arctic Americas.”

9. South America south of the Amazon is proclaimed “sub-Amazon South America”; Chile could be “sub-Atacama South America.”

10. New Zealand’s South Island is renamed “sub-Southern Alps.

11. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama become “sub-Rocky North America.”

12. The entire Caribbean becomes “sub-Appalachian Americas.”

Rather than some benign construct, “sub-Sahara Africa” is, in the end, a bizarre nomenclatural code that the West employs to depict an African-led sovereign state – anywhere in Africa, as distinct from an Arab-led one. It is of course the West’s non-inclusion of the Sudan in this grouping, despite its majority African population and geographical location, which gives the game away! More seriously to the point, though, the West uses “sub-Sahara Africa” to create the stunning effect of a supposedly shrinking African geographical landmass in the popular imagination, coupled with the continent’s supposedly attendant geo-strategic global “irrelevance.” “Sub-Sahara Africa” is undoubtedly a Racist Geo-Political signature in which its users aim repeatedly to present the imagery of the desolation, aridity, and hopelessness of a desert environment.

This is despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of  “700” million Africans do not live anywhere close to the Sahara, nor are their lives so affected by the implied impact of the very loaded meaning that this dogma intends to convey. Except this increasingly pervasive use of “sub-Sahara Africa” is robustly challenged by rigorous African-centred scholarship and publicity work, the West will succeed in the coming decade to effectively substitute the name of the continent “Africa” with “sub-Sahara Africa” and the name of its peoples, “Africans,”, with “sub-Sahara Africans” or worse still “sub-Saharans” in the realm of public memory and reckoning.

It should be noted that this characterization of Africa comes in the wake of the virtual collapse of the continent’s economy in the 1980s. This was caused by the catastrophic failure of the so-called “economic structural adjustment program,” formulated by The World Bank/IMF and implemented on the ground by the infamous Afrikaan Kakistocratic regimes. The age long terms of the glaring asymmetrical Africa-West socioeconomic relations, that have always favored the West, worsened even further for Africans. Even though tagged a “developing continent,” Africa crucially became a net-exporter of capital to the West as a result, a cardinal feature of its economy since 1981. In these past 26 years, Africa has transferred the gargantuan sum of US$700 billion to the West. These exports do not include those routinely made by thieving heads of state and other state officials. The other stunning consequence of the economy’s collapse is the flight of its middle classes to the West and elsewhere. They are part of the 12 million Africans who have fled the continent in the past 20 years and who are now the principal external source of capital generation and transfer to Africa. In 2003, they dispatched the impressive sum of US$200 billion to Africa. These African émigrés also include the cream of the post-restoration of independence intelligentsia (scholars, scientists, writers, artists, journalists, doctors, nurses, other medical/health professionals, engineers, accountants, teachers, etc., etc), very talented men and women who presently enrich, quite ironically, the West’s intellectual and cultural heritage most profoundly.

It cannot be stressed too often that the extant (European-created) African states that are immanently hostile to the overriding interests of the African humanity have not ceased to be havens that continuously enrich the West most dramatically. The flip side of the coin that tells the tale of the extraordinary wealth which the West and its African regime-clients expropriate from Africa, day in, day out, is the emaciated, starving and dying child, woman and man that has been the harrowing image of the African on television screens and other publicity channels across the world. At stake, of course, is the case that the state in Africa demonstrates a glaring inability to fulfill its basic role to provide security, welfare and transformative capacities for society’s developmental needs and objectives.

It is still a conqueror’s and conquest state, precisely the way the Euro creator envisioned its ontology. It is virtually at war with its peoples, a genocide-state that has murdered 15 million in Biafra, Rwanda, Darfur and southern Sudan, the Congos and elsewhere on the continent in the past 40 years. It is the bane of African social existence. Africans now have no choice but to dismantle this state:

(“sub-Sahara,” “sub-sub-Sahara,” “proto-Sahara,” “quasi-Sahara,” “supra-Sahara,” whatever!) and create New-State/Country and/or terms that Emphatically serve their Interests and Aspirations. This is the most pressing African task of the contemporary era.

Notes and References

1 First published in The Guardian (Nigeria) online,, May 28, 2007

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