Archive for Nile Valley civilization

The Kingdom of Kush ኩስህ/Cush ችስህ is thy Kingdom.. Nubian and Upper Egyptian Pharaohs.. and actor Will Smith set to play Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa..

Posted in Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Indigenous people, Nubians, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

kush-400ac

nubian-boy-sail-boat-2-profile-copy

Nubian Boy and Camel

The Kingdom of Kush

Confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is

Now the Republic of Sudan. It was one of the earliest civilizations to develop in the Nile River Valley.

Having also been referred to as Nubia, and as Ethiopia in ancient Greek and Greco-Roman records,

The Kushites left their mark on various aspects of the Ancient World and their legacy is still readily discernible from the various archaeological field sites scattered through out modern Sudan.Temple of Taharqa @ Nubia

The first cultures arose in Sudan before the time of a unified Egypt. The earliest signs of which show a continuity in developing Nile valley cultures comes from the Khartoum Neolithic, where we see the beginnings of food production in the region. As these centers evolved, local societies began to amalgamate into confederations, depending on different strategies distinct from earlier semi-nomadic lifestyles.

One such polity, called the “A-group” emerged in lower Sudan around 3800 BC, and were contemporaneous with the pre-dynastic Naqada people of Upper Egypt, sharing an almost identical culture. After the demise of the A-group, archaeological evidence attesting to permanent settlements is scant.

The culture called the “C-group”, who founded the Kingdom of Kush began to appear consistently in Egyptian accounts and the archaeological record. It is through Egyptian, Hebrew, and Greco-Roman records that most of our knowledge of Kush comes.

The Egyptians took control of Kush in ca. 1520 BC, but their grip on the area would decline over the next 500 years, until the Kushites became independent.

The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the “Pan-grave culture”.

The Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt, especially Ammon and Isis. Curiously, during Egypt’s expansion into Kushite territory during the New Kingdom, upon discovering the site at Gebel-Barkal

The Egyptians believed they’d found the remnants of an Ancient Egyptian kingship and culture as well as the origin of Ammon and the Hedjet (or “white crown“)

In Ancient Egypt, Libyan princes had taken control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945 BC, founding the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty that would rule for some 200 years.

Sheshonq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. However, Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis, and Kushites threatened from the south.

Around 727 BC the Kushite king Piye invaded northward, seizing control of Thebes and eventually the DeltaHis dynasty,

The Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, continued until about 653 BC. The 25th dynasty was based at Napata, in what is now The Sudan. Alara is universally regarded as the founder of the 25th Kushite dynasty by his successors.

Nubian Pharaoah Taharqa collection statues

The power of the 25th Dynasty reached a climax under the

Pharaohs Piye and Taharka.

Pharaoh Taharka spent half his time as ruler of Egypt restoring its earlier cultural achievements while also fending off Assyrian power in the east. In 674, he defeated an invading Assyrian army under the leadership of Esarhaddon.

Three years later, he would be defeated in three battles that would force Kush out of Egypt altogether.

Why the Kushites chose to enter Egypt at this crucial point of foreign domination is subject to debate. Archaeologist Timmothy Kendall offers his own hypotheses, connecting it to a claim of legitimacy associated with Gebel Barkal.

Kendall cites the stele of Pharaoh Piye, which states that

Amun of Napata granted me to be ruler of every foreign country,” and “Amun in Thebes granted me to be ruler of the Black Land (Kemit)”.

Noteworthy is that according to Kendall,

“foreign lands” in this regard seems to include Lower Egypt while Kemit seems to refer to a United Upper Egypt and Nubia…

The name given this civilization comes from the Old Testament where Cush (Hebrew: כוש) was one of the sons of Ham (Genesis 10:6) who settled in NorthEast Africa.

In the Bible and at different times in the Ancient World, a large region covering Sudan, modern day Southern Egypt, and parts of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somaliland was known as “Cush”. Cush/Kush also referred to areas in “Asia”.

The Hebrew Bible refers to “Cush” on a number of occasions, though various English translations translate this as “Nubian”, “Ethiopia”, “Sudan”, and “Cushite” (Unseth 1999).

This is due to the fact that the Greeks referred to all dark skinned people as Cushites.

Moses‘ wife, Tzipporah, is described as a Kushite in the book of Numbers 12:1. Some contend that this Cush was in southern Arabia. See Biblical Cush for a full discussion. All of this is complicated by the fact that the Septuagint translated “Cush” as “Aethiopia“, leading to the misleading conclusion that “Cush/Kush” should be equated with the borders of present day “Ethiopia”.


Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa 25th Dynasty

Will Smith puts on Pharaoh Hat…

will-smith

Randall White set to write Columbia Drama….

By MICHAEL FLEMING

Will Smith

may next morph into a god.Pharaoh Taharqa and his Queen

“Braveheart” scribe Randall Wallace will write “The Last Pharaoh,” a Columbia drama crafted as a vehicle for Smith to play

Taharqa, the (Kushite- Nubian) pharaoh who battled Assyrian invaders in Ancient Egypt.

Smith, James Lassiter and Ken Stovitz will produce for Overbrook Entertainment.

Smith, who has long wanted to play the pharaoh, brought Wallace the “Taharqa story”.

The film will focus on his battles with Assyrian leader Esarhaddon starting in 677 B.C.

Smith next stars for Columbia in “Seven Pounds,” a reteam with “Pursuit of Happyness” director Gabriele Muccino that Overbrook produced with Escape Artists.

Wallace will next direct a Mike Rich-scripted Disney film about Triple Crown-winning racehorse Secretariat and its owner, Penny Chenery.

He also just signed on to a Jerry Bruckheimer-produced Disney adaptation of the WWII battle saga “Killing Rommel,” which Wallace will write with

author Steven Pressfield

www.Kemetology.com

What and Where is Nubia – nubianet

Will Smith’s Lesson for Jerusalem – Forward.com

Black pharaoh trove uncovered in  Nubia-North Sudan

Will Smith: A Film about Blacks of Ethiopian Descent Ruled Nubia/Egypt..



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Sahure ሽሁረ and the 5th Dynasty the Old Kingdom of Egypt/KMT ኽምጥ 2487-2474 B.C.

Posted in Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Ethiopia, Indigenous people, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, Sahara, Semitic, Sudan, Supra-Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Egyptian Sahure from the 5th Dynasty @ the Metropolitan Museum

Sahu’re/Sa-hu-Rah was the Second King of ancient Egypt‘s 5th Dynasty.

Sahure’s birth name means “He who is Close to Re /Rah, his Horus name was Nebkhau,

It is believed he ruled Egypt from around 2487 BC to 2475 BC .

He was a son of Queen Neferhetepes, as shown in scenes from the causeway of Sahure’s Pyramid Complex in Abusir.

His father probably was Userkaf. He was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt ..Userkaf Founder of the 5th Dynasty

The First pharaoh to start the tradition of building Sun Temples at Abusir.

Userkaf’s name means “his Ka (or soul) is Powerful.” He ruled from 2465-2458 BC

And constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara.

Sahure’s consort was Queen Neferetnebty. Reliefs show Sahure and Neferetanebty with their sons Ranefer and Netjerirenre.

He was succeeded by Neferirkare, the first king known to have used separate names.

Verner speculates that Prince Ranefer took the throne as Neferirkare and

Prince Netjerirenre may have later taken the throne as (Shepseskare)

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Egypt… Another Nile Valley Civilization: The White Nile to the Blue Nile

Posted in Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization with tags , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubia and Ancient Upper and Lower Egyptian map.svg

774px-view_from_cairo_tower_31march2007 The Nile Valley Civilization

The Blue Nile and the White Nile

Egypt, Ethiopia , Nubia to Uganda

The Nile Valley is dominated by the longest river in the world, and  is home to a large variety of peoples and cultures, who vary widely in skin color, facial shape and other indices.

Below is a survey of the peopling and origins of various Nile Valley populations, including scholarly anthropological and archaeological views on their origins, similarities, differences, and related movements.

A variety of factors are involved in studying the origins of the Nilotic or Nile Valley peoples, including geographic, genetic, and environmental data. These are presented throughout the article. As one archaeological text suggests, interpretations of the biological affinities and origins of the Ancient Nile Valley peoples:

The Egyptians as simply another Nile Valley population

A number of current mainstream scholars such as Bruce Trigger, and Frank Yurco eschew a racial approach, asserting that the previous archaeological and anthropological approaches were ‘marred by a confusion of race, language, and culture and by an accompanying racism’.

As to racial affinities of the people of northeast Africa, Yurco declares that all the peoples of the region are indigenous Africans and that arbitrary divisions into Negroid and Caucasoid stocks is misguided and misleading. To Yurco, the indigenous stocks are part of a continuum of physical variation in the Nile Valley.

Just as Europeans are noted to vary between tall blonde Swedes, and shorter, darker Portuguese, or Basques with strikingly different blood types, so the Nile Valley populations are simply allowed similar variation.

Other mainstream scholars such as Shomarka Keita applaud Trigger’s and Yurco’s approach but note the continued use of terms such as “Mediterranean” to incorporate the ancient Egyptians, and the continued use of classification schemes that screen out or deemphasize variability, and the rich diversity of the African people.

As one mainstream anthropologist puts it:

The living peoples of the African continent are diverse in facial characteristics, stature, skin color, hair form, genetics, and other characteristics.

No one set of characteristics is more African than another”.

Variability is also found in “sub-Saharan” Africa, to which the word “Africa” is sometimes erroneously restricted. There is a problem with definitions. Sometimes Africa is defined using cultural factors, like language, that exclude developments that clearly arose in Africa.

For example: sometimes even the Horn of Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea) is excluded because of geography and language and the fact that some of its peoples have narrow noses and faces.

However, the Horn is at the same latitude as Nigeria, and its languages are African.

The latitude of 15 degree passes through Timbuktu, surely in “sub-Saharan Africa,” as well as Khartoum in Sudan; both are north of the Horn. Another false idea is that supra-Saharan and Saharan Africa were peopled after the emergence of “Europeans” or Near Easterners by populations coming from outside Africa.

Hence, the Ancient Egyptians in some writings have been de-Africanized. These ideas, which limit the definition of Africa and Africans, are rooted in racism and earlier, erroneous scientificapproaches.” (S.  Keita, “The Diversity of Indigenous Africans,” in Egypt in Africa, Theodore Clenko, Editor (1996), pp. 104-105. )

The general Egyptology consensus is captured in the words of mainstream scholar Frank Yurco:

“Certainly there was some foreign admixture [in Egypt], but basically a homogeneous African population had lived in the Nile Valley from ancient to modern times… [the] Badarian people, who developed the earliest Predynastic Egyptian culture, already exhibited the mix of North African and Sub-Saharan physical traits that have typified Egyptians ever since (Hassan 1985; Yurco 1989; Trigger 1978; Keita 1990.. et al.,)…

The peoples of  Egypt, the Sudan, and much of East African Ethiopia and Somalia are now generally regarded as a Nilotic continuity, with widely ranging physical features

(complexions light to dark, various hair and craniofacial types) but with powerful common cultural traits, including Cattle Pastoralist traditions.

The White Nile (Arabic: النيل الأبيض, transliterated: an-Nīl al-Ābyadˤ) a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. In the strict meaning, “White Nile” refers to the river formed at Lake No at the confluence of the Bahr al Jabal and Bahr el Ghazal rivers. In the wider sense, White Nilerefers to the approximately 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) of rivers draining from Lake Victoria into the White Nile proper. It may also, depending on the speaker, refer to the headwaters of Lake Victoria.

The 19th century search by Europeans for the source of the Nile was mainly focused on the White Nile, which disappeared into the depths of what was then known as “Darkest Africa”. The discovery of the source of the White Nile thus came to symbolise European penetration of unknown jungle.

The most distant source of the waters of Lake Victoria is the Luvironza River in Burundi, which flows into the Rurubu River near the northern Burundian town of Kayanza. The Ruvuvu in turn flows into the Kagera River, the most notable feature of which is Rusumo Falls. On 28—29 April 1994, 250,000 Rwandans crossed the bridge at Rusumo Falls into Ngara, Tanzania in 24 hours in what the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees called the “the largest and fastest refugee exodus in modern times.” The Kagera forms part of the Rwanda-Tanzania and Tanzania-Uganda borders before flowing into Lake Victoria.

The river continues north to Nimule where it enters Sudan and becomes known as the Bahr al Jabal (“River of the Mountain”, sometimes Mountain Nile). Bahr al Jabal was the former name of the state of Central Equatoria. The Bahr al Jabal then winds through rapids before entering the Sudan plain and the vast swamp of the Sudd. It eventually makes its way to Lake No, where it merges with the Bahr el Ghazal and forms the White Nile. An anabranch river called Bahr el Zeraf flows out of the Bahr al Jabal and flows through the Sudd to eventually join the White Nile. The Bahr al Jabal passes through Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan, and the southernmost navigable point on the Nile river system, and then Kodok, the site of the 1898 Fashoda Incident that marked an end to the “Scramble for Africa“. The river lends its name to the state of White Nile before merging with the larger Blue Nile at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.

The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia forms the upstream of the Blue Nile. It is Fal also known as Tis Issat falls after the name of the nearby village.

The Blue Nile flows generally south from Lake Tana and then west across Ethiopia and northwest into Sudan/Nubia. Within 30 km (18.6 mi) of its source at Lake Tana, the river enters a canyon about 400 km long. This gorge is a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication from the north half of Ethiopia to the southern half. The power of the Blue Nile may best be appreciated at Tis Issat Falls, which are 45 m (148 ft) high, located about 40 km (25 mi) downstream of Lake Tana. Despite the hazards and obstacles of the river, on January 29, 2005 Canadian Les Jickling and New Zealander Mark Tanner reached the Mediterranean Sea after an epic 148 day journey becoming the first to have paddled the Blue Nile from source to sea.

The flow of the Blue Nile reaches maximum volume in the rainy season (from June to September), when it supplies about two thirds of the water of the Nile proper. The Blue Nile, along with that of the Atbara River to the north, which also flows out of the Ethiopian highlands, were responsible for the annual Nile floods that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley and the consequent rise of Ancient Egyptian civilization and Egyptian Mythology. With the completion in 1970 of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt, the Nile floods ended.

The Blue Nile is vital to the livelihood of Egypt. Though shorter than the White Nile, 56% of the water that reaches Egypt originates from the Blue Nile branch of the great river; when combined with the Atbara River, which also has its source in the Ethiopian Highlands, the figure rises to 90% of the water and 96% of transported sediment.The river is also an important resource for Sudan, where the Roseires and Sennar dams produce 80% of the country’s power. These dams also help irrigate the Gezira Plain, which is most famous for its high quality cotton. The region also produces wheat, and animal feed crops.  Amhara.Blue Nile

blue-nile-falls-in-ethiopia-copy

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Stateless-ness Citizens/Refugees. People in Foreign or Native Countries with out Soveriegn Nationality.. Do “Stateless Citizens” have same rights as “Country Nationals” ?

Posted in afri asiatic, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Are you a U.S. citizen or a American National ?, Blood type O, Do you have a Nationality ?, Indigenous American, Indigenous people, Jus Soli and Jus Sanguinis, Native American, Nubians, O-positive blood with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻



Juanita Retro Native American Afro Mulatto Shot
The U.N. 1961 Convention on the Reduction of State-less-ness.. = Juanita (Mulatto Native American )

Juanita Mulatto Native American retro pic 1969 copy


11 Main Reasons to check your nationality or citizen status.. are you stateless/without a country of Origin ?

1. Renunciation of nationality (eg.  african-american , negroe or black/white /U.S. citizen see 14th Ammend..)

2. Deprivation of nationality (eg. for disloyalty, for treasonous acts, forobtaining nationality by fraud)

3. Membership of a group which is denied citizen status in the country on whose territory they are born (eg. Gypsies and Jews in Third Reich Germany (1934-1945))

4. Birth in disputed territories (eg. Israel occupied territory)

5. Birth in an area ruled by an entity whose independence is not internationally recognized (eg. Manchukuo 1932-1945)

6. Birth on territory over which no modern state claims sovereignty (eg. unclaimed region of Antarctica)

7. Statelessness creates problems forstates and disadvantages for those left stateless (eg. African-Americans), to wit:

Diminished civil rights in “comparison to the nationals of the states where they reside”.(eg. Egyptian-Americans)

(Note:  Africa is a Continent not a Country.. you must know your country of origin to claim your birth-right nationality…)

This may occur despite the ideals espoused in the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons

8.  A perception that stateless persons lack loyalty to their country of residence

9. Lack of ability to endow one’s children with a nationality

10. Inability to avail oneself of consular services when outside the country of habitual residence.

11.  No Home Country to which one is guaranteed the Automatic right of return.

Statelessness may frustrate deportation action where no state assumes

the responsibility to accept the person made subject to a criminal deportation..

Statelessness most commonly affects refugees although not all refugees are stateless, and not all stateless persons may be able to qualify as refugees. Refugee status entails the extra requirements that the refugee is outside their country of nationality (or country of habitual residence if stateless), and is deserving of asylum based upon a well-founded fear of persecution for categorized reasons which make him/her unwilling or unable to avail the protection of that countrySee refugee.

The Convention was originally intended as a Protocol to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees,

while the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was adopted to cover stateless persons who are not refugees and therefore not within the scope of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

Migrations forced from political instability during World War II and its immediate aftermath highlighted the international dimensions of problems presented by unprecedented volumes of displaced persons including those rendered effectively stateless.

Kisha Hampton

Dating from December 1948,

The “Universal Declaration of Human Rights“at Article  15  affirms that:

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

The Room of the United Nations General Assembly where Resolution was passed in 1949 which inspired the adoption of the

Convention Regarding the Status of Stateless Persons in 1954 and the completion of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness

At the Fourth United Nations General Assembly Session in October-December 1949, the International Law Commission included the topic “Nationality, including Statelessnessin its list of topics of international law provisionally selected for codification. At the behest of ECOSOC in its 11th Session soon after, that item was given priority.

The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees was done on 28 July 1951. It was originally desired to cover:

“refugees and stateless persons”, however agreement was not reached with respect to the latter

The International Law Commission at its fifth session in 1953 produced both a Draft Convention on the Elimination of Future Statelessness, and a Draft Convention on the Reduction of Future Statelessness. ECOSOC approved both drafts.

The 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was done in September 1954 (The Status Convention). This completed the unfinished work of the Refugee Convention three years prior.

On 4 December 1954 the UN General Assembly by Resolution adopted both drafts as the basis of its desire for a conference of plenipotentiaries and an eventual Convention.

Today, nationality law is based either on” jus soli or jus sanguinis”, or on a combination of the two.

Jus soli is the principle in which a child born in a country’s territorial jurisdiction acquires that country’s nationality.

(Ex: United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, France ).

Jus sanguinis, is the child’s right of Blood/Dna either from the Father or Mother. (inherited nationality/citizenship).

It is a social policy by which nationality or citizenship is not determined by “Place of Birth”, but your “Place of Ethnic origin”.

similarily by having an ancestor who is a national of  the country or citizen of the state.

It contrasts with jus soli (Latin for “right of soil”).

whereas,  jus sanguinis (Latin for “right of blood”).

Ayanna Bria ኣያንና ብሪአ the Ethiopian-Nubian

Global Internet Censorship Geo-Map

No censorship is in BLUE

Some censorship is in Gold

Under surveillance is in Red

Internet black holes is in Black (most heavily censored nations)

Internet censorship – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Internet Censorship | American Civil Liberties Union

Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ