Archive for Kushite

MtDna Migration Map of (Haplogroup L2a1 North Africa and South West Asia)

Posted in afri asiatic, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, DNA, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 30, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

egypt-nubian_wedding-copy

l2a1-asiatic-african-geodna-map-copy

This is Highlighted feature Map of the migrational route of Haplogroup L2a1 mtDNa

Haplogroup -L2a1 @ positions HVR1

16223T16278T16294T16309G, 16368C and 16519C.

(Note: mtDna results above from Genographic is HVR1 sequence only. Definitive results are acquired from FGS (full genome sequence) Test.

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Middle East and North Africa Related Ethnicites

Part of the “AfrI-Asiatic-Semitic Family”.   The process was very simple and pain-less.

This Map shows my L2a1 Northern Nile Valley migration as well as West Asia from  Nat’l Genographic

It took all of 3 minutes to extract saliva from my inner cheek.   place the swab back in the container that’s enclosed in the package with

(instructional dvd included..)

I then sent off my package “anonymously” with a “generated ID” number to follow the process “Online”…   4 weeks later results are in to check securely online in the privacy of your home.

At completion you will be assigned a (Paternal) YDNA or (Maternal) mtDNAHaplogroup (from the Greek word: ἁπλούς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Once this process is done you will recieve a Genetic Migration Map of Whatever Region your DNA Originates...

The Americas, Africa, Madagascar , Asia, Europe , Australia etc..

My Parents‘s Ethnic Ancestral Origins and Migrations

“The Americas” and “North Africa” (NileValley)(West Asia)”

(Indigenous American) and (Nubian-Egyptian)  

My Nationality from my parents genetic origins would be stated as 

Nubian-Native American or Indigenous American Kushite

BAM   !! U now have an Ethnic Origin The cost are from $79-$149 and takes about 4-6 weeks to process.

Excerpt from Genetic – Ethiopian Study : copy and paste the link below in your web browers to view:

(http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182106)

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33“African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a1}  complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps  None of those sequences, (shown below) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309”} L2a1 samples.

 

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins) 

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

 

*(ANCESTRAL ORIGINS CONT’D FOR L2A1:)*

 

5. L2a1a2- has (PAKISTAN) (ITALY), (MOZAMBIQUE), (YEMEN), (USA) Origins

6. L2a1a3- has (GABON), (CHAD), (PORTUGAL) Origins

7. L2a1c1- has (TUNISIA), (USA) Origins

8. L2a1c6- has (SPAIN), (PORTUGAL) Origins

9.  L2a1d1- has (ETHIOPIA), (EGYPT) Origins

10. L2a1c8- has (CAMEROON), (ISRAEL) Origins

11. L2a1m- has (OMAN), (YEMEN), (ARABIA), (ISRAEL) Origins

12. L2a1k- has (CZECH REP.), (SLOVAK REP.) Origins

13. L2a1c4- has (SPAIN) (ANDALUSIA) Origins

14. L2a1c4a- has (TUNISIA), (BURKINA FASO), (USA) Origins

15. L2a1a2a1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (TUNISIA), (EGYPT), (USA) Origins

16. L2a1c1a- has (PORTUGAL), (USA) Origins 

17. L2a1n- has (USA), (ISRAEL) Origins

18. L2a1o- has (LIBYA), (ISRAEL) Origins

19. L2a1p- has (USA) Origins

20. L2a1b- has (EGYPT) Origins

21. L2a1b1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (MOZAMBIQUE), (KUWAIT), (KENYA) Origins

22. L2a1c- has (CHAD), (GABON), (SPAIN), (USA) Origins

23. L2a1c5- has (USA), (GABON), (EGYPT) Origins

24. L2a1c2- has (BURKINA FASO), (DOMINICAN) Origins

25. L2a1c3- has (ISRAEL), (SPAIN), (GUINEA BISSAU) Origins

 

 

**EXCERPT FROM GENETIC STUDY 2012.**

“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea.  10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and  multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes have an African and or American Origin, but as a Haplogroup remains to be 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transitionnp16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)....

(NOTE): You have to do extra research such as,

Dna data Bases or Forums for comparative matches as well as ,

Public record Genetic studies, to pin-point the Highest Frequencies !! of your Personal DNA number sequence).

DNA-animation

THE  GOVt  in all countries and Monarchs alike .. WorldWide have DNA DATABASES

They know who you are ..   but do you know who you Are ?

(With the Scare tatics and  Biological Threats and

Exotic Flu Viruses this Science is Imperative !

(ex. the swine flu and vaccine ready H1N1 companies)

To know who You are)...

Something to ponder on ...

(the term “African-American” is a

(Corporate Constitutional definition/term:

that was implemented in December of 1988,

to hide your True Ethnic Nationality..)

OFFICE OF MANGEMENT AND BUDGET:

Federal Register Notice on Oct.30, 1997

Revisions to the standard for the Classification of Federal Data On Race and Ethnicity

Copy and paste link into your web browser to view site:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/fedreg/ombdir15.html

AFRICAN AMERICAN CELEBRITIES, ACTORS AND MUSICIANS and THIER DNA GENETIC GEOGRAPHIC COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:

1. Morgan Freeman mtDna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara

2. Oprah Winfrey – Haplogroup L3b Kpelle

3. Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone  his (moms)- Angola.

4. Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

5. Dr. May Angelo (R.I.P.) the Mende people of Liberia and Sierra leone who migrated from Western Sudan..

6. Dr. Mae Jemison L1a listed as West Africa via African Ancestry…

7. Tina Tuner Haplogroup L2a Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Niger, South Sudan, Kenya.

8. AfricaNews – Exclusive: Isaiah Washington mtdna on Dual citizenship – Sierra Leone

9. India Arie- Nigeria  

10. Chris Tucker- Y-Dna is  E3b Mbundu from Angola  and his Mtdna is L1c* Bamileke of Cameroon

11. Don Cheadle has Afro-Asiatic male Y-chromosomes R1b was found in Cameroon

12. Chris Rock has Central African-Asiatic Y-chromosome B21a  has notable frequencies in North Cameroon from Uldeme tribe.

13. Forest Whittiker is from  Igbo Nigeria

14. Danny Glover Nigeria- Igbo

15. T.D. Jakes – are mtDna L1c and Y-chromo E3b Nigerian (Igbo-people)

16. Judge Hatchett is from NigeriaYoruba/Hausa...

17. John Legend’s mtDna belongs to the Mende from Sierra Leone and his Y-Dna belongs to the Fula of Guinea Bissau..

18. Wanda Sykes from the hit show Curb Your Enthusiasm belongs to the Tikar and Fulani  from Cameroon.

19. Erykah Badu  maternal ancestry is from Cameroon with the Bamileke who migrated from Egypt.

20. Q-Tip from Tribe called Quest maternal ancestry belongs to the Jola People of Guniea-Bisaau.

21. Michael K. Williams who played Omar from the Wire maternal ancestry is Mende from Sierra Leone.

22. Quest Love from the Roots is Mende from Sierra Leone.

23. Black Thought from the Roots maternal ancestry goes back to Senegal with the Mandinka.

24. President Barack Hussein Obama -American-Kenyan.

25. Issac Hayes- Ghana..  R.I.P.

26. Whoopi Goldberg – Guinea Bissau Kpelle

27. Blair Underwood –  is a descendant of the Babungo people of Cameroon.

28. Marcus Garvey – Maternal Dna traces back to Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal his Paternal DNA traces to Iberia (Spain & Portugal).

29. Martin Luther King Jr. – Maternal DNA traces back to Mende from Sierra Leon his paternal is from Ireland.

Most of the individuals that were tested with African Ancestry had West African Ancestry?

*Wikipedia.org/Billy Gamble…

Genetic Genealogy and the Ancestries of African Americans by Dr.Rick Kittles.pdf

Lets Go people .. What are u waiting for ?

Nubia.Sudan.Meroe.Pyramids.

Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian Ancestry,

First-generation Egyptian immigrants, or Descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the United States.

In the 2007 U.S. census, the number of people with Egyptian Ancestry was estimated at 195,000,

Although some estimates range from 700,000 to 2 million.

The large majority of Egyptians in the U.S. are Coptic Orthodox

Some Christians in Egypt are increasingly marginalized.

NOTE:

One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

Northeastern Virginiaand theWashington, DC, Metropolitan area.

Other Egyptian American communities are concentrated in

Jersey City, New Jersey, Levittown,

New YorkSteinway Village in Queens, and

New YorkBay Ridge in Brooklyn, New York,

As well as in California, mainly in and around the

Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas,

And parts of Florida and, increasingly, Philadelphia.

African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora.

It is estimated that the current population of recent

African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.

Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S.

EthiopiaEritreaEgypt,  Somalia,

NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone, and South Africa.

Title: Reconstructing ancient L2a1 mitochondrial DNA links between Africans and Europeans

Authors: Cerezo M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Perego UA, Gómez-Carballa A, Brisighelli F, Lancioni H, López-Soto M, Carracedo Á, Capelli C, Torroni A, Salas A / Click link below:

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/suppl/2012/03/01/gr.134452.111.DC1/Cerezo_GR_2011_L Europe_manuscript_Supplemental_Data_S2_final_version.pdf

http://genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2012/03/21/gr.134452.111.full.pdf+html

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  Egyptian population Haplogroup L link below …

http://www.fsigenetics.com/article/S1872-4973(08)00136-1/abstract?cc=y

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA and  Study of Human Evolution

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins

Investigation in the mtdna genetic structure of  Barbadians Haplogroup L …

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  U.S. “Hispanic Haplogroup L…

BioMed Central | Additional Files | The RHNumtS compilation ..

.Figure 2

Africa | Africa Map | Travel Africa | African Safari

Africa the Continent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Evidence of the Early Penetration of Negroes into Prehistoric Egypt”

African diaspora – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Egyptian American – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of  the newly 53 African colonized countries

“The socalled Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau”

NJ State Police  mtdna Micro-Chip Technology called Gene-Chip..

Revisions to the U.S. OMB Standards for Negro Racial Classification of Federal Data …

H.R. 2647-NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2010 CONFERENCE ..

Terracotta Goddess Isis from 18th Dynasty Collections

ብልልይ።ግምብል

Egyptians, E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Nubians and Hebrews are the Same Ethnic People: NILE VALLEY: North Africa / Sahara / Horn of Africa and West Asia..

Posted in Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, L2a1, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Semetic People, Semitic, Sephardic Hebrews, The Axumite Kingdom, The Sahel with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻


This is the Ancient Nuzi Map of Eden, which supports the existence of the African Eden.

Link To Photo Of Original Clay Tablet

The Nuzi Map – made of clay may have been made 120 years before The Flood of Noah or possibly closer to Creation.

Cocoa "Nubia" Baby

nubian-girl-with-henna-tatoos

The Nuzi Map portrays the main city within Eden/Aad as being South of the cited mid-point. That is, on the Nuzi Map the city of Aid appears to be perhaps as far south as the Dahlak Archipelago to the Northeast of Asmara, Eritrea (Ethiopia) or nearer the Sudan/Eritrean border or even further to the North perhaps nearer the Suakin Archipelago and Port Sudan.   It is very probable that ruins of Eden will be found throughout this entire area.”Land of Ham and Shem MapThe Nuzi map proves the existence of the 4 rivers chronicled in the “Holy Bible”.

Those 4 rivers traverse around the entire country of Ethiopia/HaBashan. Eden is located in Ethiopia.

The term for Eden was Aden/Adin/Aad – which also means: To give pleasures, has the same prime root word as Eden or Adan, to be soft pleasant or voluptuous land.  Basically, this was the best place in the whole world to live flourish and be fruitful.

Egypt-Ethiopia/Kush-Nubia-Sudan was some of the places where man walked with GOD in the cool of the day ‘Where the Son of God’ met with man-kind. It would be the same place where, people would return after the Deluge – they would return to their nativityAfrika.

NOTE: When the word Ethiopia is used it referred to ALL of AFRICA and not just the current location.  Africa, Ethiopia, Egypt, Nubia are different words for the same people!

We now see that the Fertile Crescent was connected to the other Fertile Crescent in the Nile Valley and along the Nile River that traversed through the center of Africa and beginning in what is now call Uganda.

Where they from the same source?

Do you really believe that people never traveled UP and DOWN the Whole Nile in all the thousands of years man has lived on this Earth-planet?

And since they did, some people stayed where they traveled and mini-civilizations flourished.

The locale where the Biblical Adam and Eve, otherwise known as the

The Adamite Unit: (the Wombman and the Hue-Man) was probably born is now

Sudan/Ethiopia/Kenya at the Breast of the East African continent.

The Egyptians has identified this region as the (Mouth of the Nile) were the “Original” people resided.

Tekeze River ተከዘ ሪቨር of Eritrea/EthiopiaThe Tekeze River on the Nuzi map is not shown on many modern maps, flows into the Atbara River, which is one of the three main tributaries of the Nile River.  And, it appears that the Tekeze River is the river that is clearly shown on the ancient Nuzi Map and is very close to Aad/Eden.

The Tekeze River begins in modern Ethiopia on the Ethiopian/Eritrean border, traverses West-northwest through Ethiopia and Eritrea, and then flows into the Atbara as it enters the Sudan.

The Atbara then flows northwest through Sudan until it meets the Nile at the town of Atbarah, Sudan.

Nubia's Atbarah River of the Nile.jpgThis city of Atbarah is located on the Southeast corner of the big bend of the Nile

(i.e. South of the 5th cataract or waterfall).

Remember Indigenous peoples “never” used the phrase CATARACT that was a European invention to divide the Family of Africa.

Thus, the Nuzi Map reveals that the Edenic City of Aad is in very close proximity to the Tekeze River,

Which begins due South of the Dahlak Archipelago (Ethiopia). Therefore, Eden is in Africa near the “East or Horn of Africa”.

(Excerpted from an internet site) “Ekowa©

African Presence In Early Asia, Edited by Runoko Rashidi & Ivan Van Sertima.

African Origins Of Civilization, by Cheikh Anta Diop.


The (four ) major ethnic groups of Ethiopia today are

The Tigrais, Amharas, Afar and Oromos.

Together, they account for approximately three-quarters of the total national population.

Amhara, Tigrais, and Gurages

Speak semetic languages and Are considered to be descendants of Southern Arabian Conquerors,

who trace their Ancestry back to Ancient (Queen of  Sheba,Moses and King Solomon.

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba Ethiopian- Afro Queen of Sheba : Makeda ማከዳ

(click link to see Ethiopian/Yemenis mtDna breakdown)…

articlerender.fcgi &  mtdna TB1

Whereas Tigrais still live in the area of the Ancient Aksum kingdom, the Amharas and Gurages have expanded inland.

The Semitic-speaking Axumites, or Habash sometimes Amharic~ Abesha, አበሻ `ābešā; (Abyssinians), had their capital city, Aksum,

In the western part of the province of Tigray.

During the first 6 centuries (1a.d.– 6a.d) they controlled territories North to Upper Egypt, east to the Gulf of Aden and

Southern Arabia, south to the Omo River, and west to the Cushite Kingdom of Meroë  (Munro-Hay 1991).

Because Amharas have largely taken the role of the political and cultural elite in the country,

Amhara Ethiopian Boy

There is a process of “Amharization,” which can be understood, at least partly, as a matter of prestige and

which leads to the cultural assimilation of other minority populations.

Afar Ethiopians Girls

The Oromos and the Hamer People as well as the Afars speak Omotic or Cushitic languages and are purported to have connectionsto

Ancient Egyptians, Ethiopian women from Hamer tribe

Since the land of Cush—the son of Biblical Ham—is generally considered to be in the vicinity of the Ancient cities of Meroë and

Napata, located in present-day Sudan.

Yet it should be stressed here that the split between the Cushitic and Semitic languages, branches of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic

family, is ancient, probably predating the Holocene

(see, e.g., Militarev [2003]).

Ethiopian Boy

The linguistic reconstructions of Semitic vocabulary, related to farming and agriculture, have supported the theory that the

origin of Semitic languages is in the Near East (Diakonoff 1988; Militarev 2003).

On the other hand, the finding of all major branches of the Afro-Asiatic language tree in Africa/Ethiopia,

Including those that are not spoken elsewhere in the world, suggests that the homeland of the Afro-Asiatic

language family may have been somewhere close to Africa’s southwestern Ethiopia (Ehret 1995).

However, both cultural and historic evidence show tight connections between East Africa and the Semitic cultural substrate in

the Near East and southern Arabia, Which points to four distinct phases of Semitic cultural intrusion into Ethiopia:

Falasha Ethiopians

First, related to the Sabaens in the 1st millennium b.c.;

Second, as the arrival of Falasha Jews from southern Arabia in the first 2 centuries a.d.;

Third, during the 4th–6th centuries, when Syrian missionaries brought,

Christianity to Aksumites/Axumites አፁሚተand to their descendants,

The Tigrais ቲግራኢስ and the Amharas አምሃራስ :

And fourth, because of the influence of Muslim Arabs, which primarily affected

The southeastern parts of the country..

(Levine 1974).Falasha ፋላስሃ  Ethiopians from Gondar ጎንዳር 2006The ethnonym “Ethi-op-ians”—the people with the “burnt face”—was coined by the Greeks, although it may originally have been applied

to the Nubians, who were (also) part of the Cushite/Kushite kingdoms.

(Harris 1971)

{A total of 168 different mtDNA Haplotypes} were observed in

270 Ethiopians and Eritreans, and 72 Haplotypes were recovered in 115 Yemeni samples

(fig. 2; tablesA1A6 [online only]).

Approximately one-half of both Ethiopian (52.2%) and Yemeni (45.7%)

mtDNA lineages belonged to the L clades specific to sub-Saharan Africa (fig. 2A;table 1),

Whereas the other half was divided between derived subclades of haplogroups M and N (fig. 2B; table 1) that are,

With the exception of M1 and U6 lineages, more common outside Africa.

Consistent with the coexistence of Sub/SupraSaharan African and Eurasian

mtDNA lineages of “Ethiopian, Egyptian, and Yemeni” populations, the MDS plot (fig. 3) ClusteredTogether with Egyptians,

In between the Near Eastern and the West African and southern African clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic- and Cushitic-speaking populations of Ethiopia

were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

(P>.05) in FSTdistances between themselves (table A7).

Virgin Mary and angels on mural in Abreha and Atsbeha church

Ethiopian Painting 2005 by Sean McClean

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century BC)

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century AD)

(Ethic) definition: a set of moral principles, esp. ones relating

to or affirming a “specified group” , field or form of conduct.

(Opia) Origin Greek- meaning: Ops, Op, Eye , Face ....

African-Hebrew Jesus (Yeshua)* and Disciples (circa) 300 A.D.

Ancient Man and his Civilizations African Hebrews?

Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow across the Gate of Tears..

Extensive Female-Mediated mtdna Gene Flow from Nilotic Sub-Saharan Africa into Yemen

Ethiopian Y-Chromosome and mtdna Polymorphism. PDF (929 K)

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Menyelek

https://www.care.org/careswork/countryprofiles/56.asp

The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora..

NORTH-EAST AFRICA

The African Origin of Eden. Jonh G.Jackson. 1933

African presence in Ancient World and Nile Valley  By Runoko Rashidi

People of Ethiopia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Garden of Eden – Tribes of Atlantis

Abreha wa Atsbeha church | Pictures and Paintings

http:Abraha  references.html

Egypt, Ethiopia – Sudan, Abyssinia, the Freemasonic Orientalist ?

Abyssinia

Nubia – Crystalinks

http://hearts-4-hope.org

Zagwe dynasty

The History of Ethiopian Jews

Halakha Matrilineal Hebrew Birthright

Halakha Female Hebrew Inheritence

African-Asiatic- Hebrew  Black Sabbath Roots …

Falasha (Ethiopian) Jewish History

African Jews – Wikipedia

Black Hebrew Israelites – Wikipedia

Judeo-Christian History of the Nile Valley

Queen of Sheba (960 B.C.)

Queen of Sheba

Ethiopian Treasures – Queen of Sheba, Aksumite Kingdom – Aksum

Ancient History Sourcebook: Accounts of Meröe, Kush, and Axum

Jews and Judaism from Africans in the African diaspora – Wikipedia

Rastafari religious movement

The Origin of Hebrew Civilization is Afroasiatic – ColorQ’s Bible …

Will-Smith-film-about-the-last-of-the-Nubian-Dynasty-when-Blacks-of-Ethiopian-Descent-ran-Egypt

Halle Salassie

Reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation’s history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate.

The Kingdom of አክሱም-Aksum: The አፁሚተ – Axumite Empire of Ethiopia and Eritrea’s Horn of Africa..

Posted in Aksum, Axum, Cushitic, Egypt, Eritrea, Erythraean Sea, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, L2a1, Levant, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, Oman mtDna, Sahara, Saudi Arabia mtDna, Semetic People, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, The Axumite Kingdom, The Sahel, Yemen mtDna with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

 

 

Kings of Axum

The Axumite Empire or Aksumite Empire

(The Kingdom of Axum or Aksum), (Ge’ez: አክሱም),

Important trading Nation in North-Eastern Africa,

Growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca.

Aksumite Empire Map

4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD.

Its Ancient Capital is found in Northern Ethiopia.

The Kingdom used the name “Ethiopia” as early as the 4th century.

It is also the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba.

Aksum was also the first major empire to convert to Christianity.

Aksum is mentioned in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for “Ivory”,

which was exported throughout the ancient world, and states that the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century AD was “Zoscales”

Who, besides ruling in Aksum also controlled two harbours on the Red Sea:

Adulis (near Massawa) and Avalites (Assab) located in Eritrea. He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature.

Axum data mapThe Kingdom of Aksum was ideally located to take advantage of the new trading situation.

Adulis soon became the main port for the export of “African goods”, such as Ivory, Incense, Gold, and Exotic animals.

In order to supply such goods the kings of Aksum worked to develop and expand an inland trading network.

A rival, and much older trading network that tapped the same interior region of Africa was that of the “Kingdom of Kush”,

which had long supplied “Egypt” with African goods via the “Nile” corridor.

By the 1st century AD, however, Aksum had gained control over territory previously “Kushite”.

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea explicitly describes how ivory collected in

Kushite territory was being exported through the port of “Adulis” instead of being taken to Meroë, the capital of “Kush”.

During the 2nd and 3rd centuries the Kingdom of Aksum continued to expand their control of the southern Red Sea basin.

A caravan route to “Egypt” was established which bypassed the Nile corridor entirely…

Aksum succeeded in becoming the principal supplier of African goods to the Roman Empire, not least as a result of the transformed

Indian Ocean trading system.

Aksum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories and prolific work on Ethiopian history, but most scholars now agree that it was an “indigenous” development…

Scholars like Stuart Munro-Hay point to the existence of an older D’mt or Da’amot kingdom, prior to any Sabaean migration ca. 4th or 5th c. BC, as well as to evidence of Sabaean immigrants having resided in the region for little more than a few decades.

Furthermore, Ge’ez, the ancient Semitic language of Eritrea and Ethiopia,  is now known,  Not to have derived from Sabaean,

and there is evidence of a Semitic speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.

Axumite Erythraen Sea Map 1st century C.E.

Note:

The Axumite አፁሚተ population consisted of Semitic-speaking people (collectively known as Habeshas), people of Ethiopia and Eritrea

And they are also Cushitic-speaking people, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking people (the Kunama and Nara).

Habesha Women

 

The Axsumite Kings had the official title  ነገሠ ፡ ነገሠተ ngś ngśtKing of Kings (later vocalization Ge’ez ንጉሠ ፡ ነገሥት nigūśa nagaśt,

Modern Ethiosemitic nigūse negest).

Aksumites did own slaves, and a modified feudal system was in place to farm the land.


The Empire of Axsum:

at its height extended across most of presentday

Eritrea, Northern EthiopiaYemen, Southern Saudi Arabia and Northern Sudan.

 

The capital city of the Empire was Aksum, now in Northern Ethiopia.

Today a smaller community, the city of Aksum was once a bustling metropolis, cultural and economic center.

Two hills and two streams lie on the east and west expanses of the city; perhaps providing the initial impetus for settling this area.

Along the hills and plain outside the city,

The Aksumites had cemeteries with elaborate “grave stones” called “stelae, or obelisks”.

Axumite Obelisk

 

Other important cities included Yeha, Hawulti, Matara, Adulis, and Qohaito, the last three of which are now in Eritrea.

 

In the 3rd century, Aksum began interfering in South Arabian affairs, controlling at times the westerTihama region among other areas.

By the  late 3rd century it had begun Minting its own “currency” and was named by Mani as one of the four great powers of his time along with Persia, Rome, and China.

Coinage of King Endubis of Axumite Ethiopia227-235CE

Note:

Endubis (c.270 – c.300) was a King of Axum.

He was among the earliest rulers of Axum, and Africa for that matter, (he was also, the very first King) tomint coins”.

These coins were issued in Gold and Silver...

On the coins of Endubis so far recovered, either of two mottos were engraved.

On some coins he described himself as

“BACIΛEYC AΧWMITW”, “King of Axum”.

On others appeared the motto “BICI ΔAXY”, “bisi Dakhu”;

(this is the first appearance of the title “bisi”),

which S. C. Munro-Hay believes, is related to

the Ge’ez word be’esya – translation “man of “…

 

They converted to Christianity in 325 or 328 under King Ezana and was the first state ever, to use the image of the “Cross” on its coins..

At its height, Axsum controlled Northern Ethiopia, Eritrea,

Nubia, Upper Egypt, Djibouti, Yemen, and Southern Saudi Arabia, totalling 1.25 million km².

Axumite-Silk Route

It was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Persian Empire of the day and declined after the 7th century due to unknown reasons,

but informed speculation suggests the rise of Islam heavily impacted its ability to trade with

the Far East in the era when shipping was limited to coastal navigation as well as cut it off from its principal markets

in Alexandria, Byzantium and Southern Europe.

Under Emperor Ezana,

Axum adopted Christianity in place of its former polytheistic and Judaic religions around 325 A.D.

This gave rise to the present day Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

(only granted autonomy from the Coptic Church in 1959), and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church

(granted autonomy from the Ethiopian Orthodox church in 1993).

Since the schism with orthodoxy following the Council of Chalcedon (451),

It has been an important Miaphysite church, and its scriptures and liturgy are still in Ge’ez.

It was a cosmopolitan and culturally important state.

It was a meeting place for a variety of cultures:

EthiopianEgyptianSudanicArabic, and Indian.

The Major Aksumite cities had SabeanHebrewNubianChristian, and even Buddhist minorities.

Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples… Who are the indigenous ?

Posted in Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Human Rights with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubian lil Girl and Elder copy

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly during its 62nd session at UN Headquarters in New York City on 13 September 2007.

While as a General Assembly Declaration it is not a legally binding instrument under international law,

according to a UN press release, it does “represent the dynamic development of international legal norms and it reflects the commitment of the UN’s member states to move in certain directions”; the UN describes it as setting “an important standard for the treatment of indigenous peoples that will undoubtedly be a significant tool towards eliminating human rights violations against the planet’s 370 million indigenous people,  and assisting them in combating discrimination and marginalisation.

The Declaration sets out the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and other issues.

It also “emphasizes the rights of indigenous peoples to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions, and to pursue their development in keeping with their own needs and aspirations”.

It “prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples”, and it “promotes their full and effective participation in all matters that concern them and their right to remain distinct and to pursue their own visions of economic and social development”

Nubian Village along Nile

The Declaration was over 22 years in the making. The idea originated in 1982 when the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) set up its Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP), established as a result of a study by Special Rapporteur José R. Martínez Cobo on the problem of discrimination faced by indigenous peoples.

Tasked with developing human rights standards that would protect indigenous peoples, in 1985 the Working Group began working on drafting the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The draft was finished in 1993 and was submitted to the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, which gave its approval the following year.

The Draft Declaration was then referred to the Commission on Human Rights, which established another Working Group to examine its terms. Over the following years this Working Group met on 11 occasions to examine and fine-tune the Draft Declaration and its provisions.

Progress was slow because of certain states’ concerns regarding some key provisions of the Declaration, such as

indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination and the control over natural resources existing on indigenous peoples’ traditional lands.

The final version of the Declaration was adopted on 29 June 2006 by the 47-member Human Rights Council (the successor body to the Commission on Human Rights), with 30 member states in favour, two against, 12 abstentions, and three absentees.

The Declaration was then referred to the General Assembly,

which voted on the adoption of the proposal on 13 September 2007 during its 61st regular session.

The vote was 143 countries in favour,  4 against, and 11 abstaining.

The four member states that voted against were:

Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the “United States”, each of which have

significant “indigenous populations”.

Nubian Woman

The abstaining countries were:

Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine;

another 34 member states were absent from the vote.

The U.S. mission also issued a floor document, “Observations of the United States with respect to

the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples”, setting out its objections to the Declaration. Most of these are based on the same points as the other three countries’ rejections but, in addition,

the United States drew attention to the Declaration’s failure to provide a clear definition of exactly whom

the term “indigenous peoples” is intended to cover.

Nubian Bride copy

Nubian Merchants

ቢልልይ  ጋምበላ

Nubian Cultures in crisis : The Aswan Dam… By: Dr. Georgianna Short

Posted in African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nubian Displaced @ Aswan/Egypt, Nubians with tags , , , , , , , , , on April 25, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

nubian-elder-hustler

egypt

nubian-cuz

Cultures in Crisis: Impact of Forced Relocation on Sustainability of Culture…

By: Dr. Georgianna Short

All cultures experience catastrophic events at some point in their history. Some cultures are able to survive these challenges,

ensuring traditional practice for future generations. Other cultures, overwhelmed by events, survive by adapting traditional

routine to immediate circumstance. Over time adaptations, once considered temporary, can override traditions and customs associated with daily life.

Sustainability of customs/traditions of daily life depend upon generational ability to safeguard tangible and intangible heritage.

Tangible heritage is “a descriptor [for] any and all human-constructed or human mediated objects…” the material goods of culture (Bolin & Blandy, 2003, p. 249).

Intangible cultural heritage consists of “practices, presentations, expressions,

Knowledge and skills that communities [and]…groups recognize as part of their cultural heritage” (UNESCO, 2005).

Catastrophic events place both tangible and intangible heritage at risk.

Post-crisis examination of tangible and intangible cultural indicators can provide insight into what is considered valuable by present

Members of a Cultural group, whether/how valuable possessions reflect traditional values, and to what degree ancestral heritage will be

Sustained for Future Generations.

This paper explores traditions and customs of three geographically  distinct cultures threatened by catastrophic water events and

Forced relocation during the last half-century; identifies how each event threatened cultural heritage of the effected group; and traces

consequences of aftermath conditions on group’s ability to sustain/maintain its cultural roots. Cultures examined include

the Nubian people evicted from their homeland during the Nubian Aswan Dam crisis (1965-1971),

Chinese peasant population uprooted by the Three Gorges Dam Project (1994-2009),

and plight of displaced poor in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina (2005).

Dr. Short is interested in studying factors affecting sustainability of tangible and intangible heritage of disenfranchised minority groups.

Dr. Short spent 20 years studying cultural sustainability of Guatemalan Highland peoples and subsequently became involved with UNESCO’s World Heritage sites in Egypt, Africa and China.

Dr. Short’s uses catastrophic events of recent history as a lens through which to view ways disenfranchised groups sustain cultural capitol in contemporary times.

bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109…

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

Was the Egyptians Caucasoid or Mixed African-Asiatic Race ? pt. 2 Unedited.. May 28, 2009 2:29-3 P.M. ( yet she erased my evidence once again…) Wonder why ?

Posted in afri asiatic, Egypt, Egypt was Caucasoid Debate, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Nubians with tags , , , , , on April 24, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

May 28, 2009 8:30 AM

Blogger AndelimaSephirioth said…

I will not discuss this further.
If you wish to debate this, there are far more and better people than I who are both motivated, interested and willing to spend their time, debating with you on this issue.

Although I dislike the site myself.
There is a site called;

Stormfront, full of people you surely can enlighten.

If you wish to continue, this is not the place.

We try to post an article a day and simple dont have the time, debating back and forth while having a life outside of CFL, as well as trying to enlighten people on philosophy, history, science etc.

If this is your area of expertice there’s forums with much bigger “audience” like Stormfront, as mentioned.

I will not participate any further and any comment made by you after this one is unecessary and useless.

May 28, 2009 8:36 AM

Blogger Saint Michael said…

good bye Billy

May 28, 2009 9:06 AM

Blogger AndelimaSephirioth said…

Comment deleted due to;

*You ignore to go to the links I have provided and you ignore to read them.

*You are being a sophist and an eristic.

What you seek I’ve provided. 
You can find it, this is how I know you are ignoring them.

Comment also deleted due to:

(See my previous comment)

May 28, 2009 2:29 PM

Blogger Billy said…

What u mentioned is a Cosmic reflection of 

yourself..

You said that I am a (Sophist) defintion below:

( a person who reasons with Clever Yet Fallacious arguments) 

Yet you have Not shown any studies to disprove me .. 

I Have your Study

I Have Read Your Study

It does Not provide the Caucasoid Egyptian you 

Mention Nor does it provide irrefutable Dna Evidence 

(Haplogroup B.P. date)

You also said that i was (Eristic )definiton below:

(one who aims at a argument rather than reach the truth)

Lets be Unequivocally Clear….

I Want the Truth!! 

so one more time heres my Studies 

show me Yours:

Northern Egyptians are a bit more cosmopolitan in their ancestry 64.8% indigenous African. About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R , Y- chromosomes. However, some of these Near Eastern and European Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa (G, K2, R1a, R1b are 8,000 B.P. and older) and any historical contribution from foreign men is more likely to be in the 15% area. Divided by two (no recent female contribution to speak of). This makes non-dynastic Egyptian population around the 7% mark in Lower Egypt; and only some of this is Arab.

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna (of modern upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I 5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 5.9%, L2a1* 19.9%, M1 14.9%, N1b 8.8%, T 5.9%, U 8.8%, 

U4 5.9%, U6 2.9%, L1c*1% L3e1* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%. L3f*6.9%. L3d*1%.

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are indigenous and are typically supra and sub Saharan (23.7%),

They are at least 70,000-109,000 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !! 

L2a1 has (49%) MtDna collectively in, 

Sudan, Nile- Valley, Ethiopia, Nubia and Egypt 

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the nile valley civilization)……

Thanks again for your time…

May 28, 2009 3:00 PM

Delete

Here is a direct link to her Blog Below: ( click or copy and paste )

 

http://cordeliaforlear.blogspot.com/2009/05/egypt-was-caucasoid.html