Archive for hamito semetic

Egypt mtDNA and the Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ Dna DiversitY.. The Maternal Hamito-Semitic.. mtDna Haplogroup L

Posted in anthrolpology, Blood type O, Cushitic, DNA, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, Indigenous mtDna (mother's) of Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, O-positive blood, Semitic with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Meritaten Tasherit 18th Dynasty

egypts_awakening-mamoud

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Diversity of 58 individuals from

Upper Egypt, more than half (34 individuals) from Gurna,

Whose population has an Ancient Cultural History, Were studied by sequencing The Control-Region and screening diagnostic RFLP markers.

This Sedentary Population:

(meaning= inhabiting the same location through out life, non nomadic)

Presented similarities to the Ethiopian Population by the

Haplogroups L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the

West Eurasian component (defined by Haplogroups H to K and T to X) and Particularly by a High frequency (17.6%) of AfriAsiatic Haplogroup M1.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from Upper Egypt (Gurna)sedentary population …

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna

(of modern Upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I  5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 4.9%, L2a1* 20%,

L3* 11.0%, M1  14.9%, N1b  8.8%, T 5.9%, U  8.8%, L2* 2.0%

U4  5.9%, U6 2.9%, L3e* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L1c* 1.0%

L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%, L3f*6.9%. L3d*1.0%.

Percentages above are based on mtdna frequencies of

Southern Upper Egypt/Nile Valley collectively..

Percentages below are based onmtdna frequency in

Northern Alexandria/Lower Egypt ( Saunier July 2008)..

The Breakdown is predominantly European 67.5% followed by African @ 20.6% and Asian @ 11.9%.

European: R0 and subgroups (31.4%), I (3.2%), J (7.6%), K (4.7%), T (9.4%), U (9.0%), W (0.7%) X (1.4%)

African Haplogroups: L0 (2.2%), L1 (2.5%),  L2 (3.6%) and L3 (12.3%)..

Asiatic Haplogroups: M (6.9%) and N (5.1%)

Results:

The Egyptian Population Data set has a Low Random Match Probability..

The Egyptian Population also shows a Large number of Unique Haplotypes,

Therefore indicating a High mtDna Diversity within the Country

Overall 238 different haplotypes were defined by 228 variable positions.

Of the 238 different Haplotypes, 31 were shared within the database of 277 individuals.

The Haplotype most common in this dataset was observed in five individuals

There were 17 points of Heteroplasmy identified in 15 individuals (5.4% of the database)

At 16 positions: One Sample indicated three positions of point heteroplasmy>

(16519, 73 and 195)…

Other remarks: Egypt is distinctive Bio-geographically, as it is centrally located,

Among three surrounding continents its home Africa, Asia and Europe..

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are Nilotic and Indigenous and are typically Supra and sub Saharan..

Haplogroup L2a (mtDNA) has notable frequencies of 22% among the

Hebrew Affiliated Fulani of Nile Valley to Niger to The Gambia

They are at least 70,000-111,100 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !!

L2a1 also has (49%) MtDna collectively in,

Sudan, Nile- Valley/Nubia, Ethiopia, and Egypt

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the Nile Valley Civilizations)……

Queen Ahmose Nefertari/ New Kingdom 19th Dynasty

L2a is also in the Great Rift Valley regions @

16% Kenya/Sudan and 33% in Mozambique.

Today, the term is most often used to refer to

The Valley of the East African Rift,

The divergent plate boundary which extends from

The Afar Triple Junction southward

Across Eastern Africa, and is in the process of splitting

The African Plate into two new separate plates.

Geologists generally refer to these incipient plates as

The Nubian and Somalian subplates or protoplates.

East African-Asiatic: Plate of Nubia/Somalia and ArabiaAs for haplogroups M1 and U, they are African/Westasian/Eurasian haplotypes, at 30,000 B.P.

Other West-asian/Eur-asian, Haplotypes have been found in 12,000 year old bones in Morocco.

Haplogroups N and I Mtdna are possibly attributable to Arab ancestry, about 15% non-Arab in upper Egypt. But still, most of that would easily be attributable to the Neolithic input from “AsiA” very little of this would be attributable to Arabs.

To sum up, there doesn’t seem to be majority ‘Arab’ genetic component to the Egyptian DNA pool, 20% absolute maximum. A lot of the non African DNA is traceable to the Neolithic farming expansion that swept across North Africa, so it would be a lot lower in reality.

In upper Egypt a maximum of 20% of the Y chromosomes are Non –African.

{MMother’s mtDNA L2a1 has been shown to be prevalent in North Africa }..

{Since the Dynastic times, of Ethiopian-Nubian and Egyptian Kingdoms} …..

Sesostris the Ist 12th Dynasty from Altes Museum inBerlin

So how these people are supposed to have Magically Changed appearance in the past few thousand

years with so little foreign input I’d like to know

Egyptians are Indigenous “African-Egyptian”, Not Euro/Arabs.. They are in essence “African-Arabs”.

They are part African/Asiatics: (Hamito-Semitic) and are members of

The Nile Valley  and the Great Rift Valley , which could be equally known as

The East African Rift , Nile Valley Civilizations…

(“Nile Valley, “North Africa”, “Horn of Africa” and “West Asian Arab Africans”.)

{copy and paste national geographic link on egyptian mummies and dna}

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/080606-egypt-mummies.html

An important influence on the subsequent genetic landscape

Of the continent is likely to have been the LGM.

Paleovegetational studies have indicated that, between 30,000 and 11,000 years ago,

Much of the continent was extremely arid (Adams and Faure 1997).

The Sahara advanced hundreds of kilometers further south, and the Equatorial Rainforests

Were reduced to a small fraction of their present size, leaving open woodland and savanna in much of the Congo basin.

This may have formed a refuge area from which modern humans later dispersed:

Some with haplogroup L2a East and West, with L1b west;

Perhaps even some with L1a East and L1d Southward.

The origins of these expansions may lie earlier,

At the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ~40,000 years ago.

Queen Meryt-Amen the 19th Dynasty

The Valley of the Queens, is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. In ancient times, it was known as Ta-Set-Neferu, meaning –‘the place of the Children of the Pharaoh’, because along with the Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties (1550–1070 BCE) many princes and princesses were also buried with various members of the nobility. The tombs of these individuals were maintained by mortuary priests who performed daily rituals and provided offerings and prayers for the deceased nobility.

The distributions and ages of L1a, L1c/L3e, and L1d testify to the habitation of East, and Central, and southern Africa, respectively, by modern humans, ~40,000 years ago.

Similarly, L1b, L3b, and L3d imply that West Africa has been inhabited since at least 20,000–30,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L1b is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa

(particularly geographically adjacent areas, connected by the West African coastal pathway)

but little in East, southeastern, or southern Africa.

It is also common in so called African Americans

(~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

By contrast, the commoner haplogroup L3b (fig. 8c) is predominantly West African,

with a substantial representation again in today’s socalled African Americans.

It has also spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

And Its sister clade, Haplogroup L3d (fig. 9a), is also mainly West African and African American.

A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1), matching a Fulbe/Fulani lineage,

At considerable elevated Frequencies.

L3e (fig. 9b) is the most widespread, frequent, and ancient of the African L3 clades, comprising approximately one-third of all L3 types in sub-Saharan Africa.

This haplogroup has recently been dissected in some detail by Bandelt et al. (2001),

Who suggest an origin for the haplogroup in the Central Africa/Sudan region ~45,000 years ago.

As they recognized, L3e1 in particular is common amongst SouthEastern African Bantu speakers,

Along with some L3e2 and L3e3 lineages.

L3e also represents approximately one-third of all African mtDNA lineages in Brazil.

Alves-Silva et al. (2000)

Finally, there are two small sister clades, L3e3 and L3e4.

L3e3 is primarily West African,But with its root type present at elevated frequency in the

Southeast and with some southeastern African derivatives. There is also a Kenyan/Kikuyu derivative,

Again raising a possible connection with the Eastern stream.

L3e4 is present in East, Central, and West Africa, with One individual in the Southeast,

But is too rare to draw conclusions from.

The area occupied by Cameroon is not always considered as part of the geographic region known as West Africa.

Taking into account its haplogroup composition it could also be considered a genetic outsider.

There are numerous lineages

(L0a, L0a1a, L0a2, L2a1e, L4g, and L5)

that have a more CentralEastern than Western Assignation.

(Pereira et al. 2001Salas et al. 2002Kivisild et al. 2004).

The L4g haplogroupis most frequent in Eastern and

NorthEastern Africa and waspreviously Dated to ~40–45 kya

(Salas et al. 2002Go; Kivisildet al. 2004Go).

Haplogroup L4g (previously designated L3g) is present in both Eastern Tanzanian

Clickspeaking populations at high frequencies (60%Hadza, 48% Sandawe) but is Absent in the SAK.

History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDna …

The only L4 Saudi haplotype belongs to the L4a1 subclade defined by 16207T/C transversion.

Although it has no exact matches its most related types are found in Ethiopia [30].

Four L5 lineages have been found in Saudi Arabia but all have the same

Haplotype that belongs to the L5a1 subclade defined in the

HVSI region by the 1635516362 motif [30]. It has matches in Egypt and Ethiopia.

L6 was found the Most Abundant clade in Yemen [30].

BioMed Central |  Macro-Haplogroup L mtDNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula …

HAPLOGROUP L2A:

Haplogroup L2a is Nilotic and the most common and widely distributed sub- Saharan African Haplogroup and is also frequent in the Americas (~19%).

The wide distribution of L2a in Africa makes identifying geographical origins of lineages difficult.

(Excerpt from: The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182259/

The Main Puzzle is the almost Ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a,

North Africa Tunisian Bay : Golfe de Tunisia Port Saïd { Carthage}Which we suggest may have become”Prevalent “somewhere in

North-Central Africa  { Prehistoric Central North Africa }

Spreading East and West along the Sahel, during the Last Glacial Period or some what earlier..

Example: Modern day Sahel, Tunisia near Libya and Algeria..

Note: The Jerba Islands of Tunisia/Carthage is located in South Eastern Tunisia,

Tunisia, is inhabited by four ethnic groups: Berbers, Arabs, sub-Saharans, and Jews/Hebrews.

(click link below for isolated Sub/Supra Saharan mtdna of jerba/tunisia)

Isolated Haplogroups of Jerba Island Tunisia: L1b, L2a1L2a1c1, L2d2, L3b, L3b1, L3e1a, L3f, M and U

The Island of Jerba/Tunisia is said to be Inhabited First, by the Descendants of  the Mousterian Population

Between the 5th and 6thMillienia B.C. (Tlatli, 1967), Who were later replaced by Berbers of  the Ketama

and Lemata tribes ( Khaldoun 1852).

The First Arab settlement on the Island Occurred in the 7th Century A.D.

Another study shows results also point to a less Ancient western sub-Saharan gene flow to Tunisia, including Haplogroups L2a and L3b.

This conclusion points to an Ancient African gene flow to Tunisia before 20,000 BP.

These findings parallel the more recent findings of both archaeology and linguistics on the prehistory of Africa.

The present work suggests that sub-Saharan contributions to North Africa have experienced several complex population processes after the occupation of the region by anatomically modern humans.

Our results reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued to evolve in  supra-Saharan Africa.

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33) “African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins)

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309″} L2a1 samples.

EXCERPT FROM GENETIC STUDY 2012.

“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea. 10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes has African and American Origins, but the Haplogroup is 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transition @ np“16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)….

PCR AMPLIFICATIONS:

PCR amplification of (a) 27 selected NumtS in 4 healthy subjects from

Different ethnic groups ex..  L2a1-c1/16086C in (North Africa) Figure 2

Costa‘s link to mtDna diversity of Tunisia

Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian …

BioMed Central | Full text | The RHNumtS compilation:  North Africa L2a1c1…

Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers.pdf

Tunisia’s reproductive mtDna groups Isolates on Jerba Island.pdf

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] mtDNA sequences from Tunisian …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/Tunisia and Morrocan Haplogroup L

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA  L2a and L3a Variation in Mauritania and Mali

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] New Egyptian mtDNA sequences

European Journal of Human Genetics – Table 1 for article: The Canary Islands and North Central/NW Africa…

Haplogroup L2a has frequencies of 14% among Algerian Arab/Berbers and

10% among Bilād al-Sūs Morrocan Arab/Berbers in

The Sousse Valley North Africa..

We recognize, however, that the origins of these haplogroups may be more ancient than we can trace

(L2, for example, may be well >70,000 years old )….. and that, in such cases,

evidence of the earlier distribution of these clusters may have been erased by subsequent demographic processe.

We have attempted partly to disentangle the structure of L2a, retaining as irreducible on present evidence three major squares close to the root of the cluster. These reticulations link eight main clusters by single-step mutations.

We assume that the main reticulations of the network are due to the existence of rapid transitions at positions 16189 and 16192

(Howell et al. 2000), which approach saturation due to the high time depth of African lineages.

We also assume that position 16309 is more stable than the two known fast sites and therefore is not responsible for the main reticulations.

On these grounds, clusters α1-α2-α3, as well as β1-β2-β3, might be collapsed into two main clusters,

One of them with the basal motif of “(L2a)” and the other harboring the transition at “16309″ (L2a1).

Several instances in which 16309 must nevertheless evolve in parallel can then be read off the network..

Full report link below on genetic mtdna migrations:

Haplogroup L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309 (Salas et al. 2002).

The most extensive pan-African haplotype

(16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the L2a1 haplogroup.

This sequence is also observed in West Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in

North Africa among the Maure, Hausa, Fulbe, Tuaregs , Hebrews and others; in

Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the

Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in

East Africa among the Kenyan/KikuyuClosely related variants are observed among

The Tuareg in North and West Africa and among the

East African Dinka of Sudan and Eastern Somalians. (Ely et. al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997).

Also striking is the presence in Sakai, Mani of  Thailand of an unequivocal representative

With this  motif (16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309)

Of the sub-Supra Saharan African L2a haplogroup (Torroni et al. 2001),

Which again is compatible with the physical characteristics of this Negrito group.

Although the suggestion that the first spreading out of Africa of modern humans could have carried

some L2 lineages in addition to the L3 ancestors (Watson et al. 1997)…

(Note: my thoughts are the Sakai, and  Mani people of Thailand who genetically belong to the

Motif: 16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309 could very well belong to L2a1 by 16309 as according to the updated

Haplogroup Phylotree 2010 by Van Mannis) ex: Coding region 12693, 15784, and HVS1: (16309) for L2a1.

A compliation 0f 185 mtDNAs sampled across North Africa showed that about Half of the

Lineages belonged to the L Haplogroups otherwised observed mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa

And  that most of the rest fell into Haplogroup U6 (Sala et al. 2002) Which perhaps Originated

In the Near East and Spread into North Africa ~30 thousand years (KY) ago (KYA) (Maca-Meyer et. al. 2003).

A proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages, in higher frequencies as geographic proximity to sub-Saharan Africa increases.

The distribution of the main L haplogroups in North Africa somewhat reflects the known trans-Saharan slave routes:

West is dominated by L1b, L2b, L2c, L2d, L3b and L3d;

the Center by L3e and some L3f and L3w;

the East by L0a, L3h, L3i, L3x and, in common with the Center, L3f and L3w;

while, the ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a is almost everywhere.

Another major contribution to the pool of North Afri- can populations was the sub-Saharan one.

It is known that a proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages

(designated as haplogroups L0-L6)

Japan mtDna Genome Variation in  Sakai Eastern Asia from Thailand…

Joshua Project – Sakai, Mani of Thailand Ethnic People

The mtDna of the  trans-Saharan slave trade

HAPLOGROUP L2a

mtDNA phylo tree Build 10 (10 Aug 2010)

PhyloTree.org | sub-haplogroup |Haplogroup L

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Mitotool.org Macro-Haplogroup L  PhyloTree and Ethnic Groups..

Comparison of Craniofacial features of African-Asiatic Human Groups.

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in  Prehistoric Egypt”

Click link for Origin Date of mtDna>{TB5}

L1b 30,550 (16,250) B.P.
L2a 55,150 (19,350) B.P.
L2a1 33,700 (13,400) B.P.
L2d 121,900 (34,200) B.P.
L3e 49,250 (11,750) B.P.
L3e1a 26,750 (12,000) B.P.
L3e1 32,150 (11,450) B.P.
L3b 21,600 (6,850)  B.P.
L1c2 44,100 (10,650) B.P.
L3d 30,250 (8,450) B.P.
L3f 36,300 (12,800) B.P.

University College London 2004. mtdna study..

nile-valley-in-egypt

Afterword:

According to the profile of West African Dna study, on

Nilotic – Haplogroup L2a

The Percentages clearly shows an clear Eastern Distribution:

Eastern Africa 82%,

Western African 69%,

North-West African 27%,

South Africans 3% Kung Khwe

As well as Cabo Verde Islands 20% and

Fulani people from East-West, Central and North Africa at 22%

Chart on pg.5 (click counter clock-wise to view)

Shows Sahara, Horn of Africa and Congo regions as Well as Krings 1999. Nile Valley mtdna% ....

Click Link below:

http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers/MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

Egyptian Triad Statue. Menkaura The Goddess Hathor and Goddess BatNorth Africans tend to cluster with West Africans, suggesting that the sub-Saharan component of

North Africans Originates primarily from West rather than East Africa

(as expected, on geographical grounds).

Unlike other North Africans,Egyptians are closer to East Africans

than to West Africans. [Rando et al. 1999].)

PC2 has a large contribution from the Eastern lineage groups L3g and L3*;

However L2a, L1b1a, and L3e2* also make a similar contribution.

And though Egypt in the North as well, Egyptians tend to Genetically cluster with East Africans

mtDna Lineages of  Ethiopians, Egyptians and Hebrew Yemenis, Populations MDS plot (fig.3)

Clustered together with the Egyptian Population

In between the Near Eastern and West African as well as Southern African Clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic and Cushitic Speaking Populations of Ethiopia,

Were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182106/

A recent study on mtDNA suggested that modern Nubians and Egyptians are much more similar to one another than either is to southern Sudanese populations and that the divergence between the two northern populations may have occurred during the past few hundred or few thousand years (Krings et al. 1999).

Forensic Misclassification of Ancient Nubia:

http://www.cas.gsu.edu/anthropology/images/ANTH/Forensic_Misclassification_PDF.pdf

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NOTE: Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North-Central Africa with an  Origin Date of 55,150 B.P.

Would place L2a in the Upper Paleolithic era in North Africa beginning around 50,000 years before the present (ybp),

As well as the Mousterian Pluvial period circa 50,000 B.C. and  lasting 20,000 years, and finally ending around 30,000 ybp.

Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia or Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago

All the stone tools are very much alike and Unsophisticated.

However after 50,000 years ago there is “Sharp Increase” in the diversity of Artifacts.

For the First Time Bone Artifacts, and the First Art appear in the fossil record in Africa.

The First Evidence of Human Fishing is also noted from Artifacts in places like Blombos cave in South Africa.

After 50,000 years ago, Firstly in Africa, it was found that Human Artifacts could be placed into Many different categories,

such as {Projectile Points, Engraving Tools, Knife Blades, and Drilling and Piercing Tools}

All of the above are Found in (Al’kebu-lan) AFRICA...

Frequencies of  North West- East Asiatic Africans

(Haplogroup L, mtdna % chart)

Origin Population Number tested %
East Africa Somalia 26 Watson et al. (1997) 50.00%
East Africa Sudan 112 Afonso et al. (2008) 72.50%
East Africa Ethiopia 270 Kivisild et al. (2004) 52.20%
North Africa Libya (Jews) 83 Behar et al. (2008) 3.60%
North Africa Tunisia (Jews) 37 Behar et al. (2008) 2.20%
North Africa Morocco (Jews) 149 Behar et al. (2008) 1.34%
North Africa Tunisia 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 48.40%
North Africa Tunisia (Takrouna) 33 Frigi et al. (2006) 3.03%
North Africa Tunisia (Zriba) 50 Turchi et al. (2009) 8.00%
North Africa Morocco 56 Turchi et al. (2009) 26.80%
North Africa Morocco (Berbers) 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 3.20%
North Africa Algeria (Mozabites) 85 Turchi et al. (2009) 12.90%
North Africa Algeria 47 Turchi et al. (2009) 20.70%
Europe Italy (Latium) 138 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Italy (Volterra) 114 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.60%
Europe Italy (Basilicata) 92 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.20%
Europe Italy (Sicily) 154 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.00%
Europe Spain 312 Alvarez et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Spain (Galicia) 92 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.30%
Europe Spain (North East) 118 Pereira et al. (2005) 2.54%
Europe Spain (Priego de Cordoba) 108 Casas et al. (2006) 8.30%
Europe Spain (Zamora) 214 Alvarez et al. (2010) 4.70%
Europe South Iberia 310 Casas et al. (2006) 7.40%
Europe Spain (Canaries) 300 Brehm et al. (2003) 6.60%
Europe Spain (Balearic Islands) 231 Picornell et al. (2005) 2.20%
Europe Portugal 594 Achilli et al. (2007) 6.90%
Europe Portugal 549 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.83%
Europe Portugal (North) 187 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.21%
Europe Portugal (Central) 239 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.02%
Europe Portugal (South) 123 Pereira et al. (2005) 11.38%
Europe Portugal (Madeira) 155 Brehm et al. (2003) 12.90%
Europe Portugal (Açores) 179 Brehm et al. (2003) 3.40%
Middle East Yemen 115 Kivisild et al. (2004) 45.70%
Middle East Yemen (Jews) 119 Behar et al. (2008) 16.81%
Middle East Bedouins (Israel) 58 Behar et al. (2008) 15.50%
Middle East Palestinians (Israel) 117 Achilli et al. (2007) 13.68%
Middle East Jordania 494 Achilli et al. (2007) 12.50%
Middle East Iraq 116 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.48%
Middle East Syria 328 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.15%
Middle East Saudi Arabia 120 Abu-Amero et al. (2007) 6.66%
Middle East Lebanon 176 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.84%
Middle East Druzes (Israel) 77 Behar et al. (2008) 2.60%
Middle East Kurds 82 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.44%
Middle East Turkey 340 Achilli et al. (2007) 1.76%
South America Colombia (Antioquia) 113 Bedoya et al. (2006) 8.00%
South America Mexico (North-Central) 223 Green et al. (2000) 4.50%
South America Argentina 246 Corach et al. (2009) 2.03%

Funerary Boat from Egypt Middle Kingdom 12th Dynasty

Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population …

Mtdna Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt.

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins .

Ancient Egyptian Origins

ብልልይ።ጋምብለ

The ብጃ Beja The Egyptian (Ta-seti) ጥሰቲ Warriors known as the FuzZy Wuzzies/ Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty

Posted in anthrolpology, Beja, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Eritrea, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, Nomadic, North Africa, Sahara, Sudan, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

old-kingdom-official

Ta Seti Fuzzy Wuzzy Beja 2

The WARRIORS ?


በጃ Beja the Ta-Seti Archers

Of

Nubia-Egypt

The  Beja በጃ (Ge’ez language:)(Arabic: البيجا‎) are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

The term Bejawi comes from Ta-Itjawypeople of Itjawy“.

Ta-Seti Neferet, the mother of Egyptian King Amenhemet I‘s was of a peoples from Upper Egypt known as Ta-Seti. He built a great city state called “Amenemhat-itj-tawy” (“Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands“), more simply called Itjtawy.

Amenemhat’s Ta-Seti army and conscripts came to be known Ta-Itj-tawy. In modern languages this is pronounced Bigawy, Bedjawi or Bejawi, Beja.

The Beja are found mostly in Sudan, but also in parts of Eritrea, and Egypt. They formerly were classified as belonging to the Hamitic race (a classification now generally regarded as scientifically incorrect).

Most of them live in the Sudanese states of Red Sea around Port Sudan, River Nile, Al Qadarif and Kassala, as well as in Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba Regions in Eritrea, and southeastern Egypt.

Other Beja ethnic groups are endemic to Egypt’s Western Desert and to Yemen. Some Beja groups are nomadic.

bedscha2

In Ancient Egyptian times, the Beja በጃ were known as Ta-Seti ታሰቲ

and were renowned for their skill as “archers in the Egyptian army”.

The Beja በጃ have also been named Blemmyesin Roman times,

ቡጋስ “Buga”s in  አፁሚተ Axumite inscriptions in Ge’ez,

and ፉዝዝይ ዉዝዝይ ”  “Fuzzy Wuzzyby Rudyard Kipling.


The Bejas attach a high importance to their “Hair”.  Their Prominent Crown of Fuzzy Hair”

(it is called tiffa in their language) and has characterized the Beja for centuries….

http://www.ancienthistoricalsociety.org/BejaTribe.html

Ta-Seti Beja (fuzzy wuzzy)

(Bejas believe that they are the descendants of a female Lioness deity and her Hue-man consort…)

The Prophecy of Neferti is an Ancient Egyptian literary text, wriiten for

King SnoFru from the 4th Dynasty Old Kingdom:

“Then a King will come from the South,  Amen ye the Justified by name.

SoN of a Ta-seti Womb-man, child of Upper Egypt..

He will take the White Crown and He will wear the Red Crown, He will join the two Mighty Ones..

Rejoice O’ People of his time..

The Sun of wombMan, will make his name for all Eternity ! ..

Asiatic invaders will fall to his Sword..

Libyans will fall to his Flame..

Rebels to his wrath , Traitors to his Might !

As the serpent on his brow, subdue the rebels for him..

One will build the Walls -of- the- Ruler to Bar Asiatics from entering Egypt”..

Beja Young Man  ..  photo by Vit HassanThe Egyptian Beja groups are believed to be the descendants of

The Maahes Caste of High Priests of Amen and their Soldiers.

Ta-Seti (beja) WarriorsEgyptian- Priest-Kings ; Pinudjem, Psusennese and Masaharta are acknowledged as

The patriarchal ancestors of Egypt’s Western Desert Maahes by Egyptian Bejas.

Hereditary Chief Sheikh Beja Khawr al`allaqi is a descendant of one of Egypt’s oldest surviving lineages.

Egyptologist, Emile Brugsch traced the clan of the Khawr kiji through the matriarchal Female line to the 20th Dynasty.

The Khawr kiji claim their Ancestress Maternally was the Mother of an even “earlierDynasty.

Most Egyptian deities first appeared as very local cults and throughout their history retained those local centres of worship, with

most major cities and towns widely known as the home of these deities.

The Goddess Isis originally was an independent and popular deity established in predynastic times, prior to 3100 B.C.,

at Sebennytos in the Northern Delta’s Lower Egypt.

Beja worshiped the Goddess Isis“(Eye-Sis) at Philae until the 6th century. After the temple was closed down officially in the 6th century

A.DGoddess Isis, wall painting 1360 B.C.

Queen Tiye of the 20th Dynasty THE NEW KINGDOM..

Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty .. the New Kingdom,

Queen Tiye ( 1398 B.C.-1338 B.C.) also spelled ( Taia, Tiy and Tiyi)


She was the daughter of the Royal Family,  Yuya and his Wife Tjuyu @ Amarna..Family Royal Temple@ Amarna of Yuya and Thuya

Tiye became the Great Royal Wife of the Egpytian Pharaoh Amenhotep III and the matriarch of the “Amarna Family”.Amenhotep III

The Amarna Family’s lineage can be traced back to the Royal Family of Ancient egypt..Amenhotep III and Queen Tyie

Tiye’s Father, Yuya , was a wealthy landowner from a Southern Upper Egypt town of Akhmin.

There it is said that he served as a Priest and Superintendent of Oxen...

Tiye’s Mother, Thuya was involved in many Religious sects, as her many titles attested..

( singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min..)

These traits suggest that she was a member of the Royal Family..

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. he had been born of a secondary wife of his father

and needed a stronger bond to the Royal lineage...

Amenhotep III Head  Statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child perhaps between the ages of 6-12 yrs old.

Tiye and Amehotep had at least 6 children, out of the six, one went on to become Pharaoh, his name is Akhenaten.Amehotep IV aka Akhenaten

Tiye’s eldest daughter Sitamun, was said to have married her father Amenhotep III, and become entitled , the

Royal Great Wife , as well…

The Great Land of Mother Al’kebu-Lan.. (Africa)

The Mother Land

Map of Egypt/Sudan's Nubia Nation. year of 1910

Names for Ancient Nile Valley Egypt

as a source for population classifications…

The Ancient Egyptians called their land many things

including ta-meri ታመሪ and km.t. ከሚተ.

Also, They called Upper Egypt- ta-shemu ታ ስሀሙ , “the sedge”, and

Lower Egypt- ta-mehu ታ መሁ or “the papyrus thicket”.

One of the most popular names for Egypt in ancient Egyptian is km.t (ከሚት) (read “Kemet”), meaning “blacks”.

The word is composed of the noun km , which translates into “black”, and determinative t, which makes the word a plural.

The use of  ከሚት km.t “blacks” in terms of a place was generally in contrast to the “Desert” or “Red land”: the desert beyond the Nile valley.

When used to mean people, ከሚት km.t “people of  Kemet”, “black people” is usually translated “Egyptians”, some writers argue.

Debate has centered around whether the ‘kmt’ term is an ethnic, cultural, spiritual reference, or a combination of the three.

Some scholars suggest that the term refers to the ‘racial’ or ethnic characteristics of the people.

Still, other scholars disagree with this position, and hold that k.m.t refers to the color of the land, or soil, and not that of the people.

It is of note that terms meaning land, such as ta, orateb, are No where to be found in the name km.t Land,

However is found in other names, typically as ta, like in terms:

British East Africa Map of Ethiopia Tana land of the Ta Nahesi.jpg

Ta-Nahisi ታ ናሂሲ , and Ta-Seti ታ ሰቲ , which translate to

“land of the southerners”, and “land of the bow” respectively,

The latter a reference to the Nehesy or “Nubian” weapon of choice…

The Nile river was sometimes called “Ar” አር or “Aur” ዐኡር

(Coptic ‘laro‘).

The land itself may have been given its oldest name,

‘Kem’ ከም or Kemi’ ከሚ ..

which signifies darkness, based on the black color of the sediments from it….

Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

The DNA Bill “S.1858” Nobody Noticed… So what’s your Dna Ethnic Origin ?

Posted in afri asiatic, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nubians with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

 

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

 

yannis-nubian-twin-from-dongolanubia-copy3

The Bill Nobody Noticed: National DNA Databank

S.1858, known as The Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act of 2007, is justified as a “national contingency plan” in that it represents preparation for any sort of public health emergency. The bill states that the federal government should “continue to carry out, coordinate, and expand research in newborn screening” and “maintain a central clearinghouse of current information on newborn screening… ensuring that the clearinghouse is available on the Internet and is updated at least quarterly”. Sections of the bill also make it clear that DNA may be used in genetic experiments and tests. Read the full bill: http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xp…

Twila Brase, president of the Citizens’ Council on Health Care warns that this new law represents the beginning of nationwide genetic testing. Brase states that S.1858 and H.R. 3825, the House version of the bill, will:

• Establish a national list of genetic conditions for which newborns and children are to be tested.

• Establish protocols for the linking and sharing of genetic test results nationwide.

• Build surveillance systems for tracking the health status and health outcomes of individuals diagnosed at birth with a genetic defect or trait.

• Use the newborn screening program as an opportunity for government agencies to identify, list, and study “secondary conditions” of individuals and their families.

• Subject citizens to genetic research without their knowledge or consent.

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

Read her entire analysis of the implications of this bill here :http://www.cchconline.org/pdf/S_1858_NB…

Brase states that under this bill, ”The DNA taken at birth from every citizen is essentially Owned by the Government”, and “Every Citizen born becomes a potential subject of Government-Sponsored Genetic Research. All 50 states are now routinely providing results of genetic screenings to the Department of Homeland Security and this bill will establish the legality of that practice plus include DNA.

Ron Paul has also vigorously argued against this bill making the following comments before the US House of Representatives:

I cannot support legislation…that exceeds the Constitutional limitations on federal power or in any way threatens the liberty of the American people. I must oppose it.

S. 1858 gives the federal bureaucracy the authority to develop a model newborn screening program. Madame Speaker, the federal government lacks both the constitutional authority and the competence to develop a newborn screening program adequate for a nation as large and diverse as the United States. …”

“Those of us in the medical profession should be particularly concerned about policies allowing government officials and state-favored interests to access our medical records without our consent …

My review of S. 1858 indicates the drafters of the legislation made no effort to ensure these newborn screening programs do not violate the privacy rights of parents and children, in fact, by directing federal bureaucrats to create a contingency plan for newborn screening in the event of a ‘public health’ disaster, this bill may lead to further erosions of medical privacy.

As recent history so eloquently illustrates, politicians are more than willing to take, and people are more than willing to cede, liberty during times of ‘emergency.”

http://www.cchconline.org/pdf/S_1858_NB…

http://infowars.net/articles/may2008/02Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

Egyptians, E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Nubians and Hebrews are the Same Ethnic People: NILE VALLEY: North Africa / Sahara / Horn of Africa and West Asia..

Posted in Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, L2a1, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Semetic People, Semitic, Sephardic Hebrews, The Axumite Kingdom, The Sahel with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻


This is the Ancient Nuzi Map of Eden, which supports the existence of the African Eden.

Link To Photo Of Original Clay Tablet

The Nuzi Map – made of clay may have been made 120 years before The Flood of Noah or possibly closer to Creation.

Cocoa "Nubia" Baby

nubian-girl-with-henna-tatoos

The Nuzi Map portrays the main city within Eden/Aad as being South of the cited mid-point. That is, on the Nuzi Map the city of Aid appears to be perhaps as far south as the Dahlak Archipelago to the Northeast of Asmara, Eritrea (Ethiopia) or nearer the Sudan/Eritrean border or even further to the North perhaps nearer the Suakin Archipelago and Port Sudan.   It is very probable that ruins of Eden will be found throughout this entire area.”Land of Ham and Shem MapThe Nuzi map proves the existence of the 4 rivers chronicled in the “Holy Bible”.

Those 4 rivers traverse around the entire country of Ethiopia/HaBashan. Eden is located in Ethiopia.

The term for Eden was Aden/Adin/Aad – which also means: To give pleasures, has the same prime root word as Eden or Adan, to be soft pleasant or voluptuous land.  Basically, this was the best place in the whole world to live flourish and be fruitful.

Egypt-Ethiopia/Kush-Nubia-Sudan was some of the places where man walked with GOD in the cool of the day ‘Where the Son of God’ met with man-kind. It would be the same place where, people would return after the Deluge – they would return to their nativityAfrika.

NOTE: When the word Ethiopia is used it referred to ALL of AFRICA and not just the current location.  Africa, Ethiopia, Egypt, Nubia are different words for the same people!

We now see that the Fertile Crescent was connected to the other Fertile Crescent in the Nile Valley and along the Nile River that traversed through the center of Africa and beginning in what is now call Uganda.

Where they from the same source?

Do you really believe that people never traveled UP and DOWN the Whole Nile in all the thousands of years man has lived on this Earth-planet?

And since they did, some people stayed where they traveled and mini-civilizations flourished.

The locale where the Biblical Adam and Eve, otherwise known as the

The Adamite Unit: (the Wombman and the Hue-Man) was probably born is now

Sudan/Ethiopia/Kenya at the Breast of the East African continent.

The Egyptians has identified this region as the (Mouth of the Nile) were the “Original” people resided.

Tekeze River ተከዘ ሪቨር of Eritrea/EthiopiaThe Tekeze River on the Nuzi map is not shown on many modern maps, flows into the Atbara River, which is one of the three main tributaries of the Nile River.  And, it appears that the Tekeze River is the river that is clearly shown on the ancient Nuzi Map and is very close to Aad/Eden.

The Tekeze River begins in modern Ethiopia on the Ethiopian/Eritrean border, traverses West-northwest through Ethiopia and Eritrea, and then flows into the Atbara as it enters the Sudan.

The Atbara then flows northwest through Sudan until it meets the Nile at the town of Atbarah, Sudan.

Nubia's Atbarah River of the Nile.jpgThis city of Atbarah is located on the Southeast corner of the big bend of the Nile

(i.e. South of the 5th cataract or waterfall).

Remember Indigenous peoples “never” used the phrase CATARACT that was a European invention to divide the Family of Africa.

Thus, the Nuzi Map reveals that the Edenic City of Aad is in very close proximity to the Tekeze River,

Which begins due South of the Dahlak Archipelago (Ethiopia). Therefore, Eden is in Africa near the “East or Horn of Africa”.

(Excerpted from an internet site) “Ekowa©

African Presence In Early Asia, Edited by Runoko Rashidi & Ivan Van Sertima.

African Origins Of Civilization, by Cheikh Anta Diop.


The (four ) major ethnic groups of Ethiopia today are

The Tigrais, Amharas, Afar and Oromos.

Together, they account for approximately three-quarters of the total national population.

Amhara, Tigrais, and Gurages

Speak semetic languages and Are considered to be descendants of Southern Arabian Conquerors,

who trace their Ancestry back to Ancient (Queen of  Sheba,Moses and King Solomon.

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba Ethiopian- Afro Queen of Sheba : Makeda ማከዳ

(click link to see Ethiopian/Yemenis mtDna breakdown)…

articlerender.fcgi &  mtdna TB1

Whereas Tigrais still live in the area of the Ancient Aksum kingdom, the Amharas and Gurages have expanded inland.

The Semitic-speaking Axumites, or Habash sometimes Amharic~ Abesha, አበሻ `ābešā; (Abyssinians), had their capital city, Aksum,

In the western part of the province of Tigray.

During the first 6 centuries (1a.d.– 6a.d) they controlled territories North to Upper Egypt, east to the Gulf of Aden and

Southern Arabia, south to the Omo River, and west to the Cushite Kingdom of Meroë  (Munro-Hay 1991).

Because Amharas have largely taken the role of the political and cultural elite in the country,

Amhara Ethiopian Boy

There is a process of “Amharization,” which can be understood, at least partly, as a matter of prestige and

which leads to the cultural assimilation of other minority populations.

Afar Ethiopians Girls

The Oromos and the Hamer People as well as the Afars speak Omotic or Cushitic languages and are purported to have connectionsto

Ancient Egyptians, Ethiopian women from Hamer tribe

Since the land of Cush—the son of Biblical Ham—is generally considered to be in the vicinity of the Ancient cities of Meroë and

Napata, located in present-day Sudan.

Yet it should be stressed here that the split between the Cushitic and Semitic languages, branches of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic

family, is ancient, probably predating the Holocene

(see, e.g., Militarev [2003]).

Ethiopian Boy

The linguistic reconstructions of Semitic vocabulary, related to farming and agriculture, have supported the theory that the

origin of Semitic languages is in the Near East (Diakonoff 1988; Militarev 2003).

On the other hand, the finding of all major branches of the Afro-Asiatic language tree in Africa/Ethiopia,

Including those that are not spoken elsewhere in the world, suggests that the homeland of the Afro-Asiatic

language family may have been somewhere close to Africa’s southwestern Ethiopia (Ehret 1995).

However, both cultural and historic evidence show tight connections between East Africa and the Semitic cultural substrate in

the Near East and southern Arabia, Which points to four distinct phases of Semitic cultural intrusion into Ethiopia:

Falasha Ethiopians

First, related to the Sabaens in the 1st millennium b.c.;

Second, as the arrival of Falasha Jews from southern Arabia in the first 2 centuries a.d.;

Third, during the 4th–6th centuries, when Syrian missionaries brought,

Christianity to Aksumites/Axumites አፁሚተand to their descendants,

The Tigrais ቲግራኢስ and the Amharas አምሃራስ :

And fourth, because of the influence of Muslim Arabs, which primarily affected

The southeastern parts of the country..

(Levine 1974).Falasha ፋላስሃ  Ethiopians from Gondar ጎንዳር 2006The ethnonym “Ethi-op-ians”—the people with the “burnt face”—was coined by the Greeks, although it may originally have been applied

to the Nubians, who were (also) part of the Cushite/Kushite kingdoms.

(Harris 1971)

{A total of 168 different mtDNA Haplotypes} were observed in

270 Ethiopians and Eritreans, and 72 Haplotypes were recovered in 115 Yemeni samples

(fig. 2; tablesA1A6 [online only]).

Approximately one-half of both Ethiopian (52.2%) and Yemeni (45.7%)

mtDNA lineages belonged to the L clades specific to sub-Saharan Africa (fig. 2A;table 1),

Whereas the other half was divided between derived subclades of haplogroups M and N (fig. 2B; table 1) that are,

With the exception of M1 and U6 lineages, more common outside Africa.

Consistent with the coexistence of Sub/SupraSaharan African and Eurasian

mtDNA lineages of “Ethiopian, Egyptian, and Yemeni” populations, the MDS plot (fig. 3) ClusteredTogether with Egyptians,

In between the Near Eastern and the West African and southern African clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic- and Cushitic-speaking populations of Ethiopia

were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

(P>.05) in FSTdistances between themselves (table A7).

Virgin Mary and angels on mural in Abreha and Atsbeha church

Ethiopian Painting 2005 by Sean McClean

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century BC)

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century AD)

(Ethic) definition: a set of moral principles, esp. ones relating

to or affirming a “specified group” , field or form of conduct.

(Opia) Origin Greek- meaning: Ops, Op, Eye , Face ....

African-Hebrew Jesus (Yeshua)* and Disciples (circa) 300 A.D.

Ancient Man and his Civilizations African Hebrews?

Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow across the Gate of Tears..

Extensive Female-Mediated mtdna Gene Flow from Nilotic Sub-Saharan Africa into Yemen

Ethiopian Y-Chromosome and mtdna Polymorphism. PDF (929 K)

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Menyelek

https://www.care.org/careswork/countryprofiles/56.asp

The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora..

NORTH-EAST AFRICA

The African Origin of Eden. Jonh G.Jackson. 1933

African presence in Ancient World and Nile Valley  By Runoko Rashidi

People of Ethiopia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Garden of Eden – Tribes of Atlantis

Abreha wa Atsbeha church | Pictures and Paintings

http:Abraha  references.html

Egypt, Ethiopia – Sudan, Abyssinia, the Freemasonic Orientalist ?

Abyssinia

Nubia – Crystalinks

http://hearts-4-hope.org

Zagwe dynasty

The History of Ethiopian Jews

Halakha Matrilineal Hebrew Birthright

Halakha Female Hebrew Inheritence

African-Asiatic- Hebrew  Black Sabbath Roots …

Falasha (Ethiopian) Jewish History

African Jews – Wikipedia

Black Hebrew Israelites – Wikipedia

Judeo-Christian History of the Nile Valley

Queen of Sheba (960 B.C.)

Queen of Sheba

Ethiopian Treasures – Queen of Sheba, Aksumite Kingdom – Aksum

Ancient History Sourcebook: Accounts of Meröe, Kush, and Axum

Jews and Judaism from Africans in the African diaspora – Wikipedia

Rastafari religious movement

The Origin of Hebrew Civilization is Afroasiatic – ColorQ’s Bible …

Will-Smith-film-about-the-last-of-the-Nubian-Dynasty-when-Blacks-of-Ethiopian-Descent-ran-Egypt

Halle Salassie

Reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation’s history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate.

The Kingdom of አክሱም-Aksum: The አፁሚተ – Axumite Empire of Ethiopia and Eritrea’s Horn of Africa..

Posted in Aksum, Axum, Cushitic, Egypt, Eritrea, Erythraean Sea, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, L2a1, Levant, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, Oman mtDna, Sahara, Saudi Arabia mtDna, Semetic People, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, The Axumite Kingdom, The Sahel, Yemen mtDna with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

 

 

Kings of Axum

The Axumite Empire or Aksumite Empire

(The Kingdom of Axum or Aksum), (Ge’ez: አክሱም),

Important trading Nation in North-Eastern Africa,

Growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca.

Aksumite Empire Map

4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD.

Its Ancient Capital is found in Northern Ethiopia.

The Kingdom used the name “Ethiopia” as early as the 4th century.

It is also the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba.

Aksum was also the first major empire to convert to Christianity.

Aksum is mentioned in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for “Ivory”,

which was exported throughout the ancient world, and states that the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century AD was “Zoscales”

Who, besides ruling in Aksum also controlled two harbours on the Red Sea:

Adulis (near Massawa) and Avalites (Assab) located in Eritrea. He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature.

Axum data mapThe Kingdom of Aksum was ideally located to take advantage of the new trading situation.

Adulis soon became the main port for the export of “African goods”, such as Ivory, Incense, Gold, and Exotic animals.

In order to supply such goods the kings of Aksum worked to develop and expand an inland trading network.

A rival, and much older trading network that tapped the same interior region of Africa was that of the “Kingdom of Kush”,

which had long supplied “Egypt” with African goods via the “Nile” corridor.

By the 1st century AD, however, Aksum had gained control over territory previously “Kushite”.

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea explicitly describes how ivory collected in

Kushite territory was being exported through the port of “Adulis” instead of being taken to Meroë, the capital of “Kush”.

During the 2nd and 3rd centuries the Kingdom of Aksum continued to expand their control of the southern Red Sea basin.

A caravan route to “Egypt” was established which bypassed the Nile corridor entirely…

Aksum succeeded in becoming the principal supplier of African goods to the Roman Empire, not least as a result of the transformed

Indian Ocean trading system.

Aksum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories and prolific work on Ethiopian history, but most scholars now agree that it was an “indigenous” development…

Scholars like Stuart Munro-Hay point to the existence of an older D’mt or Da’amot kingdom, prior to any Sabaean migration ca. 4th or 5th c. BC, as well as to evidence of Sabaean immigrants having resided in the region for little more than a few decades.

Furthermore, Ge’ez, the ancient Semitic language of Eritrea and Ethiopia,  is now known,  Not to have derived from Sabaean,

and there is evidence of a Semitic speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.

Axumite Erythraen Sea Map 1st century C.E.

Note:

The Axumite አፁሚተ population consisted of Semitic-speaking people (collectively known as Habeshas), people of Ethiopia and Eritrea

And they are also Cushitic-speaking people, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking people (the Kunama and Nara).

Habesha Women

 

The Axsumite Kings had the official title  ነገሠ ፡ ነገሠተ ngś ngśtKing of Kings (later vocalization Ge’ez ንጉሠ ፡ ነገሥት nigūśa nagaśt,

Modern Ethiosemitic nigūse negest).

Aksumites did own slaves, and a modified feudal system was in place to farm the land.


The Empire of Axsum:

at its height extended across most of presentday

Eritrea, Northern EthiopiaYemen, Southern Saudi Arabia and Northern Sudan.

 

The capital city of the Empire was Aksum, now in Northern Ethiopia.

Today a smaller community, the city of Aksum was once a bustling metropolis, cultural and economic center.

Two hills and two streams lie on the east and west expanses of the city; perhaps providing the initial impetus for settling this area.

Along the hills and plain outside the city,

The Aksumites had cemeteries with elaborate “grave stones” called “stelae, or obelisks”.

Axumite Obelisk

 

Other important cities included Yeha, Hawulti, Matara, Adulis, and Qohaito, the last three of which are now in Eritrea.

 

In the 3rd century, Aksum began interfering in South Arabian affairs, controlling at times the westerTihama region among other areas.

By the  late 3rd century it had begun Minting its own “currency” and was named by Mani as one of the four great powers of his time along with Persia, Rome, and China.

Coinage of King Endubis of Axumite Ethiopia227-235CE

Note:

Endubis (c.270 – c.300) was a King of Axum.

He was among the earliest rulers of Axum, and Africa for that matter, (he was also, the very first King) tomint coins”.

These coins were issued in Gold and Silver...

On the coins of Endubis so far recovered, either of two mottos were engraved.

On some coins he described himself as

“BACIΛEYC AΧWMITW”, “King of Axum”.

On others appeared the motto “BICI ΔAXY”, “bisi Dakhu”;

(this is the first appearance of the title “bisi”),

which S. C. Munro-Hay believes, is related to

the Ge’ez word be’esya – translation “man of “…

 

They converted to Christianity in 325 or 328 under King Ezana and was the first state ever, to use the image of the “Cross” on its coins..

At its height, Axsum controlled Northern Ethiopia, Eritrea,

Nubia, Upper Egypt, Djibouti, Yemen, and Southern Saudi Arabia, totalling 1.25 million km².

Axumite-Silk Route

It was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Persian Empire of the day and declined after the 7th century due to unknown reasons,

but informed speculation suggests the rise of Islam heavily impacted its ability to trade with

the Far East in the era when shipping was limited to coastal navigation as well as cut it off from its principal markets

in Alexandria, Byzantium and Southern Europe.

Under Emperor Ezana,

Axum adopted Christianity in place of its former polytheistic and Judaic religions around 325 A.D.

This gave rise to the present day Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

(only granted autonomy from the Coptic Church in 1959), and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church

(granted autonomy from the Ethiopian Orthodox church in 1993).

Since the schism with orthodoxy following the Council of Chalcedon (451),

It has been an important Miaphysite church, and its scriptures and liturgy are still in Ge’ez.

It was a cosmopolitan and culturally important state.

It was a meeting place for a variety of cultures:

EthiopianEgyptianSudanicArabic, and Indian.

The Major Aksumite cities had SabeanHebrewNubianChristian, and even Buddhist minorities.

Sahure ሽሁረ and the 5th Dynasty the Old Kingdom of Egypt/KMT ኽምጥ 2487-2474 B.C.

Posted in Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Ethiopia, Indigenous people, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, Sahara, Semitic, Sudan, Supra-Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Egyptian Sahure from the 5th Dynasty @ the Metropolitan Museum

Sahu’re/Sa-hu-Rah was the Second King of ancient Egypt‘s 5th Dynasty.

Sahure’s birth name means “He who is Close to Re /Rah, his Horus name was Nebkhau,

It is believed he ruled Egypt from around 2487 BC to 2475 BC .

He was a son of Queen Neferhetepes, as shown in scenes from the causeway of Sahure’s Pyramid Complex in Abusir.

His father probably was Userkaf. He was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt ..Userkaf Founder of the 5th Dynasty

The First pharaoh to start the tradition of building Sun Temples at Abusir.

Userkaf’s name means “his Ka (or soul) is Powerful.” He ruled from 2465-2458 BC

And constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara.

Sahure’s consort was Queen Neferetnebty. Reliefs show Sahure and Neferetanebty with their sons Ranefer and Netjerirenre.

He was succeeded by Neferirkare, the first king known to have used separate names.

Verner speculates that Prince Ranefer took the throne as Neferirkare and

Prince Netjerirenre may have later taken the throne as (Shepseskare)

Continue reading

Nubian ኑቢአን Migrations Across Africa and West Asia etc.. (Nubian Mother and Child in image below:)

Posted in African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Horn of Africa, Human Rights, Levant, Nile Valley/Nubia, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, The Sahel with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubia's map of today's Egyptnubian-woman-with-child

The Nubians of Central Africa

A cluster of 7 Nubian Tribes in 8 countries



The Nubians consist of “Seven” Non-Arab Muslim tribes who originated in the Nubia region,

An area/region between Aswan in southern Egypt and Dongola in Northern Sudan.

for centuries, this territory was a crossroads between Egypt and the NubianEthiopian African tribal kingdoms.

Some Nubians are now Settled in:

1.) Ethiopia

2.) Kenya

3.) Nile Valley

4.) Uganda

5.) North Africa (Sahara) ex.. Chad, Egypt and Libya…

6.) Saudi Arabia

7.) Yemen,

8.) Oman

and other countries etc..

From the 1500’s until the 1800’s, the Ottoman Empire encroached upon the Nubia region. As a result, many Nubians migrated to remote areas along the Nile. Distinct groups evolved and were named according to their locations. For example, those who settled near the Wadi Kenuz became knows as the Kenuzi; those who settled in Dongola became known as the Dongolawi.

Nubian Dongolawi Girl

In the 1960’s, many of the Nubian villages were flooded as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam. About 100,000 Nubians were forced to resettle in “New Nubia,” 20 miles north of Aswan. Others relocated in Uganda and Kenya.

Most Nubian groups speak their own dialect of the Nubian language.

Dongolawi Nubians

However, many also speak Arabic, which is the common language of business and trade. Although their languages are different, each group is identical in social, economic, and cultural organization.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Nubian economy is based on agriculture. During the winter months they grow wheat, barley, millet, beans, peas, and watermelons. Mangoes, citrus fruits, and palm dates are also part of the Nubian diet.

A thin, course bread called dura, is one of their basic staple foods. Pieces of the bread are usually piled on top of each other and eaten with vegetables and sauces, or spread with date jelly.

In Old Nubia, men migrated to the big cities to find work, while the women farmed the land, cared for the animals, and did household chores.

Today, since the land is located far from their dwellings, men do most of the field work while the women work at the home.

Some women have also found employment as schoolteachers, public service workers, and seamstresses. Some of the men now own grocery stores or drive cabs.

The typical Nubian house is very spacious, with several large rooms that are able to accommodate the extended family members and guests. In the center of each home is an open courtyard. The front of the house is colorfully painted with geometric patterns. Most of the paintings and decorations on the homes have religious connotations. The colorful designs are a distinctive and admired feature of Nubian culture.

The literacy rate among Nubians is high in comparison to their rural Egyptian neighbors.

Primary and secondary schools have been set up in New Nubia, and there are also teacher-training facilities in the area.

In addition to education, policies, radio and television are other ways in which socialization takes place among the Nubians.

For centuries, the Nubians often held lengthy religious and agricultural ceremonies. However, since relocation, the ceremonies have been shortened and are now limited to the villages. During these ceremonies, the Nubians express themselves through singing, dancing, and beating drums.

What Are Their Beliefs? The Nubians were converted to Christianity during the sixth century. They remained so until the gradual process of Islamization began taking place from the fourteenth until the seventeenth centuries. Today, the Nubians are virtually all Muslims. However, their traditional animistic beliefs (belief that non-living objects have spirits) are still mingled in with their Islamic practices.

The traditional beliefs of the Nubians were centered on the spirit of the Nile. The Nile is believed to have life-sustaining power and to hold the power of life and death within it.

The people believe that the river is endowed with angels, sheiks (religious leaders), and other powerful beings. The sheiks are sought daily for their advice in the areas of health, fertility, and marriage.

The Kenuzi Nubians have an annual festival known as the “Saints Day Celebration,” or moulid. This holiday reinforces the history of the Kenuzi. Gifts are presented at the ancestral shrines in the fulfillment of a promise made the previous year. Colorful processions are held during this time of celebration. Dancing, singing, and feasting are also included in the festivities. The moulid is still celebrated in New Nubia each year.

What Are Their Needs?

The Nubians in Kenya and Uganda” have no Christian resources or missions agency working among them.

Most Nubians Tribes  have not heard a clear presentation of the Gospel…

The Nubians in Egypt have only portions of the Bible written in their language.

Only one missions agency is currently working among them. Intense prayer, increased evangelism efforts, and additional Christian resources are necessary to reach these tribes who were once a Christian people…

Prayer Points

1. Pray that the Lord will raise up laborers who are willing to invest long term service as missionaries to the Nubians of Central Africa.

2. Pray that loving African Christians will gain a vision to see the Nubians reached with the Gospel.

3. Ask the Lord to save key leaders among the Nubians who will boldly declare the Gospel.

4. Pray for cooperation among missions agencies that are targeting these tribes.

5. Pray that God will raise up linguists to translate the Word of God into each of the tribal languages.

6. Take authority over the spiritual principalities and powers that

are keeping these tribes bound.

7. Ask God to send medical teams and humanitarian aid workers to minister to the Nubians.

8. Pray that strong local churches will be planted among each of these tribes.

NUBIAN

EL’NUBIO

Nubians in Kenya website

Unreached Peoples of Nubia Prayer Profiles

Linguistic Aspects of Greater Nubian History -The Cradle of .

Geo-Map of Nubian in Middle East and North Africa

Geo-Map of Nubians in  East Africa and Southern Africa

Joshua Project – Nubians, of Arabized Egypt Ethnic People Profile

Joshua Project – Nubian, Nubi of Kenya Ethnic People Profile

Joshua Project – Nubians, of Dongola-Dongolawi Sudan Ethnic People Profile


African map of 1812

Bileh* Gambela
በላይ ። ጋምበላ