Archive for Egypt mtdna L2a1

MtDna Migration Map of (Haplogroup L2a1 North Africa and South West Asia)

Posted in afri asiatic, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, DNA, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 30, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻



This is Highlighted feature Map of the migrational route of Haplogroup L2a1 mtDNa

Haplogroup -L2a1 @ positions HVR1

16223T16278T16294T16309G, 16368C and 16519C.

(Note: mtDna results above from Genographic is HVR1 sequence only. Definitive results are acquired from FGS (full genome sequence) Test.

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Middle East and North Africa Related Ethnicites

Part of the “AfrI-Asiatic-Semitic Family”.   The process was very simple and pain-less.

This Map shows my L2a1 Northern Nile Valley migration as well as West Asia from  Nat’l Genographic

It took all of 3 minutes to extract saliva from my inner cheek.   place the swab back in the container that’s enclosed in the package with

(instructional dvd included..)

I then sent off my package “anonymously” with a “generated ID” number to follow the process “Online”…   4 weeks later results are in to check securely online in the privacy of your home.

At completion you will be assigned a (Paternal) YDNA or (Maternal) mtDNAHaplogroup (from the Greek word: ἁπλούς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Once this process is done you will recieve a Genetic Migration Map of Whatever Region your DNA Originates...

The Americas, Africa, Madagascar , Asia, Europe , Australia etc..

My Parents‘s Ethnic Ancestral Origins and Migrations

“The Americas” and “North Africa” (NileValley)(West Asia)”

(Indigenous American) and (Nubian-Egyptian)  

My Nationality from my parents genetic origins would be stated as 

Nubian-Native American or Indigenous American Kushite

BAM   !! U now have an Ethnic Origin The cost are from $79-$149 and takes about 4-6 weeks to process.

Excerpt from Genetic – Ethiopian Study : copy and paste the link below in your web browers to view:


All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33“African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a1}  complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps  None of those sequences, (shown below) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309”} L2a1 samples.


Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins) 

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.




5. L2a1a2- has (PAKISTAN) (ITALY), (MOZAMBIQUE), (YEMEN), (USA) Origins

6. L2a1a3- has (GABON), (CHAD), (PORTUGAL) Origins

7. L2a1c1- has (TUNISIA), (USA) Origins

8. L2a1c6- has (SPAIN), (PORTUGAL) Origins

9.  L2a1d1- has (ETHIOPIA), (EGYPT) Origins

10. L2a1c8- has (CAMEROON), (ISRAEL) Origins

11. L2a1m- has (OMAN), (YEMEN), (ARABIA), (ISRAEL) Origins

12. L2a1k- has (CZECH REP.), (SLOVAK REP.) Origins

13. L2a1c4- has (SPAIN) (ANDALUSIA) Origins

14. L2a1c4a- has (TUNISIA), (BURKINA FASO), (USA) Origins

15. L2a1a2a1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (TUNISIA), (EGYPT), (USA) Origins

16. L2a1c1a- has (PORTUGAL), (USA) Origins 

17. L2a1n- has (USA), (ISRAEL) Origins

18. L2a1o- has (LIBYA), (ISRAEL) Origins

19. L2a1p- has (USA) Origins

20. L2a1b- has (EGYPT) Origins

21. L2a1b1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (MOZAMBIQUE), (KUWAIT), (KENYA) Origins

22. L2a1c- has (CHAD), (GABON), (SPAIN), (USA) Origins

23. L2a1c5- has (USA), (GABON), (EGYPT) Origins

24. L2a1c2- has (BURKINA FASO), (DOMINICAN) Origins

25. L2a1c3- has (ISRAEL), (SPAIN), (GUINEA BISSAU) Origins




“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea.  10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and  multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes have an African and or American Origin, but as a Haplogroup remains to be 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transitionnp16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)....

(NOTE): You have to do extra research such as,

Dna data Bases or Forums for comparative matches as well as ,

Public record Genetic studies, to pin-point the Highest Frequencies !! of your Personal DNA number sequence).


THE  GOVt  in all countries and Monarchs alike .. WorldWide have DNA DATABASES

They know who you are ..   but do you know who you Are ?

(With the Scare tatics and  Biological Threats and

Exotic Flu Viruses this Science is Imperative !

(ex. the swine flu and vaccine ready H1N1 companies)

To know who You are)...

Something to ponder on ...

(the term “African-American” is a

(Corporate Constitutional definition/term:

that was implemented in December of 1988,

to hide your True Ethnic Nationality..)


Federal Register Notice on Oct.30, 1997

Revisions to the standard for the Classification of Federal Data On Race and Ethnicity

Copy and paste link into your web browser to view site:


1. Morgan Freeman mtDna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara

2. Oprah Winfrey – Haplogroup L3b Kpelle

3. Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone  his (moms)- Angola.

4. Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

5. Dr. May Angelo (R.I.P.) the Mende people of Liberia and Sierra leone who migrated from Western Sudan..

6. Dr. Mae Jemison L1a listed as West Africa via African Ancestry…

7. Tina Tuner Haplogroup L2a Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Niger, South Sudan, Kenya.

8. AfricaNews – Exclusive: Isaiah Washington mtdna on Dual citizenship – Sierra Leone

9. India Arie- Nigeria  

10. Chris Tucker- Y-Dna is  E3b Mbundu from Angola  and his Mtdna is L1c* Bamileke of Cameroon

11. Don Cheadle has Afro-Asiatic male Y-chromosomes R1b was found in Cameroon

12. Chris Rock has Central African-Asiatic Y-chromosome B21a  has notable frequencies in North Cameroon from Uldeme tribe.

13. Forest Whittiker is from  Igbo Nigeria

14. Danny Glover Nigeria- Igbo

15. T.D. Jakes – are mtDna L1c and Y-chromo E3b Nigerian (Igbo-people)

16. Judge Hatchett is from NigeriaYoruba/Hausa...

17. John Legend’s mtDna belongs to the Mende from Sierra Leone and his Y-Dna belongs to the Fula of Guinea Bissau..

18. Wanda Sykes from the hit show Curb Your Enthusiasm belongs to the Tikar and Fulani  from Cameroon.

19. Erykah Badu  maternal ancestry is from Cameroon with the Bamileke who migrated from Egypt.

20. Q-Tip from Tribe called Quest maternal ancestry belongs to the Jola People of Guniea-Bisaau.

21. Michael K. Williams who played Omar from the Wire maternal ancestry is Mende from Sierra Leone.

22. Quest Love from the Roots is Mende from Sierra Leone.

23. Black Thought from the Roots maternal ancestry goes back to Senegal with the Mandinka.

24. President Barack Hussein Obama -American-Kenyan.

25. Issac Hayes- Ghana..  R.I.P.

26. Whoopi Goldberg – Guinea Bissau Kpelle

27. Blair Underwood –  is a descendant of the Babungo people of Cameroon.

28. Marcus Garvey – Maternal Dna traces back to Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal his Paternal DNA traces to Iberia (Spain & Portugal).

29. Martin Luther King Jr. – Maternal DNA traces back to Mende from Sierra Leon his paternal is from Ireland.

Most of the individuals that were tested with African Ancestry had West African Ancestry?

* Gamble…

Genetic Genealogy and the Ancestries of African Americans by Dr.Rick Kittles.pdf

Lets Go people .. What are u waiting for ?


Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian Ancestry,

First-generation Egyptian immigrants, or Descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the United States.

In the 2007 U.S. census, the number of people with Egyptian Ancestry was estimated at 195,000,

Although some estimates range from 700,000 to 2 million.

The large majority of Egyptians in the U.S. are Coptic Orthodox

Some Christians in Egypt are increasingly marginalized.


One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

Northeastern Virginiaand theWashington, DC, Metropolitan area.

Other Egyptian American communities are concentrated in

Jersey City, New Jersey, Levittown,

New YorkSteinway Village in Queens, and

New YorkBay Ridge in Brooklyn, New York,

As well as in California, mainly in and around the

Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas,

And parts of Florida and, increasingly, Philadelphia.

African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora.

It is estimated that the current population of recent

African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.

Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S.

EthiopiaEritreaEgypt,  Somalia,

NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone, and South Africa.

Title: Reconstructing ancient L2a1 mitochondrial DNA links between Africans and Europeans

Authors: Cerezo M, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Perego UA, Gómez-Carballa A, Brisighelli F, Lancioni H, López-Soto M, Carracedo Á, Capelli C, Torroni A, Salas A / Click link below: Europe_manuscript_Supplemental_Data_S2_final_version.pdf

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  Egyptian population Haplogroup L link below …

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA and  Study of Human Evolution

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins

Investigation in the mtdna genetic structure of  Barbadians Haplogroup L …

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  U.S. “Hispanic Haplogroup L…

BioMed Central | Additional Files | The RHNumtS compilation ..

.Figure 2

Africa | Africa Map | Travel Africa | African Safari

Africa the Continent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Evidence of the Early Penetration of Negroes into Prehistoric Egypt”

African diaspora – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Egyptian American – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of  the newly 53 African colonized countries

“The socalled Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau”

NJ State Police  mtdna Micro-Chip Technology called Gene-Chip..

Revisions to the U.S. OMB Standards for Negro Racial Classification of Federal Data …


Terracotta Goddess Isis from 18th Dynasty Collections


Egypt mtDNA and the Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ Dna DiversitY.. The Maternal Hamito-Semitic.. mtDna Haplogroup L

Posted in anthrolpology, Blood type O, Cushitic, DNA, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, Indigenous mtDna (mother's) of Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, O-positive blood, Semitic with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Meritaten Tasherit 18th Dynasty


The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Diversity of 58 individuals from

Upper Egypt, more than half (34 individuals) from Gurna,

Whose population has an Ancient Cultural History, Were studied by sequencing The Control-Region and screening diagnostic RFLP markers.

This Sedentary Population:

(meaning= inhabiting the same location through out life, non nomadic)

Presented similarities to the Ethiopian Population by the

Haplogroups L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the

West Eurasian component (defined by Haplogroups H to K and T to X) and Particularly by a High frequency (17.6%) of AfriAsiatic Haplogroup M1.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from Upper Egypt (Gurna)sedentary population …

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna

(of modern Upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I  5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 4.9%, L2a1* 20%,

L3* 11.0%, M1  14.9%, N1b  8.8%, T 5.9%, U  8.8%, L2* 2.0%

U4  5.9%, U6 2.9%, L3e* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L1c* 1.0%

L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%, L3f*6.9%. L3d*1.0%.

Percentages above are based on mtdna frequencies of

Southern Upper Egypt/Nile Valley collectively..

Percentages below are based onmtdna frequency in

Northern Alexandria/Lower Egypt ( Saunier July 2008)..

The Breakdown is predominantly European 67.5% followed by African @ 20.6% and Asian @ 11.9%.

European: R0 and subgroups (31.4%), I (3.2%), J (7.6%), K (4.7%), T (9.4%), U (9.0%), W (0.7%) X (1.4%)

African Haplogroups: L0 (2.2%), L1 (2.5%),  L2 (3.6%) and L3 (12.3%)..

Asiatic Haplogroups: M (6.9%) and N (5.1%)


The Egyptian Population Data set has a Low Random Match Probability..

The Egyptian Population also shows a Large number of Unique Haplotypes,

Therefore indicating a High mtDna Diversity within the Country

Overall 238 different haplotypes were defined by 228 variable positions.

Of the 238 different Haplotypes, 31 were shared within the database of 277 individuals.

The Haplotype most common in this dataset was observed in five individuals

There were 17 points of Heteroplasmy identified in 15 individuals (5.4% of the database)

At 16 positions: One Sample indicated three positions of point heteroplasmy>

(16519, 73 and 195)…

Other remarks: Egypt is distinctive Bio-geographically, as it is centrally located,

Among three surrounding continents its home Africa, Asia and Europe..

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are Nilotic and Indigenous and are typically Supra and sub Saharan..

Haplogroup L2a (mtDNA) has notable frequencies of 22% among the

Hebrew Affiliated Fulani of Nile Valley to Niger to The Gambia

They are at least 70,000-111,100 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !!

L2a1 also has (49%) MtDna collectively in,

Sudan, Nile- Valley/Nubia, Ethiopia, and Egypt

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the Nile Valley Civilizations)……

Queen Ahmose Nefertari/ New Kingdom 19th Dynasty

L2a is also in the Great Rift Valley regions @

16% Kenya/Sudan and 33% in Mozambique.

Today, the term is most often used to refer to

The Valley of the East African Rift,

The divergent plate boundary which extends from

The Afar Triple Junction southward

Across Eastern Africa, and is in the process of splitting

The African Plate into two new separate plates.

Geologists generally refer to these incipient plates as

The Nubian and Somalian subplates or protoplates.

East African-Asiatic: Plate of Nubia/Somalia and ArabiaAs for haplogroups M1 and U, they are African/Westasian/Eurasian haplotypes, at 30,000 B.P.

Other West-asian/Eur-asian, Haplotypes have been found in 12,000 year old bones in Morocco.

Haplogroups N and I Mtdna are possibly attributable to Arab ancestry, about 15% non-Arab in upper Egypt. But still, most of that would easily be attributable to the Neolithic input from “AsiA” very little of this would be attributable to Arabs.

To sum up, there doesn’t seem to be majority ‘Arab’ genetic component to the Egyptian DNA pool, 20% absolute maximum. A lot of the non African DNA is traceable to the Neolithic farming expansion that swept across North Africa, so it would be a lot lower in reality.

In upper Egypt a maximum of 20% of the Y chromosomes are Non –African.

{MMother’s mtDNA L2a1 has been shown to be prevalent in North Africa }..

{Since the Dynastic times, of Ethiopian-Nubian and Egyptian Kingdoms} …..

Sesostris the Ist 12th Dynasty from Altes Museum inBerlin

So how these people are supposed to have Magically Changed appearance in the past few thousand

years with so little foreign input I’d like to know

Egyptians are Indigenous “African-Egyptian”, Not Euro/Arabs.. They are in essence “African-Arabs”.

They are part African/Asiatics: (Hamito-Semitic) and are members of

The Nile Valley  and the Great Rift Valley , which could be equally known as

The East African Rift , Nile Valley Civilizations…

(“Nile Valley, “North Africa”, “Horn of Africa” and “West Asian Arab Africans”.)

{copy and paste national geographic link on egyptian mummies and dna}

An important influence on the subsequent genetic landscape

Of the continent is likely to have been the LGM.

Paleovegetational studies have indicated that, between 30,000 and 11,000 years ago,

Much of the continent was extremely arid (Adams and Faure 1997).

The Sahara advanced hundreds of kilometers further south, and the Equatorial Rainforests

Were reduced to a small fraction of their present size, leaving open woodland and savanna in much of the Congo basin.

This may have formed a refuge area from which modern humans later dispersed:

Some with haplogroup L2a East and West, with L1b west;

Perhaps even some with L1a East and L1d Southward.

The origins of these expansions may lie earlier,

At the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ~40,000 years ago.

Queen Meryt-Amen the 19th Dynasty

The Valley of the Queens, is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. In ancient times, it was known as Ta-Set-Neferu, meaning –‘the place of the Children of the Pharaoh’, because along with the Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties (1550–1070 BCE) many princes and princesses were also buried with various members of the nobility. The tombs of these individuals were maintained by mortuary priests who performed daily rituals and provided offerings and prayers for the deceased nobility.

The distributions and ages of L1a, L1c/L3e, and L1d testify to the habitation of East, and Central, and southern Africa, respectively, by modern humans, ~40,000 years ago.

Similarly, L1b, L3b, and L3d imply that West Africa has been inhabited since at least 20,000–30,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L1b is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa

(particularly geographically adjacent areas, connected by the West African coastal pathway)

but little in East, southeastern, or southern Africa.

It is also common in so called African Americans

(~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

By contrast, the commoner haplogroup L3b (fig. 8c) is predominantly West African,

with a substantial representation again in today’s socalled African Americans.

It has also spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

And Its sister clade, Haplogroup L3d (fig. 9a), is also mainly West African and African American.

A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1), matching a Fulbe/Fulani lineage,

At considerable elevated Frequencies.

L3e (fig. 9b) is the most widespread, frequent, and ancient of the African L3 clades, comprising approximately one-third of all L3 types in sub-Saharan Africa.

This haplogroup has recently been dissected in some detail by Bandelt et al. (2001),

Who suggest an origin for the haplogroup in the Central Africa/Sudan region ~45,000 years ago.

As they recognized, L3e1 in particular is common amongst SouthEastern African Bantu speakers,

Along with some L3e2 and L3e3 lineages.

L3e also represents approximately one-third of all African mtDNA lineages in Brazil.

Alves-Silva et al. (2000)

Finally, there are two small sister clades, L3e3 and L3e4.

L3e3 is primarily West African,But with its root type present at elevated frequency in the

Southeast and with some southeastern African derivatives. There is also a Kenyan/Kikuyu derivative,

Again raising a possible connection with the Eastern stream.

L3e4 is present in East, Central, and West Africa, with One individual in the Southeast,

But is too rare to draw conclusions from.

The area occupied by Cameroon is not always considered as part of the geographic region known as West Africa.

Taking into account its haplogroup composition it could also be considered a genetic outsider.

There are numerous lineages

(L0a, L0a1a, L0a2, L2a1e, L4g, and L5)

that have a more CentralEastern than Western Assignation.

(Pereira et al. 2001Salas et al. 2002Kivisild et al. 2004).

The L4g haplogroupis most frequent in Eastern and

NorthEastern Africa and waspreviously Dated to ~40–45 kya

(Salas et al. 2002Go; Kivisildet al. 2004Go).

Haplogroup L4g (previously designated L3g) is present in both Eastern Tanzanian

Clickspeaking populations at high frequencies (60%Hadza, 48% Sandawe) but is Absent in the SAK.

History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDna …

The only L4 Saudi haplotype belongs to the L4a1 subclade defined by 16207T/C transversion.

Although it has no exact matches its most related types are found in Ethiopia [30].

Four L5 lineages have been found in Saudi Arabia but all have the same

Haplotype that belongs to the L5a1 subclade defined in the

HVSI region by the 1635516362 motif [30]. It has matches in Egypt and Ethiopia.

L6 was found the Most Abundant clade in Yemen [30].

BioMed Central |  Macro-Haplogroup L mtDNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula …


Haplogroup L2a is Nilotic and the most common and widely distributed sub- Saharan African Haplogroup and is also frequent in the Americas (~19%).

The wide distribution of L2a in Africa makes identifying geographical origins of lineages difficult.

(Excerpt from: The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade)

The Main Puzzle is the almost Ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a,

North Africa Tunisian Bay : Golfe de Tunisia Port Saïd { Carthage}Which we suggest may have become”Prevalent “somewhere in

North-Central Africa  { Prehistoric Central North Africa }

Spreading East and West along the Sahel, during the Last Glacial Period or some what earlier..

Example: Modern day Sahel, Tunisia near Libya and Algeria..

Note: The Jerba Islands of Tunisia/Carthage is located in South Eastern Tunisia,

Tunisia, is inhabited by four ethnic groups: Berbers, Arabs, sub-Saharans, and Jews/Hebrews.

(click link below for isolated Sub/Supra Saharan mtdna of jerba/tunisia)

Isolated Haplogroups of Jerba Island Tunisia: L1b, L2a1L2a1c1, L2d2, L3b, L3b1, L3e1a, L3f, M and U

The Island of Jerba/Tunisia is said to be Inhabited First, by the Descendants of  the Mousterian Population

Between the 5th and 6thMillienia B.C. (Tlatli, 1967), Who were later replaced by Berbers of  the Ketama

and Lemata tribes ( Khaldoun 1852).

The First Arab settlement on the Island Occurred in the 7th Century A.D.

Another study shows results also point to a less Ancient western sub-Saharan gene flow to Tunisia, including Haplogroups L2a and L3b.

This conclusion points to an Ancient African gene flow to Tunisia before 20,000 BP.

These findings parallel the more recent findings of both archaeology and linguistics on the prehistory of Africa.

The present work suggests that sub-Saharan contributions to North Africa have experienced several complex population processes after the occupation of the region by anatomically modern humans.

Our results reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued to evolve in  supra-Saharan Africa.

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33) “African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins)

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309″} L2a1 samples.


“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea. 10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes has African and American Origins, but the Haplogroup is 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transition @ np“16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)….


PCR amplification of (a) 27 selected NumtS in 4 healthy subjects from

Different ethnic groups ex..  L2a1-c1/16086C in (North Africa) Figure 2

Costa‘s link to mtDna diversity of Tunisia

Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian …

BioMed Central | Full text | The RHNumtS compilation:  North Africa L2a1c1…

Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers.pdf

Tunisia’s reproductive mtDna groups Isolates on Jerba Island.pdf

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] mtDNA sequences from Tunisian … and Morrocan Haplogroup L

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA  L2a and L3a Variation in Mauritania and Mali

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] New Egyptian mtDNA sequences

European Journal of Human Genetics – Table 1 for article: The Canary Islands and North Central/NW Africa…

Haplogroup L2a has frequencies of 14% among Algerian Arab/Berbers and

10% among Bilād al-Sūs Morrocan Arab/Berbers in

The Sousse Valley North Africa..

We recognize, however, that the origins of these haplogroups may be more ancient than we can trace

(L2, for example, may be well >70,000 years old )….. and that, in such cases,

evidence of the earlier distribution of these clusters may have been erased by subsequent demographic processe.

We have attempted partly to disentangle the structure of L2a, retaining as irreducible on present evidence three major squares close to the root of the cluster. These reticulations link eight main clusters by single-step mutations.

We assume that the main reticulations of the network are due to the existence of rapid transitions at positions 16189 and 16192

(Howell et al. 2000), which approach saturation due to the high time depth of African lineages.

We also assume that position 16309 is more stable than the two known fast sites and therefore is not responsible for the main reticulations.

On these grounds, clusters α1-α2-α3, as well as β1-β2-β3, might be collapsed into two main clusters,

One of them with the basal motif of “(L2a)” and the other harboring the transition at “16309″ (L2a1).

Several instances in which 16309 must nevertheless evolve in parallel can then be read off the network..

Full report link below on genetic mtdna migrations:

Haplogroup L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309 (Salas et al. 2002).

The most extensive pan-African haplotype

(16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the L2a1 haplogroup.

This sequence is also observed in West Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in

North Africa among the Maure, Hausa, Fulbe, Tuaregs , Hebrews and others; in

Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the

Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in

East Africa among the Kenyan/KikuyuClosely related variants are observed among

The Tuareg in North and West Africa and among the

East African Dinka of Sudan and Eastern Somalians. (Ely et. al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997).

Also striking is the presence in Sakai, Mani of  Thailand of an unequivocal representative

With this  motif (16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309)

Of the sub-Supra Saharan African L2a haplogroup (Torroni et al. 2001),

Which again is compatible with the physical characteristics of this Negrito group.

Although the suggestion that the first spreading out of Africa of modern humans could have carried

some L2 lineages in addition to the L3 ancestors (Watson et al. 1997)…

(Note: my thoughts are the Sakai, and  Mani people of Thailand who genetically belong to the

Motif: 16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309 could very well belong to L2a1 by 16309 as according to the updated

Haplogroup Phylotree 2010 by Van Mannis) ex: Coding region 12693, 15784, and HVS1: (16309) for L2a1.

A compliation 0f 185 mtDNAs sampled across North Africa showed that about Half of the

Lineages belonged to the L Haplogroups otherwised observed mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa

And  that most of the rest fell into Haplogroup U6 (Sala et al. 2002) Which perhaps Originated

In the Near East and Spread into North Africa ~30 thousand years (KY) ago (KYA) (Maca-Meyer et. al. 2003).

A proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages, in higher frequencies as geographic proximity to sub-Saharan Africa increases.

The distribution of the main L haplogroups in North Africa somewhat reflects the known trans-Saharan slave routes:

West is dominated by L1b, L2b, L2c, L2d, L3b and L3d;

the Center by L3e and some L3f and L3w;

the East by L0a, L3h, L3i, L3x and, in common with the Center, L3f and L3w;

while, the ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a is almost everywhere.

Another major contribution to the pool of North Afri- can populations was the sub-Saharan one.

It is known that a proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages

(designated as haplogroups L0-L6)

Japan mtDna Genome Variation in  Sakai Eastern Asia from Thailand…

Joshua Project – Sakai, Mani of Thailand Ethnic People

The mtDna of the  trans-Saharan slave trade


mtDNA phylo tree Build 10 (10 Aug 2010) | sub-haplogroup |Haplogroup L

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape Macro-Haplogroup L  PhyloTree and Ethnic Groups..

Comparison of Craniofacial features of African-Asiatic Human Groups.

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in  Prehistoric Egypt”

Click link for Origin Date of mtDna>{TB5}

L1b 30,550 (16,250) B.P.
L2a 55,150 (19,350) B.P.
L2a1 33,700 (13,400) B.P.
L2d 121,900 (34,200) B.P.
L3e 49,250 (11,750) B.P.
L3e1a 26,750 (12,000) B.P.
L3e1 32,150 (11,450) B.P.
L3b 21,600 (6,850)  B.P.
L1c2 44,100 (10,650) B.P.
L3d 30,250 (8,450) B.P.
L3f 36,300 (12,800) B.P.

University College London 2004. mtdna study..



According to the profile of West African Dna study, on

Nilotic – Haplogroup L2a

The Percentages clearly shows an clear Eastern Distribution:

Eastern Africa 82%,

Western African 69%,

North-West African 27%,

South Africans 3% Kung Khwe

As well as Cabo Verde Islands 20% and

Fulani people from East-West, Central and North Africa at 22%

Chart on pg.5 (click counter clock-wise to view)

Shows Sahara, Horn of Africa and Congo regions as Well as Krings 1999. Nile Valley mtdna% ....

Click Link below:

Egyptian Triad Statue. Menkaura The Goddess Hathor and Goddess BatNorth Africans tend to cluster with West Africans, suggesting that the sub-Saharan component of

North Africans Originates primarily from West rather than East Africa

(as expected, on geographical grounds).

Unlike other North Africans,Egyptians are closer to East Africans

than to West Africans. [Rando et al. 1999].)

PC2 has a large contribution from the Eastern lineage groups L3g and L3*;

However L2a, L1b1a, and L3e2* also make a similar contribution.

And though Egypt in the North as well, Egyptians tend to Genetically cluster with East Africans

mtDna Lineages of  Ethiopians, Egyptians and Hebrew Yemenis, Populations MDS plot (fig.3)

Clustered together with the Egyptian Population

In between the Near Eastern and West African as well as Southern African Clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic and Cushitic Speaking Populations of Ethiopia,

Were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

A recent study on mtDNA suggested that modern Nubians and Egyptians are much more similar to one another than either is to southern Sudanese populations and that the divergence between the two northern populations may have occurred during the past few hundred or few thousand years (Krings et al. 1999).

Forensic Misclassification of Ancient Nubia:

GambHotep with Gucci Addidas

TRG presents..Billy Gamble the Warriors on iTunes…Custom made Gucci- Adidas Sneakers by Alhassan Tou’re {}

NOTE: Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North-Central Africa with an  Origin Date of 55,150 B.P.

Would place L2a in the Upper Paleolithic era in North Africa beginning around 50,000 years before the present (ybp),

As well as the Mousterian Pluvial period circa 50,000 B.C. and  lasting 20,000 years, and finally ending around 30,000 ybp.

Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia or Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago

All the stone tools are very much alike and Unsophisticated.

However after 50,000 years ago there is “Sharp Increase” in the diversity of Artifacts.

For the First Time Bone Artifacts, and the First Art appear in the fossil record in Africa.

The First Evidence of Human Fishing is also noted from Artifacts in places like Blombos cave in South Africa.

After 50,000 years ago, Firstly in Africa, it was found that Human Artifacts could be placed into Many different categories,

such as {Projectile Points, Engraving Tools, Knife Blades, and Drilling and Piercing Tools}

All of the above are Found in (Al’kebu-lan) AFRICA...

Frequencies of  North West- East Asiatic Africans

(Haplogroup L, mtdna % chart)

Origin Population Number tested %
East Africa Somalia 26 Watson et al. (1997) 50.00%
East Africa Sudan 112 Afonso et al. (2008) 72.50%
East Africa Ethiopia 270 Kivisild et al. (2004) 52.20%
North Africa Libya (Jews) 83 Behar et al. (2008) 3.60%
North Africa Tunisia (Jews) 37 Behar et al. (2008) 2.20%
North Africa Morocco (Jews) 149 Behar et al. (2008) 1.34%
North Africa Tunisia 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 48.40%
North Africa Tunisia (Takrouna) 33 Frigi et al. (2006) 3.03%
North Africa Tunisia (Zriba) 50 Turchi et al. (2009) 8.00%
North Africa Morocco 56 Turchi et al. (2009) 26.80%
North Africa Morocco (Berbers) 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 3.20%
North Africa Algeria (Mozabites) 85 Turchi et al. (2009) 12.90%
North Africa Algeria 47 Turchi et al. (2009) 20.70%
Europe Italy (Latium) 138 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Italy (Volterra) 114 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.60%
Europe Italy (Basilicata) 92 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.20%
Europe Italy (Sicily) 154 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.00%
Europe Spain 312 Alvarez et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Spain (Galicia) 92 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.30%
Europe Spain (North East) 118 Pereira et al. (2005) 2.54%
Europe Spain (Priego de Cordoba) 108 Casas et al. (2006) 8.30%
Europe Spain (Zamora) 214 Alvarez et al. (2010) 4.70%
Europe South Iberia 310 Casas et al. (2006) 7.40%
Europe Spain (Canaries) 300 Brehm et al. (2003) 6.60%
Europe Spain (Balearic Islands) 231 Picornell et al. (2005) 2.20%
Europe Portugal 594 Achilli et al. (2007) 6.90%
Europe Portugal 549 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.83%
Europe Portugal (North) 187 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.21%
Europe Portugal (Central) 239 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.02%
Europe Portugal (South) 123 Pereira et al. (2005) 11.38%
Europe Portugal (Madeira) 155 Brehm et al. (2003) 12.90%
Europe Portugal (Açores) 179 Brehm et al. (2003) 3.40%
Middle East Yemen 115 Kivisild et al. (2004) 45.70%
Middle East Yemen (Jews) 119 Behar et al. (2008) 16.81%
Middle East Bedouins (Israel) 58 Behar et al. (2008) 15.50%
Middle East Palestinians (Israel) 117 Achilli et al. (2007) 13.68%
Middle East Jordania 494 Achilli et al. (2007) 12.50%
Middle East Iraq 116 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.48%
Middle East Syria 328 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.15%
Middle East Saudi Arabia 120 Abu-Amero et al. (2007) 6.66%
Middle East Lebanon 176 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.84%
Middle East Druzes (Israel) 77 Behar et al. (2008) 2.60%
Middle East Kurds 82 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.44%
Middle East Turkey 340 Achilli et al. (2007) 1.76%
South America Colombia (Antioquia) 113 Bedoya et al. (2006) 8.00%
South America Mexico (North-Central) 223 Green et al. (2000) 4.50%
South America Argentina 246 Corach et al. (2009) 2.03%

Funerary Boat from Egypt Middle Kingdom 12th Dynasty

Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population …

Mtdna Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt.

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins .

Ancient Egyptian Origins


The ብጃ Beja The Egyptian (Ta-seti) ጥሰቲ Warriors known as the FuzZy Wuzzies/ Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty

Posted in anthrolpology, Beja, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Eritrea, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, Nomadic, North Africa, Sahara, Sudan, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻


Ta Seti Fuzzy Wuzzy Beja 2


በጃ Beja the Ta-Seti Archers



The  Beja በጃ (Ge’ez language:)(Arabic: البيجا‎) are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

The term Bejawi comes from Ta-Itjawypeople of Itjawy“.

Ta-Seti Neferet, the mother of Egyptian King Amenhemet I‘s was of a peoples from Upper Egypt known as Ta-Seti. He built a great city state called “Amenemhat-itj-tawy” (“Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands“), more simply called Itjtawy.

Amenemhat’s Ta-Seti army and conscripts came to be known Ta-Itj-tawy. In modern languages this is pronounced Bigawy, Bedjawi or Bejawi, Beja.

The Beja are found mostly in Sudan, but also in parts of Eritrea, and Egypt. They formerly were classified as belonging to the Hamitic race (a classification now generally regarded as scientifically incorrect).

Most of them live in the Sudanese states of Red Sea around Port Sudan, River Nile, Al Qadarif and Kassala, as well as in Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba Regions in Eritrea, and southeastern Egypt.

Other Beja ethnic groups are endemic to Egypt’s Western Desert and to Yemen. Some Beja groups are nomadic.


In Ancient Egyptian times, the Beja በጃ were known as Ta-Seti ታሰቲ

and were renowned for their skill as “archers in the Egyptian army”.

The Beja በጃ have also been named Blemmyesin Roman times,

ቡጋስ “Buga”s in  አፁሚተ Axumite inscriptions in Ge’ez,

and ፉዝዝይ ዉዝዝይ ”  “Fuzzy Wuzzyby Rudyard Kipling.

The Bejas attach a high importance to their “Hair”.  Their Prominent Crown of Fuzzy Hair”

(it is called tiffa in their language) and has characterized the Beja for centuries….

Ta-Seti Beja (fuzzy wuzzy)

(Bejas believe that they are the descendants of a female Lioness deity and her Hue-man consort…)

The Prophecy of Neferti is an Ancient Egyptian literary text, wriiten for

King SnoFru from the 4th Dynasty Old Kingdom:

“Then a King will come from the South,  Amen ye the Justified by name.

SoN of a Ta-seti Womb-man, child of Upper Egypt..

He will take the White Crown and He will wear the Red Crown, He will join the two Mighty Ones..

Rejoice O’ People of his time..

The Sun of wombMan, will make his name for all Eternity ! ..

Asiatic invaders will fall to his Sword..

Libyans will fall to his Flame..

Rebels to his wrath , Traitors to his Might !

As the serpent on his brow, subdue the rebels for him..

One will build the Walls -of- the- Ruler to Bar Asiatics from entering Egypt”..

Beja Young Man  ..  photo by Vit HassanThe Egyptian Beja groups are believed to be the descendants of

The Maahes Caste of High Priests of Amen and their Soldiers.

Ta-Seti (beja) WarriorsEgyptian- Priest-Kings ; Pinudjem, Psusennese and Masaharta are acknowledged as

The patriarchal ancestors of Egypt’s Western Desert Maahes by Egyptian Bejas.

Hereditary Chief Sheikh Beja Khawr al`allaqi is a descendant of one of Egypt’s oldest surviving lineages.

Egyptologist, Emile Brugsch traced the clan of the Khawr kiji through the matriarchal Female line to the 20th Dynasty.

The Khawr kiji claim their Ancestress Maternally was the Mother of an even “earlierDynasty.

Most Egyptian deities first appeared as very local cults and throughout their history retained those local centres of worship, with

most major cities and towns widely known as the home of these deities.

The Goddess Isis originally was an independent and popular deity established in predynastic times, prior to 3100 B.C.,

at Sebennytos in the Northern Delta’s Lower Egypt.

Beja worshiped the Goddess Isis“(Eye-Sis) at Philae until the 6th century. After the temple was closed down officially in the 6th century

A.DGoddess Isis, wall painting 1360 B.C.

Queen Tiye of the 20th Dynasty THE NEW KINGDOM..

Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty .. the New Kingdom,

Queen Tiye ( 1398 B.C.-1338 B.C.) also spelled ( Taia, Tiy and Tiyi)

She was the daughter of the Royal Family,  Yuya and his Wife Tjuyu @ Amarna..Family Royal Temple@ Amarna of Yuya and Thuya

Tiye became the Great Royal Wife of the Egpytian Pharaoh Amenhotep III and the matriarch of the “Amarna Family”.Amenhotep III

The Amarna Family’s lineage can be traced back to the Royal Family of Ancient egypt..Amenhotep III and Queen Tyie

Tiye’s Father, Yuya , was a wealthy landowner from a Southern Upper Egypt town of Akhmin.

There it is said that he served as a Priest and Superintendent of Oxen...

Tiye’s Mother, Thuya was involved in many Religious sects, as her many titles attested..

( singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min..)

These traits suggest that she was a member of the Royal Family..

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. he had been born of a secondary wife of his father

and needed a stronger bond to the Royal lineage...

Amenhotep III Head  Statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child perhaps between the ages of 6-12 yrs old.

Tiye and Amehotep had at least 6 children, out of the six, one went on to become Pharaoh, his name is Akhenaten.Amehotep IV aka Akhenaten

Tiye’s eldest daughter Sitamun, was said to have married her father Amenhotep III, and become entitled , the

Royal Great Wife , as well…

The Great Land of Mother Al’kebu-Lan.. (Africa)

The Mother Land

Map of Egypt/Sudan's Nubia Nation. year of 1910

Names for Ancient Nile Valley Egypt

as a source for population classifications…

The Ancient Egyptians called their land many things

including ta-meri ታመሪ and km.t. ከሚተ.

Also, They called Upper Egypt- ta-shemu ታ ስሀሙ , “the sedge”, and

Lower Egypt- ta-mehu ታ መሁ or “the papyrus thicket”.

One of the most popular names for Egypt in ancient Egyptian is km.t (ከሚት) (read “Kemet”), meaning “blacks”.

The word is composed of the noun km , which translates into “black”, and determinative t, which makes the word a plural.

The use of  ከሚት km.t “blacks” in terms of a place was generally in contrast to the “Desert” or “Red land”: the desert beyond the Nile valley.

When used to mean people, ከሚት km.t “people of  Kemet”, “black people” is usually translated “Egyptians”, some writers argue.

Debate has centered around whether the ‘kmt’ term is an ethnic, cultural, spiritual reference, or a combination of the three.

Some scholars suggest that the term refers to the ‘racial’ or ethnic characteristics of the people.

Still, other scholars disagree with this position, and hold that k.m.t refers to the color of the land, or soil, and not that of the people.

It is of note that terms meaning land, such as ta, orateb, are No where to be found in the name km.t Land,

However is found in other names, typically as ta, like in terms:

British East Africa Map of Ethiopia Tana land of the Ta Nahesi.jpg

Ta-Nahisi ታ ናሂሲ , and Ta-Seti ታ ሰቲ , which translate to

“land of the southerners”, and “land of the bow” respectively,

The latter a reference to the Nehesy or “Nubian” weapon of choice…

The Nile river was sometimes called “Ar” አር or “Aur” ዐኡር

(Coptic ‘laro‘).

The land itself may have been given its oldest name,

‘Kem’ ከም or Kemi’ ከሚ ..

which signifies darkness, based on the black color of the sediments from it….

Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

The Saga of Sepharda ሰፕሃርዳ .. by Debra Katz

Posted in African mtdna in Europeans, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Egypt MtDNA, Ethiopia, Europeans wit African mtDna, Indigenous people, L2a1, Levant, Saga of Sepharda, Semetic People, Semitic, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Sephardic-Hebrew Tombstone


by Debra Katz

Working Theory in Progress  of
 How Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews, Blacks and  Whites  the “Caribbean”, 
 Roma Gypsies, and

African Americans all Sprung from the Same Well !

~180,000 years ago

A woman [womb-man]  walked through Olduvai Gorge

(in present day East Africa Tanzania)

with her small tribe of fellow Homo Sapiens. Her people were destined to be the only species of hominids that would survive, but right now they’re not the only “people” by far…Neanderthals and Homo Erectus still dominate most of the planet.  But this lady is special because of all the women walking with her, she alone will be the direct maternal line ancestor of every person alive on the planet today.  You may have read about her…“Mitochondrial Eve” and her haplogroup designation is “L”.

~75,000 years ago

In the heart of Central Africa a baby girl is born into Eve’s tribe …she is just like her mom, except that one letter in her mtDNA mutated.

She didn’t know it, but she was the beginning of a new haplogroup branch—L2—that would become the most common haplogroup in Africa.  About this time a small band from another branch of “mtDNA mutants”L3—decided to seek better weather and food by bravely crossing the Gate of Tears off the horn of Africa. They entered the Arabian peninsula—-and from there, this band of 200 or less people would go on to populate the rest of the World.

But their story is not ours…for the L2 baby girl and her descendants all stay in Africa.

~ 55,000 years ago

Among an L2 tribe living in West/Central Africa, another baby girl is born with a new mtDNA mutation…making her the start of a new haplogroup branch L2a.

Her descendant daughters remain without much mtDNA change for over 50,000 years!

Over that time, some of her people start to migrate across Central Africa to the East area now called EThiOpiA.

Others of her people started heading North along the nile coast, settling in North Africa and EgYpt and even reached the Levant

(now Israel, Syria, Jordan, Turkey).

~2,500 years ago (500 BCE)

Somewhere in North Africa, EgYpt or the Levant, a baby girl is born with yet another mtDNA mutation…starting the haplogroup line known as L2a1.

Some of her tribes people intermarry with the newly forming Hebrew tribes in the Levant and become Hebrews/Jews.

~ 2,200 years ago  (~200 BCE)

It is among this group of African Jews that our common ancestress was born!  For fun I’m going to call her Sepharda Fulanivich—a name that hints at our group’s main strains.

Sepharda had no special mutation that would create a new haplogroup,

but she was unique in the way we are all unique…and special because all our maternal lines would lead back to her.

Given how many of us have similar eye color, Sepharda may well have had green/blue eyes. This trait would have been recessive in her daughter descendants, dominated by their brown-eyed mates.

but always ready to appear again if and when a blue-eyed spouse came along.

~1900 years ago (~100 CE)

One of Sepharda’s descendant daughters was part of a group of Jews who fled the Roman invasions of Judea and headed back into North Africa. They formed a tribe that came to be known as the Fulani.

As they migrated across North Africa, they first settled in the Morocco/Mauritania area and over the next few centuries slowly spread throughout West Africa, converting to Islam, but retaining both the appearance and some traditional memories of their Hebrew origin in the Levant. (Their DNA held the memory as well.)

At about this very same time—give or take 100 years or so!—another of Sepharda’s descendant daughters also fled Judea, heading with her family to Spain (Sepharad, in Hebrew).  They may have gone up through Italy first or directly to Spain…we can’t know as yet.

But one way or another, they became Sephardic Jews.

~600 years ago (~1400 CE)

For many centuries, Spain was a place where Jews/hebrews flourished, but things started deteriorating after the Moors left and the Pope’s intolerant minions came to power. Many Jews left the country, heading for France and then Bavaria (Germany), where they mingled with the Ashkenazi Jewish populations already living there.

One of Sepharda’s descendants was among them and she is the common ancestor of all the

Ashkenazi Jewsin our groupthe set of 13 families who match HVR1&2 exactly.

More on their story in a couple of centuries…(-:)

~300 years ago (~1700 CE)

This was a lousy time period for almost all of Sepharda’s descendants.

First we go back to West Africa and find that some of her Fulani daughters are among the ones being captured by the British and sent to the Caribbean and the new colonies in America. 

Indeed, because we know most of these enslaved daughters of Sepharda were sent to North Carolina originally, we can predict that their common ancestress lived when the trade to that area was peaking—1720 to 1760.

These daughters are the ancestors of almost all of our African-American matches.

Then, over in Spain, things had gone from bad to worse, with a complete expulsion of Jews in 1492.  As noted above, some fled into Europe.  Many more went farther south into the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire and North Africa. However—-drum roll—a fair number headed for the

British West Indies and by ~1650 CE there was a whole bunch of Sephardic Jews settled in Jamaica and the Bahamas.  In 1691 another “auto de fe” (more “burning of Jews”) in Toledo Spain sent another wave of Spanish Jews to Jamaica.

Many of these Jews came as “singles” and ended up intermarrying with the population from the British Isles that had settled there.  And among those migrating Spanish women were Sepharda’s daughters, many of whom married non-Jewish Brits and lost the memory of their Jewish past.

Their lines led to our West Indies matches.

And I believe it also explains some “not-Jewish white” folks who trace themselves back to the 17th century in Rhode Island and New Jersey

By ironic coincidence, Jamaica was also a drop for slave traders and it looks very possible that some of our Jamaican matches are from the African slave branch of our line rather than the Sephardic Jewish branch!

~250-400 years ago (1600-1750 CE)

Getting back to those Ashkenazi Jews, we can spell out their story a little more.

Some stayed in Germany …but as the centuries passed and German anti-Semitism increased, other descendant daughters started moving east into Poland and then south towards Romania (where the ancestors of some of us joined up with other Jewish Romas (gypsies)…

interestingly, a very recent study found what was to them a startling level of “L2a” haplotypes among Roma gypsies in Slovakia!

About 1700 or so, some of the Polish daughters migrated north, where some lines settled in Belarus and others went up farther into Lithuania and Latvia .


Back in West Africa, right now, some of Sepharda’s daughters are living and don’t even realize all of us cousins elsewhere in the world are thinking of them. That is also true no doubt in Spain…and all the other places our lines have passed through. Some women moved on, but not all of them.

And imagine if Sepharda could come back to life and meet each of us and realize that without her existence….none of us would be here.

That’s the power of one.

Updated October 2008

Sephardic Tombstones 2

Author’s Note: This working theory will soon be greatly enhanced by new information as nine of the descendants above (including slave descendants and Caribbeans) get their currently pending Full Genome Sequence results…

Sephardic Jews cutting stones in Jerusalem - Kurdish Jews.

Sephardic Jews cutting stones in Jerusalem – Kurdish Jews.

Updated info on L2a1 Saga of Sepharda  by Debra Katz on link below:  (SOURCE  FOUND  ONLINE >

The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry:

Portrait of a Recent Founder Event

{Doron M. Behar1, Ene Metspalu2, Toomas Kivisild2,}

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Stateless-ness Citizens/Refugees. People in Foreign or Native Countries with out Soveriegn Nationality.. Do “Stateless Citizens” have same rights as “Country Nationals” ?

Posted in afri asiatic, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Are you a U.S. citizen or a American National ?, Blood type O, Do you have a Nationality ?, Indigenous American, Indigenous people, Jus Soli and Jus Sanguinis, Native American, Nubians, O-positive blood with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Juanita Retro Native American Afro Mulatto Shot
The U.N. 1961 Convention on the Reduction of State-less-ness.. = Juanita (Mulatto Native American )

Juanita Mulatto Native American retro pic 1969 copy

11 Main Reasons to check your nationality or citizen status.. are you stateless/without a country of Origin ?

1. Renunciation of nationality (eg.  african-american , negroe or black/white /U.S. citizen see 14th Ammend..)

2. Deprivation of nationality (eg. for disloyalty, for treasonous acts, forobtaining nationality by fraud)

3. Membership of a group which is denied citizen status in the country on whose territory they are born (eg. Gypsies and Jews in Third Reich Germany (1934-1945))

4. Birth in disputed territories (eg. Israel occupied territory)

5. Birth in an area ruled by an entity whose independence is not internationally recognized (eg. Manchukuo 1932-1945)

6. Birth on territory over which no modern state claims sovereignty (eg. unclaimed region of Antarctica)

7. Statelessness creates problems forstates and disadvantages for those left stateless (eg. African-Americans), to wit:

Diminished civil rights in “comparison to the nationals of the states where they reside”.(eg. Egyptian-Americans)

(Note:  Africa is a Continent not a Country.. you must know your country of origin to claim your birth-right nationality…)

This may occur despite the ideals espoused in the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons

8.  A perception that stateless persons lack loyalty to their country of residence

9. Lack of ability to endow one’s children with a nationality

10. Inability to avail oneself of consular services when outside the country of habitual residence.

11.  No Home Country to which one is guaranteed the Automatic right of return.

Statelessness may frustrate deportation action where no state assumes

the responsibility to accept the person made subject to a criminal deportation..

Statelessness most commonly affects refugees although not all refugees are stateless, and not all stateless persons may be able to qualify as refugees. Refugee status entails the extra requirements that the refugee is outside their country of nationality (or country of habitual residence if stateless), and is deserving of asylum based upon a well-founded fear of persecution for categorized reasons which make him/her unwilling or unable to avail the protection of that countrySee refugee.

The Convention was originally intended as a Protocol to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees,

while the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was adopted to cover stateless persons who are not refugees and therefore not within the scope of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

Migrations forced from political instability during World War II and its immediate aftermath highlighted the international dimensions of problems presented by unprecedented volumes of displaced persons including those rendered effectively stateless.

Kisha Hampton

Dating from December 1948,

The “Universal Declaration of Human Rights“at Article  15  affirms that:

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

The Room of the United Nations General Assembly where Resolution was passed in 1949 which inspired the adoption of the

Convention Regarding the Status of Stateless Persons in 1954 and the completion of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness

At the Fourth United Nations General Assembly Session in October-December 1949, the International Law Commission included the topic “Nationality, including Statelessnessin its list of topics of international law provisionally selected for codification. At the behest of ECOSOC in its 11th Session soon after, that item was given priority.

The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees was done on 28 July 1951. It was originally desired to cover:

“refugees and stateless persons”, however agreement was not reached with respect to the latter

The International Law Commission at its fifth session in 1953 produced both a Draft Convention on the Elimination of Future Statelessness, and a Draft Convention on the Reduction of Future Statelessness. ECOSOC approved both drafts.

The 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was done in September 1954 (The Status Convention). This completed the unfinished work of the Refugee Convention three years prior.

On 4 December 1954 the UN General Assembly by Resolution adopted both drafts as the basis of its desire for a conference of plenipotentiaries and an eventual Convention.

Today, nationality law is based either on” jus soli or jus sanguinis”, or on a combination of the two.

Jus soli is the principle in which a child born in a country’s territorial jurisdiction acquires that country’s nationality.

(Ex: United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, France ).

Jus sanguinis, is the child’s right of Blood/Dna either from the Father or Mother. (inherited nationality/citizenship).

It is a social policy by which nationality or citizenship is not determined by “Place of Birth”, but your “Place of Ethnic origin”.

similarily by having an ancestor who is a national of  the country or citizen of the state.

It contrasts with jus soli (Latin for “right of soil”).

whereas,  jus sanguinis (Latin for “right of blood”).

Ayanna Bria ኣያንና ብሪአ the Ethiopian-Nubian

Global Internet Censorship Geo-Map

No censorship is in BLUE

Some censorship is in Gold

Under surveillance is in Red

Internet black holes is in Black (most heavily censored nations)

Internet censorship – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Internet Censorship | American Civil Liberties Union

Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ 


Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples… Who are the indigenous ?

Posted in Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Human Rights with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 26, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Nubian lil Girl and Elder copy

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly during its 62nd session at UN Headquarters in New York City on 13 September 2007.

While as a General Assembly Declaration it is not a legally binding instrument under international law,

according to a UN press release, it does “represent the dynamic development of international legal norms and it reflects the commitment of the UN’s member states to move in certain directions”; the UN describes it as setting “an important standard for the treatment of indigenous peoples that will undoubtedly be a significant tool towards eliminating human rights violations against the planet’s 370 million indigenous people,  and assisting them in combating discrimination and marginalisation.

The Declaration sets out the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and other issues.

It also “emphasizes the rights of indigenous peoples to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions, and to pursue their development in keeping with their own needs and aspirations”.

It “prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples”, and it “promotes their full and effective participation in all matters that concern them and their right to remain distinct and to pursue their own visions of economic and social development”

Nubian Village along Nile

The Declaration was over 22 years in the making. The idea originated in 1982 when the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) set up its Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP), established as a result of a study by Special Rapporteur José R. Martínez Cobo on the problem of discrimination faced by indigenous peoples.

Tasked with developing human rights standards that would protect indigenous peoples, in 1985 the Working Group began working on drafting the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The draft was finished in 1993 and was submitted to the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, which gave its approval the following year.

The Draft Declaration was then referred to the Commission on Human Rights, which established another Working Group to examine its terms. Over the following years this Working Group met on 11 occasions to examine and fine-tune the Draft Declaration and its provisions.

Progress was slow because of certain states’ concerns regarding some key provisions of the Declaration, such as

indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination and the control over natural resources existing on indigenous peoples’ traditional lands.

The final version of the Declaration was adopted on 29 June 2006 by the 47-member Human Rights Council (the successor body to the Commission on Human Rights), with 30 member states in favour, two against, 12 abstentions, and three absentees.

The Declaration was then referred to the General Assembly,

which voted on the adoption of the proposal on 13 September 2007 during its 61st regular session.

The vote was 143 countries in favour,  4 against, and 11 abstaining.

The four member states that voted against were:

Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the “United States”, each of which have

significant “indigenous populations”.

Nubian Woman

The abstaining countries were:

Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine;

another 34 member states were absent from the vote.

The U.S. mission also issued a floor document, “Observations of the United States with respect to

the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples”, setting out its objections to the Declaration. Most of these are based on the same points as the other three countries’ rejections but, in addition,

the United States drew attention to the Declaration’s failure to provide a clear definition of exactly whom

the term “indigenous peoples” is intended to cover.

Nubian Bride copy

Nubian Merchants

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