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Egypt mtDNA and the Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ Dna DiversitY.. The Maternal Hamito-Semitic.. mtDna Haplogroup L

Posted in anthrolpology, Blood type O, Cushitic, DNA, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, Indigenous mtDna (mother's) of Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, O-positive blood, Semitic with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻

Meritaten Tasherit 18th Dynasty


The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Diversity of 58 individuals from

Upper Egypt, more than half (34 individuals) from Gurna,

Whose population has an Ancient Cultural History, Were studied by sequencing The Control-Region and screening diagnostic RFLP markers.

This Sedentary Population:

(meaning= inhabiting the same location through out life, non nomadic)

Presented similarities to the Ethiopian Population by the

Haplogroups L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the

West Eurasian component (defined by Haplogroups H to K and T to X) and Particularly by a High frequency (17.6%) of AfriAsiatic Haplogroup M1.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from Upper Egypt (Gurna)sedentary population …

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna

(of modern Upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I  5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 4.9%, L2a1* 20%,

L3* 11.0%, M1  14.9%, N1b  8.8%, T 5.9%, U  8.8%, L2* 2.0%

U4  5.9%, U6 2.9%, L3e* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L1c* 1.0%

L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%, L3f*6.9%. L3d*1.0%.

Percentages above are based on mtdna frequencies of

Southern Upper Egypt/Nile Valley collectively..

Percentages below are based onmtdna frequency in

Northern Alexandria/Lower Egypt ( Saunier July 2008)..

The Breakdown is predominantly European 67.5% followed by African @ 20.6% and Asian @ 11.9%.

European: R0 and subgroups (31.4%), I (3.2%), J (7.6%), K (4.7%), T (9.4%), U (9.0%), W (0.7%) X (1.4%)

African Haplogroups: L0 (2.2%), L1 (2.5%),  L2 (3.6%) and L3 (12.3%)..

Asiatic Haplogroups: M (6.9%) and N (5.1%)


The Egyptian Population Data set has a Low Random Match Probability..

The Egyptian Population also shows a Large number of Unique Haplotypes,

Therefore indicating a High mtDna Diversity within the Country

Overall 238 different haplotypes were defined by 228 variable positions.

Of the 238 different Haplotypes, 31 were shared within the database of 277 individuals.

The Haplotype most common in this dataset was observed in five individuals

There were 17 points of Heteroplasmy identified in 15 individuals (5.4% of the database)

At 16 positions: One Sample indicated three positions of point heteroplasmy>

(16519, 73 and 195)…

Other remarks: Egypt is distinctive Bio-geographically, as it is centrally located,

Among three surrounding continents its home Africa, Asia and Europe..

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are Nilotic and Indigenous and are typically Supra and sub Saharan..

Haplogroup L2a (mtDNA) has notable frequencies of 22% among the

Hebrew Affiliated Fulani of Nile Valley to Niger to The Gambia

They are at least 70,000-111,100 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !!

L2a1 also has (49%) MtDna collectively in,

Sudan, Nile- Valley/Nubia, Ethiopia, and Egypt

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the Nile Valley Civilizations)……

Queen Ahmose Nefertari/ New Kingdom 19th Dynasty

L2a is also in the Great Rift Valley regions @

16% Kenya/Sudan and 33% in Mozambique.

Today, the term is most often used to refer to

The Valley of the East African Rift,

The divergent plate boundary which extends from

The Afar Triple Junction southward

Across Eastern Africa, and is in the process of splitting

The African Plate into two new separate plates.

Geologists generally refer to these incipient plates as

The Nubian and Somalian subplates or protoplates.

East African-Asiatic: Plate of Nubia/Somalia and ArabiaAs for haplogroups M1 and U, they are African/Westasian/Eurasian haplotypes, at 30,000 B.P.

Other West-asian/Eur-asian, Haplotypes have been found in 12,000 year old bones in Morocco.

Haplogroups N and I Mtdna are possibly attributable to Arab ancestry, about 15% non-Arab in upper Egypt. But still, most of that would easily be attributable to the Neolithic input from “AsiA” very little of this would be attributable to Arabs.

To sum up, there doesn’t seem to be majority ‘Arab’ genetic component to the Egyptian DNA pool, 20% absolute maximum. A lot of the non African DNA is traceable to the Neolithic farming expansion that swept across North Africa, so it would be a lot lower in reality.

In upper Egypt a maximum of 20% of the Y chromosomes are Non –African.

{MMother’s mtDNA L2a1 has been shown to be prevalent in North Africa }..

{Since the Dynastic times, of Ethiopian-Nubian and Egyptian Kingdoms} …..

Sesostris the Ist 12th Dynasty from Altes Museum inBerlin

So how these people are supposed to have Magically Changed appearance in the past few thousand

years with so little foreign input I’d like to know

Egyptians are Indigenous “African-Egyptian”, Not Euro/Arabs.. They are in essence “African-Arabs”.

They are part African/Asiatics: (Hamito-Semitic) and are members of

The Nile Valley  and the Great Rift Valley , which could be equally known as

The East African Rift , Nile Valley Civilizations…

(“Nile Valley, “North Africa”, “Horn of Africa” and “West Asian Arab Africans”.)

{copy and paste national geographic link on egyptian mummies and dna}

An important influence on the subsequent genetic landscape

Of the continent is likely to have been the LGM.

Paleovegetational studies have indicated that, between 30,000 and 11,000 years ago,

Much of the continent was extremely arid (Adams and Faure 1997).

The Sahara advanced hundreds of kilometers further south, and the Equatorial Rainforests

Were reduced to a small fraction of their present size, leaving open woodland and savanna in much of the Congo basin.

This may have formed a refuge area from which modern humans later dispersed:

Some with haplogroup L2a East and West, with L1b west;

Perhaps even some with L1a East and L1d Southward.

The origins of these expansions may lie earlier,

At the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ~40,000 years ago.

Queen Meryt-Amen the 19th Dynasty

The Valley of the Queens, is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. In ancient times, it was known as Ta-Set-Neferu, meaning –‘the place of the Children of the Pharaoh’, because along with the Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties (1550–1070 BCE) many princes and princesses were also buried with various members of the nobility. The tombs of these individuals were maintained by mortuary priests who performed daily rituals and provided offerings and prayers for the deceased nobility.

The distributions and ages of L1a, L1c/L3e, and L1d testify to the habitation of East, and Central, and southern Africa, respectively, by modern humans, ~40,000 years ago.

Similarly, L1b, L3b, and L3d imply that West Africa has been inhabited since at least 20,000–30,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L1b is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa

(particularly geographically adjacent areas, connected by the West African coastal pathway)

but little in East, southeastern, or southern Africa.

It is also common in so called African Americans

(~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

By contrast, the commoner haplogroup L3b (fig. 8c) is predominantly West African,

with a substantial representation again in today’s socalled African Americans.

It has also spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

And Its sister clade, Haplogroup L3d (fig. 9a), is also mainly West African and African American.

A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1), matching a Fulbe/Fulani lineage,

At considerable elevated Frequencies.

L3e (fig. 9b) is the most widespread, frequent, and ancient of the African L3 clades, comprising approximately one-third of all L3 types in sub-Saharan Africa.

This haplogroup has recently been dissected in some detail by Bandelt et al. (2001),

Who suggest an origin for the haplogroup in the Central Africa/Sudan region ~45,000 years ago.

As they recognized, L3e1 in particular is common amongst SouthEastern African Bantu speakers,

Along with some L3e2 and L3e3 lineages.

L3e also represents approximately one-third of all African mtDNA lineages in Brazil.

Alves-Silva et al. (2000)

Finally, there are two small sister clades, L3e3 and L3e4.

L3e3 is primarily West African,But with its root type present at elevated frequency in the

Southeast and with some southeastern African derivatives. There is also a Kenyan/Kikuyu derivative,

Again raising a possible connection with the Eastern stream.

L3e4 is present in East, Central, and West Africa, with One individual in the Southeast,

But is too rare to draw conclusions from.

The area occupied by Cameroon is not always considered as part of the geographic region known as West Africa.

Taking into account its haplogroup composition it could also be considered a genetic outsider.

There are numerous lineages

(L0a, L0a1a, L0a2, L2a1e, L4g, and L5)

that have a more CentralEastern than Western Assignation.

(Pereira et al. 2001Salas et al. 2002Kivisild et al. 2004).

The L4g haplogroupis most frequent in Eastern and

NorthEastern Africa and waspreviously Dated to ~40–45 kya

(Salas et al. 2002Go; Kivisildet al. 2004Go).

Haplogroup L4g (previously designated L3g) is present in both Eastern Tanzanian

Clickspeaking populations at high frequencies (60%Hadza, 48% Sandawe) but is Absent in the SAK.

History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDna …

The only L4 Saudi haplotype belongs to the L4a1 subclade defined by 16207T/C transversion.

Although it has no exact matches its most related types are found in Ethiopia [30].

Four L5 lineages have been found in Saudi Arabia but all have the same

Haplotype that belongs to the L5a1 subclade defined in the

HVSI region by the 1635516362 motif [30]. It has matches in Egypt and Ethiopia.

L6 was found the Most Abundant clade in Yemen [30].

BioMed Central |  Macro-Haplogroup L mtDNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula …


Haplogroup L2a is Nilotic and the most common and widely distributed sub- Saharan African Haplogroup and is also frequent in the Americas (~19%).

The wide distribution of L2a in Africa makes identifying geographical origins of lineages difficult.

(Excerpt from: The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade)

The Main Puzzle is the almost Ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a,

North Africa Tunisian Bay : Golfe de Tunisia Port Saïd { Carthage}Which we suggest may have become”Prevalent “somewhere in

North-Central Africa  { Prehistoric Central North Africa }

Spreading East and West along the Sahel, during the Last Glacial Period or some what earlier..

Example: Modern day Sahel, Tunisia near Libya and Algeria..

Note: The Jerba Islands of Tunisia/Carthage is located in South Eastern Tunisia,

Tunisia, is inhabited by four ethnic groups: Berbers, Arabs, sub-Saharans, and Jews/Hebrews.

(click link below for isolated Sub/Supra Saharan mtdna of jerba/tunisia)

Isolated Haplogroups of Jerba Island Tunisia: L1b, L2a1L2a1c1, L2d2, L3b, L3b1, L3e1a, L3f, M and U

The Island of Jerba/Tunisia is said to be Inhabited First, by the Descendants of  the Mousterian Population

Between the 5th and 6thMillienia B.C. (Tlatli, 1967), Who were later replaced by Berbers of  the Ketama

and Lemata tribes ( Khaldoun 1852).

The First Arab settlement on the Island Occurred in the 7th Century A.D.

Another study shows results also point to a less Ancient western sub-Saharan gene flow to Tunisia, including Haplogroups L2a and L3b.

This conclusion points to an Ancient African gene flow to Tunisia before 20,000 BP.

These findings parallel the more recent findings of both archaeology and linguistics on the prehistory of Africa.

The present work suggests that sub-Saharan contributions to North Africa have experienced several complex population processes after the occupation of the region by anatomically modern humans.

Our results reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued to evolve in  supra-Saharan Africa.

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33) “African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

Coding Regions and Haplogroups from Full Genome Sequence TEST:

1. L2a1e-3495 has (USA Origins)

2. L2a1a-3918 has (KENYA) and (USA Origins)

3. L2a1f-5581 has (SOUTH AFRICA),(BURKINA FASO), (OMAN), (DOMINICAN- REPUBLIC), and (USA) Origins

4. L2a1i-15229 has (GUINEA-BISSAU), (WEST AFRICAN), and (USA) Origins.

None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309″} L2a1 samples.


“Reconstructing Ancient L Mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe”

Mar ́ıa Cerezo,1,7 Alessandro Achilli,2 Anna Olivieri,3 Ugo A. Perego,3,4
Alberto Go ́mez-Carballa,1 Francesca Brisighelli,1,5 Hovirag Lancioni,2
Scott R. Woodward,4 Manuel Lo ́pez-Soto,6 A ́ngel Carracedo,1 Cristian Capelli,5 Antonio Torroni,3 and Antonio Salas1,7,8

A large proportion (65%) of the African-European mtDNAs investigated could be attributed to modern and well-documented demographic routes that existed during the Romanization period, the Arab conquest, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, there is strong evidence pointing to the fact that the remaining 35% of the African L-European mtDNAs stand as modern witnesses of sporadic population movements occurring between the two continents that might have begun as early as 11,000 yr ago (Fig. 5).

These contacts were not only restricted to North Africa, but connected Sub- Saharan regions to Europe directly via coastal routes or first crossing North African territories toward the Mediterranean Sea. 10,000 Years before Slavery, Arab Conquest or Roman period Outside of Africa.

Attention should also be brought to the L2a1 clads above who also have an Indigenous North American Origin i.e.. (Indigenous Native American) (USA Origins), although they carry an African Haplogroup. Some of these Haplogroups are only found in Europe or the Americas, and Not in Africa. These groups may also produce a Mulatto, Native American, or European Pheno-type (features such as Straight or Curly hair types and multitude of different complexions). Some of these particular Haplotypes has African and American Origins, but the Haplogroup is 100% African. (i.e.. North African, East African, South African, West African). This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transition @ np“16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)….


PCR amplification of (a) 27 selected NumtS in 4 healthy subjects from

Different ethnic groups ex..  L2a1-c1/16086C in (North Africa) Figure 2

Costa‘s link to mtDna diversity of Tunisia

Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian …

BioMed Central | Full text | The RHNumtS compilation:  North Africa L2a1c1…

Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers.pdf

Tunisia’s reproductive mtDna groups Isolates on Jerba Island.pdf

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] mtDNA sequences from Tunisian … and Morrocan Haplogroup L

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA  L2a and L3a Variation in Mauritania and Mali

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] New Egyptian mtDNA sequences

European Journal of Human Genetics – Table 1 for article: The Canary Islands and North Central/NW Africa…

Haplogroup L2a has frequencies of 14% among Algerian Arab/Berbers and

10% among Bilād al-Sūs Morrocan Arab/Berbers in

The Sousse Valley North Africa..

We recognize, however, that the origins of these haplogroups may be more ancient than we can trace

(L2, for example, may be well >70,000 years old )….. and that, in such cases,

evidence of the earlier distribution of these clusters may have been erased by subsequent demographic processe.

We have attempted partly to disentangle the structure of L2a, retaining as irreducible on present evidence three major squares close to the root of the cluster. These reticulations link eight main clusters by single-step mutations.

We assume that the main reticulations of the network are due to the existence of rapid transitions at positions 16189 and 16192

(Howell et al. 2000), which approach saturation due to the high time depth of African lineages.

We also assume that position 16309 is more stable than the two known fast sites and therefore is not responsible for the main reticulations.

On these grounds, clusters α1-α2-α3, as well as β1-β2-β3, might be collapsed into two main clusters,

One of them with the basal motif of “(L2a)” and the other harboring the transition at “16309″ (L2a1).

Several instances in which 16309 must nevertheless evolve in parallel can then be read off the network..

Full report link below on genetic mtdna migrations:

Haplogroup L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309 (Salas et al. 2002).

The most extensive pan-African haplotype

(16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the L2a1 haplogroup.

This sequence is also observed in West Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in

North Africa among the Maure, Hausa, Fulbe, Tuaregs , Hebrews and others; in

Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the

Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in

East Africa among the Kenyan/KikuyuClosely related variants are observed among

The Tuareg in North and West Africa and among the

East African Dinka of Sudan and Eastern Somalians. (Ely et. al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997).

Also striking is the presence in Sakai, Mani of  Thailand of an unequivocal representative

With this  motif (16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309)

Of the sub-Supra Saharan African L2a haplogroup (Torroni et al. 2001),

Which again is compatible with the physical characteristics of this Negrito group.

Although the suggestion that the first spreading out of Africa of modern humans could have carried

some L2 lineages in addition to the L3 ancestors (Watson et al. 1997)…

(Note: my thoughts are the Sakai, and  Mani people of Thailand who genetically belong to the

Motif: 16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309 could very well belong to L2a1 by 16309 as according to the updated

Haplogroup Phylotree 2010 by Van Mannis) ex: Coding region 12693, 15784, and HVS1: (16309) for L2a1.

A compliation 0f 185 mtDNAs sampled across North Africa showed that about Half of the

Lineages belonged to the L Haplogroups otherwised observed mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa

And  that most of the rest fell into Haplogroup U6 (Sala et al. 2002) Which perhaps Originated

In the Near East and Spread into North Africa ~30 thousand years (KY) ago (KYA) (Maca-Meyer et. al. 2003).

A proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages, in higher frequencies as geographic proximity to sub-Saharan Africa increases.

The distribution of the main L haplogroups in North Africa somewhat reflects the known trans-Saharan slave routes:

West is dominated by L1b, L2b, L2c, L2d, L3b and L3d;

the Center by L3e and some L3f and L3w;

the East by L0a, L3h, L3i, L3x and, in common with the Center, L3f and L3w;

while, the ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a is almost everywhere.

Another major contribution to the pool of North Afri- can populations was the sub-Saharan one.

It is known that a proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages

(designated as haplogroups L0-L6)

Japan mtDna Genome Variation in  Sakai Eastern Asia from Thailand…

Joshua Project – Sakai, Mani of Thailand Ethnic People

The mtDna of the  trans-Saharan slave trade


mtDNA phylo tree Build 10 (10 Aug 2010) | sub-haplogroup |Haplogroup L

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape Macro-Haplogroup L  PhyloTree and Ethnic Groups..

Comparison of Craniofacial features of African-Asiatic Human Groups.

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in  Prehistoric Egypt”

Click link for Origin Date of mtDna>{TB5}

L1b 30,550 (16,250) B.P.
L2a 55,150 (19,350) B.P.
L2a1 33,700 (13,400) B.P.
L2d 121,900 (34,200) B.P.
L3e 49,250 (11,750) B.P.
L3e1a 26,750 (12,000) B.P.
L3e1 32,150 (11,450) B.P.
L3b 21,600 (6,850)  B.P.
L1c2 44,100 (10,650) B.P.
L3d 30,250 (8,450) B.P.
L3f 36,300 (12,800) B.P.

University College London 2004. mtdna study..



According to the profile of West African Dna study, on

Nilotic – Haplogroup L2a

The Percentages clearly shows an clear Eastern Distribution:

Eastern Africa 82%,

Western African 69%,

North-West African 27%,

South Africans 3% Kung Khwe

As well as Cabo Verde Islands 20% and

Fulani people from East-West, Central and North Africa at 22%

Chart on pg.5 (click counter clock-wise to view)

Shows Sahara, Horn of Africa and Congo regions as Well as Krings 1999. Nile Valley mtdna% ....

Click Link below:

Egyptian Triad Statue. Menkaura The Goddess Hathor and Goddess BatNorth Africans tend to cluster with West Africans, suggesting that the sub-Saharan component of

North Africans Originates primarily from West rather than East Africa

(as expected, on geographical grounds).

Unlike other North Africans,Egyptians are closer to East Africans

than to West Africans. [Rando et al. 1999].)

PC2 has a large contribution from the Eastern lineage groups L3g and L3*;

However L2a, L1b1a, and L3e2* also make a similar contribution.

And though Egypt in the North as well, Egyptians tend to Genetically cluster with East Africans

mtDna Lineages of  Ethiopians, Egyptians and Hebrew Yemenis, Populations MDS plot (fig.3)

Clustered together with the Egyptian Population

In between the Near Eastern and West African as well as Southern African Clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic and Cushitic Speaking Populations of Ethiopia,

Were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

A recent study on mtDNA suggested that modern Nubians and Egyptians are much more similar to one another than either is to southern Sudanese populations and that the divergence between the two northern populations may have occurred during the past few hundred or few thousand years (Krings et al. 1999).

Forensic Misclassification of Ancient Nubia:

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NOTE: Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North-Central Africa with an  Origin Date of 55,150 B.P.

Would place L2a in the Upper Paleolithic era in North Africa beginning around 50,000 years before the present (ybp),

As well as the Mousterian Pluvial period circa 50,000 B.C. and  lasting 20,000 years, and finally ending around 30,000 ybp.

Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia or Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago

All the stone tools are very much alike and Unsophisticated.

However after 50,000 years ago there is “Sharp Increase” in the diversity of Artifacts.

For the First Time Bone Artifacts, and the First Art appear in the fossil record in Africa.

The First Evidence of Human Fishing is also noted from Artifacts in places like Blombos cave in South Africa.

After 50,000 years ago, Firstly in Africa, it was found that Human Artifacts could be placed into Many different categories,

such as {Projectile Points, Engraving Tools, Knife Blades, and Drilling and Piercing Tools}

All of the above are Found in (Al’kebu-lan) AFRICA...

Frequencies of  North West- East Asiatic Africans

(Haplogroup L, mtdna % chart)

Origin Population Number tested %
East Africa Somalia 26 Watson et al. (1997) 50.00%
East Africa Sudan 112 Afonso et al. (2008) 72.50%
East Africa Ethiopia 270 Kivisild et al. (2004) 52.20%
North Africa Libya (Jews) 83 Behar et al. (2008) 3.60%
North Africa Tunisia (Jews) 37 Behar et al. (2008) 2.20%
North Africa Morocco (Jews) 149 Behar et al. (2008) 1.34%
North Africa Tunisia 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 48.40%
North Africa Tunisia (Takrouna) 33 Frigi et al. (2006) 3.03%
North Africa Tunisia (Zriba) 50 Turchi et al. (2009) 8.00%
North Africa Morocco 56 Turchi et al. (2009) 26.80%
North Africa Morocco (Berbers) 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 3.20%
North Africa Algeria (Mozabites) 85 Turchi et al. (2009) 12.90%
North Africa Algeria 47 Turchi et al. (2009) 20.70%
Europe Italy (Latium) 138 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Italy (Volterra) 114 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.60%
Europe Italy (Basilicata) 92 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.20%
Europe Italy (Sicily) 154 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.00%
Europe Spain 312 Alvarez et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Spain (Galicia) 92 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.30%
Europe Spain (North East) 118 Pereira et al. (2005) 2.54%
Europe Spain (Priego de Cordoba) 108 Casas et al. (2006) 8.30%
Europe Spain (Zamora) 214 Alvarez et al. (2010) 4.70%
Europe South Iberia 310 Casas et al. (2006) 7.40%
Europe Spain (Canaries) 300 Brehm et al. (2003) 6.60%
Europe Spain (Balearic Islands) 231 Picornell et al. (2005) 2.20%
Europe Portugal 594 Achilli et al. (2007) 6.90%
Europe Portugal 549 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.83%
Europe Portugal (North) 187 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.21%
Europe Portugal (Central) 239 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.02%
Europe Portugal (South) 123 Pereira et al. (2005) 11.38%
Europe Portugal (Madeira) 155 Brehm et al. (2003) 12.90%
Europe Portugal (Açores) 179 Brehm et al. (2003) 3.40%
Middle East Yemen 115 Kivisild et al. (2004) 45.70%
Middle East Yemen (Jews) 119 Behar et al. (2008) 16.81%
Middle East Bedouins (Israel) 58 Behar et al. (2008) 15.50%
Middle East Palestinians (Israel) 117 Achilli et al. (2007) 13.68%
Middle East Jordania 494 Achilli et al. (2007) 12.50%
Middle East Iraq 116 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.48%
Middle East Syria 328 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.15%
Middle East Saudi Arabia 120 Abu-Amero et al. (2007) 6.66%
Middle East Lebanon 176 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.84%
Middle East Druzes (Israel) 77 Behar et al. (2008) 2.60%
Middle East Kurds 82 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.44%
Middle East Turkey 340 Achilli et al. (2007) 1.76%
South America Colombia (Antioquia) 113 Bedoya et al. (2006) 8.00%
South America Mexico (North-Central) 223 Green et al. (2000) 4.50%
South America Argentina 246 Corach et al. (2009) 2.03%

Funerary Boat from Egypt Middle Kingdom 12th Dynasty

Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population …

Mtdna Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt.

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins .

Ancient Egyptian Origins


The DNA Bill “S.1858” Nobody Noticed… So what’s your Dna Ethnic Origin ?

Posted in afri asiatic, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nubians with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻


Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom



The Bill Nobody Noticed: National DNA Databank

S.1858, known as The Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act of 2007, is justified as a “national contingency plan” in that it represents preparation for any sort of public health emergency. The bill states that the federal government should “continue to carry out, coordinate, and expand research in newborn screening” and “maintain a central clearinghouse of current information on newborn screening… ensuring that the clearinghouse is available on the Internet and is updated at least quarterly”. Sections of the bill also make it clear that DNA may be used in genetic experiments and tests. Read the full bill:…

Twila Brase, president of the Citizens’ Council on Health Care warns that this new law represents the beginning of nationwide genetic testing. Brase states that S.1858 and H.R. 3825, the House version of the bill, will:

• Establish a national list of genetic conditions for which newborns and children are to be tested.

• Establish protocols for the linking and sharing of genetic test results nationwide.

• Build surveillance systems for tracking the health status and health outcomes of individuals diagnosed at birth with a genetic defect or trait.

• Use the newborn screening program as an opportunity for government agencies to identify, list, and study “secondary conditions” of individuals and their families.

• Subject citizens to genetic research without their knowledge or consent.

Ayana Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

Read her entire analysis of the implications of this bill here :…

Brase states that under this bill, ”The DNA taken at birth from every citizen is essentially Owned by the Government”, and “Every Citizen born becomes a potential subject of Government-Sponsored Genetic Research. All 50 states are now routinely providing results of genetic screenings to the Department of Homeland Security and this bill will establish the legality of that practice plus include DNA.

Ron Paul has also vigorously argued against this bill making the following comments before the US House of Representatives:

I cannot support legislation…that exceeds the Constitutional limitations on federal power or in any way threatens the liberty of the American people. I must oppose it.

S. 1858 gives the federal bureaucracy the authority to develop a model newborn screening program. Madame Speaker, the federal government lacks both the constitutional authority and the competence to develop a newborn screening program adequate for a nation as large and diverse as the United States. …”

“Those of us in the medical profession should be particularly concerned about policies allowing government officials and state-favored interests to access our medical records without our consent …

My review of S. 1858 indicates the drafters of the legislation made no effort to ensure these newborn screening programs do not violate the privacy rights of parents and children, in fact, by directing federal bureaucrats to create a contingency plan for newborn screening in the event of a ‘public health’ disaster, this bill may lead to further erosions of medical privacy.

As recent history so eloquently illustrates, politicians are more than willing to take, and people are more than willing to cede, liberty during times of ‘emergency.”… Is a Amharic Ethiopian Name that means Beautiful Flower/Blossom

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The Kingdom of Kush ኩስህ/Cush ችስህ is thy Kingdom.. Nubian and Upper Egyptian Pharaohs.. and actor Will Smith set to play Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa..

Posted in Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egyptians Mixed African Race, Indigenous people, Nubians, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 27, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ🇺🇸🇸🇩🇨🇻



Nubian Boy and Camel

The Kingdom of Kush

Confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is

Now the Republic of Sudan. It was one of the earliest civilizations to develop in the Nile River Valley.

Having also been referred to as Nubia, and as Ethiopia in ancient Greek and Greco-Roman records,

The Kushites left their mark on various aspects of the Ancient World and their legacy is still readily discernible from the various archaeological field sites scattered through out modern Sudan.Temple of Taharqa @ Nubia

The first cultures arose in Sudan before the time of a unified Egypt. The earliest signs of which show a continuity in developing Nile valley cultures comes from the Khartoum Neolithic, where we see the beginnings of food production in the region. As these centers evolved, local societies began to amalgamate into confederations, depending on different strategies distinct from earlier semi-nomadic lifestyles.

One such polity, called the “A-group” emerged in lower Sudan around 3800 BC, and were contemporaneous with the pre-dynastic Naqada people of Upper Egypt, sharing an almost identical culture. After the demise of the A-group, archaeological evidence attesting to permanent settlements is scant.

The culture called the “C-group”, who founded the Kingdom of Kush began to appear consistently in Egyptian accounts and the archaeological record. It is through Egyptian, Hebrew, and Greco-Roman records that most of our knowledge of Kush comes.

The Egyptians took control of Kush in ca. 1520 BC, but their grip on the area would decline over the next 500 years, until the Kushites became independent.

The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the “Pan-grave culture”.

The Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt, especially Ammon and Isis. Curiously, during Egypt’s expansion into Kushite territory during the New Kingdom, upon discovering the site at Gebel-Barkal

The Egyptians believed they’d found the remnants of an Ancient Egyptian kingship and culture as well as the origin of Ammon and the Hedjet (or “white crown“)

In Ancient Egypt, Libyan princes had taken control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945 BC, founding the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty that would rule for some 200 years.

Sheshonq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. However, Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis, and Kushites threatened from the south.

Around 727 BC the Kushite king Piye invaded northward, seizing control of Thebes and eventually the DeltaHis dynasty,

The Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, continued until about 653 BC. The 25th dynasty was based at Napata, in what is now The Sudan. Alara is universally regarded as the founder of the 25th Kushite dynasty by his successors.

Nubian Pharaoah Taharqa collection statues

The power of the 25th Dynasty reached a climax under the

Pharaohs Piye and Taharka.

Pharaoh Taharka spent half his time as ruler of Egypt restoring its earlier cultural achievements while also fending off Assyrian power in the east. In 674, he defeated an invading Assyrian army under the leadership of Esarhaddon.

Three years later, he would be defeated in three battles that would force Kush out of Egypt altogether.

Why the Kushites chose to enter Egypt at this crucial point of foreign domination is subject to debate. Archaeologist Timmothy Kendall offers his own hypotheses, connecting it to a claim of legitimacy associated with Gebel Barkal.

Kendall cites the stele of Pharaoh Piye, which states that

Amun of Napata granted me to be ruler of every foreign country,” and “Amun in Thebes granted me to be ruler of the Black Land (Kemit)”.

Noteworthy is that according to Kendall,

“foreign lands” in this regard seems to include Lower Egypt while Kemit seems to refer to a United Upper Egypt and Nubia…

The name given this civilization comes from the Old Testament where Cush (Hebrew: כוש) was one of the sons of Ham (Genesis 10:6) who settled in NorthEast Africa.

In the Bible and at different times in the Ancient World, a large region covering Sudan, modern day Southern Egypt, and parts of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somaliland was known as “Cush”. Cush/Kush also referred to areas in “Asia”.

The Hebrew Bible refers to “Cush” on a number of occasions, though various English translations translate this as “Nubian”, “Ethiopia”, “Sudan”, and “Cushite” (Unseth 1999).

This is due to the fact that the Greeks referred to all dark skinned people as Cushites.

Moses‘ wife, Tzipporah, is described as a Kushite in the book of Numbers 12:1. Some contend that this Cush was in southern Arabia. See Biblical Cush for a full discussion. All of this is complicated by the fact that the Septuagint translated “Cush” as “Aethiopia“, leading to the misleading conclusion that “Cush/Kush” should be equated with the borders of present day “Ethiopia”.

Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa 25th Dynasty

Will Smith puts on Pharaoh Hat…


Randall White set to write Columbia Drama….


Will Smith

may next morph into a god.Pharaoh Taharqa and his Queen

“Braveheart” scribe Randall Wallace will write “The Last Pharaoh,” a Columbia drama crafted as a vehicle for Smith to play

Taharqa, the (Kushite- Nubian) pharaoh who battled Assyrian invaders in Ancient Egypt.

Smith, James Lassiter and Ken Stovitz will produce for Overbrook Entertainment.

Smith, who has long wanted to play the pharaoh, brought Wallace the “Taharqa story”.

The film will focus on his battles with Assyrian leader Esarhaddon starting in 677 B.C.

Smith next stars for Columbia in “Seven Pounds,” a reteam with “Pursuit of Happyness” director Gabriele Muccino that Overbrook produced with Escape Artists.

Wallace will next direct a Mike Rich-scripted Disney film about Triple Crown-winning racehorse Secretariat and its owner, Penny Chenery.

He also just signed on to a Jerry Bruckheimer-produced Disney adaptation of the WWII battle saga “Killing Rommel,” which Wallace will write with

author Steven Pressfield

What and Where is Nubia – nubianet

Will Smith’s Lesson for Jerusalem –

Black pharaoh trove uncovered in  Nubia-North Sudan

Will Smith: A Film about Blacks of Ethiopian Descent Ruled Nubia/Egypt..

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