Sahure ሽሁረ and the 5th Dynasty the Old Kingdom of Egypt/KMT ኽምጥ 2487-2474 B.C.


Egyptian Sahure from the 5th Dynasty @ the Metropolitan Museum

Sahu’re/Sa-hu-Rah was the Second King of ancient Egypt‘s 5th Dynasty.

Sahure’s birth name means “He who is Close to Re /Rah, his Horus name was Nebkhau,

It is believed he ruled Egypt from around 2487 BC to 2475 BC .

He was a son of Queen Neferhetepes, as shown in scenes from the causeway of Sahure’s Pyramid Complex in Abusir.

His father probably was Userkaf. He was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt ..Userkaf Founder of the 5th Dynasty

The First pharaoh to start the tradition of building Sun Temples at Abusir.

Userkaf’s name means “his Ka (or soul) is Powerful.” He ruled from 2465-2458 BC

And constructed the Pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara.

Sahure’s consort was Queen Neferetnebty. Reliefs show Sahure and Neferetanebty with their sons Ranefer and Netjerirenre.

He was succeeded by Neferirkare, the first king known to have used separate names.

Verner speculates that Prince Ranefer took the throne as Neferirkare and

Prince Netjerirenre may have later taken the throne as (Shepseskare)


T
he Turin King List gives him a reign of twelve years while the contemporary Palermo Stone

Annal preserves Years 2-3, 5-6 and the final year of Sahure’s reign.

The document notes six or seven cattle counts, which would indicate a reign of at least 12 full years if the Old Kingdom cattle count was

Held biannually (ie: every 2 years) as this Annal document implies for the early Fifth Dynasty.

If this assumption is correct and Sahure’s highest date was the Year after the 6th count rather than his 7th count as Wilkinson believes,

Then this date would mean that Sahure died in his 13th Year and should be given a reign of 13 Years 5 Months and 12 days.

This number would be only one year more than the Turin Canon’s 12 year figure for Sahure.

It is probable that Khentkaus I was the character of Redjedet in the Papyrus Westcar, who according to the magician Djedi,

Was destined to give birth to the “Children of Ra “and the First kings of the 5th Dynasty.

A scene in her tomb at Giza showing her with the royal uraeus and beard might indicate that she may have acted as a regent.Pyramid ruins Of Userkaf Founder of the 5th DynastySome had suggested Khentkaues I was a wife of Userkaf and mother of Sahure.

Evidence shows however that Sahure was the son of Userkaf and Neferhetepes. It is not clear exactly where Khentkaues I fits in.

Historical records and Egyptian art show that Sahure established an Ancient Egyptian Navy and sent a fleet to Punt and traded with cultures

In the Eastern Mediterranean.

His pyramid had colonnaded courts and relief sculptures which illustrated his Naval fleet and recorded his military career consisting

Mostly of campaigns against the Libyans in the western desert.

He is credited to have begun the cemetery complex at Saqqara and he also had a diorite quarry just west of Abu Simbel.

Egyptian Sahure 5th Dynasty Statue 2

Most foreign relations during the reign of Sahure were economic, rather than military.

In one scene in his pyramid, we find great ships with Egyptians and Representatives from the Middle East on Board.

It is believed they are returning from the port of Byblos in Lebanon with huge cedar trees.

For this, we have corroborating evidence in the form of his name on a piece of thin gold stamped to a chair,

As well as other Evidence of Fifth dynasty king’s cartouches found in Lebanon on Stone Vessels.

Other scenes in his temple depict what seem to be Syrian Bears.

We also have the First Documented Expedition to the land of Punt, which apparently yielded a quantity of Costly African myrrh,

Somali Commiphora Myrrha( resin-myrrh)Along with malachite and electrum, and because of this, Sahure is often credited with establishing an Egyptian navy.

There are also scenes of a raid into Libya which yielded various livestock and showed the King smiting the local chieftains.

The Palermo stone also corroborates some of these events and also mentions expeditions to the Sinai and to the Exotic land of Punt,

As well as to The diorite quarries northwest of Abu Simbel in Nubia.

The mainstream view is that Punt was located to the South-East of Egypt, most likely on the coast of the Horn of Africa.

However, this same scene of the Libyan attack was used two hundred years later in the

Mortuary temple of Pepi II and in a Kawa temple of Taharqa.

The same names are quoted for the local chieftain. Therefore, we become somewhat suspicious of the possibility that Sahure was also copying an even earlier representation of this scene.


ብልልይ ግምብለ

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sahure.htm

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2 Responses to “Sahure ሽሁረ and the 5th Dynasty the Old Kingdom of Egypt/KMT ኽምጥ 2487-2474 B.C.”

  1. Very nicely put together research.

    However, I was wondering about the Ancient Kerma civilization.

    I believe they are older than some of the ones you mentioned.

    Also, in regards to the movie Taharka with Will Smith,
    I think Denzel Washington, Blair Underwood, Don Cheadle, or Wesley Snipes would
    Do a better job for that type of performance.

    I like Will Smith he is a good actor for Certain Roles.

    However, since he is the money man I guess he is making all the major decisions.

    After all I guess if the Rock can play Scorpion King, Will could Ace, Taharka!!

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Kerma,
      Is a Nubian term which can be roughly translated as
      (“red mound“) was the Capital City of the Kingdom of Kerma, in present day Egypt and Sudan,

      An Archaeological site as old as 5,000 years. ‘Kerma’ is also used to describe the early Sudanese kingdom, of which Kerma was Capital.

      The pre-Kerma settlement yielded some of the earliest evidence for the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry in the world.

      The settlement has undoubtedly been a key factor in facilitating the spread of agriculture to the Near East and other parts of North Africa.

      Evidence indicates that in the Neolithic phase (from the sixth to the fourth millennia BC), a settled population in Kerma began practicing agriculture and Domesticating Animals.

      Archeological excavations in the settlement uncovered a large number of artifacts such as axes, flints, plates, pottery, and jewelry

      Sometime around 3000 BC, a considerably large town emerged at the center of the settlement.3

      The Settlement was, Undoubtedly, Highly Organized; Politically, Economically, and Socially.

      This was One of the First Black African Civilizations, commanding an empire that c.1600 BCE rivalled Egypt – stretching from the First to Fourth Cataracts

      The capital of Kerma was one of the first African urban centers, located in the Northern Dongola Reach of northern Sudan above the 3rd cataract of the Nile.

      Kerma was occupied between about 2500-1500 BC.

      The A-Group and Pre-Kerma Periods: 3500-2500 B.C

      These early Nubians were known as “A-group” culture by archeologists.

      However by 2800 B.C. lower Nubia fell under the control of Egypt, because of the Nubian Gold Mines located in the area. Because of the increasing aggression from Egypt,

      A United Nubian Kingdom emerged with its capitol at the city of Kerma by 2500 B.C.

      It was during the late “Old Kingdom” period of Egypt history that a nomadic tribe that lived in Nubian territory was first recruited by the Egyptians as mercenaries into the Egyptian Army and as a Desert Police force due to their Military Skills.

      References and links:

      Nubian Capital of the Kush Civilization
      http://archaeology.about.com/od/kterms/qt/kerma.htm

      Kerma Culture: 7500-1559 BC
      http://wysinger.homestead.com/chronologyofkerma.html

      A-Group and Pre-Kerma Periods: 3500-2500 B.C
      http://shazlyasmail.tripod.com/new_page_23.htm

      Early States and the A-Group ‘Proto-Kingdom
      http://www.ancientsudan.org/history_02_cultures.htm

      *****************************************************************************************

      As for Will Smith As Taharka, I am sure he Will step up to the plate and give his Overall Best!

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