Phylogenesis of African mitochondrial DNA lineages in European Slavs (slavic people).

In the present study,

we completely sequenced eight African haplotypes of mtDNAs revealed previously in 2018 individuals from Slavonic populations of Eastern and Central Europe by means of mtDNA control region sequencing and coding region RFLP analysis (Table 1).

All individuals with African variants of mtDNA identified themselves as ethnical Slavs (ie ‘indigenous’ Russians, Slovaks, Czechs or Poles) and were unaware of their African Ancestry until Molecular Genetic Studies.

Figure and tables index

Whole mitochondrial genomes were amplified and sequenced by means of the procedures described in Torroni et al.21 Sequencing reactions were run on Applied Biosystems 3130 Genetic Analyzer.

Sequences were edited and aligned by SeqScape v. 2.5 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA), and mutations were scored relative to the rCRS.20 The eight complete mtDNA sequences have been submitted to GenBank (accession numbers EU200759–66).

For comparative purposes, a large number of published African and Eurasian mtDNA HVS I sequences and any available HVS II or RFLP data were used (see references1, 18, 19, 22, 23). In addition, complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences pooled in MitoMap mtDNA tree24 were taken into analysis.

The complete mtDNA tree was reconstructed manually and verified by using median-joining algorithm with NETWORK

For phylogeny construction, the length variation in the poly-C stretches at nts 16180–16193 and 309315 were not used.

Haplogroup divergence estimates ρ and their standard errors were calculated as average number of substitutions in the mtDNA coding region from the ancestral sequence type.26, 27

To estimate the time to (tmrca) the most recent common ancestor of each cluster,

The evolutionary rate corresponding to 5140 years per substitution in the coding region was used.28

Haplogroup L1b lineage detected in Russian individual is characterized by the transition at position 16175 that is a

Marker of ‘Europeanspecific’ L1b-subcluster revealed also in Germany and medieval Spain (Table 1).

Comparison of its complete genome sequence with the data presented in MitoMap mtDNA tree24shows that

Russian sample belongs to L1b1a subcluster defined by mutations at positions 2768 and 5393 (Figure 1).

This subcluster is widespread in Africa being found in 22 individuals presented in MitoMap mtDNA tree.

A coalescence time estimate of subcluster L1b1a

(calculated from the average sequence divergence and its standard error according to Sailard et al27)

Corresponds to 8943±1400 years, suggesting a relatively recent (post-Neolithic or later) arrival of the L1b1a lineage into Europe.

Note, that it is only the approximate lower time boundary of the actual arrival of this mtDNA lineage.

Haplogroup L2a samples were found in three individuals, two of whom are Slovaks and one comes from the Czech Republic.

It is noteworthy that among them there is L2a branch defined by mutation at 16218 that is absent in published HVS I L2a data from Africa and Eurasia (Table 1).

Complete Genome Sequencing demonstrates that these two individuals are characterized by two coding region mutations

(at positions 6722 and 12903) and

Represent a branch that is absent among 50 individuals from the L2a macro haplo family collected together in

MitoMap mtDNA tree  (Figure 1).

A coalescence time of this branch is estimated as 10, 280±5140 years, though inferred only from two complete genomes.

Slovak L2a1 Haplotype characterized by transition at 16051 also seems to be very scarce.

This control region sequence type has been recently detected in different parts of Eurasia only twice – in France31 and in Eastern Iran.32

Based on coding region variation data and comparison with MitoMap tree,

This Haplotype L2a1c belongs to a specific subcluster defined by mutations at HVII positions 3010 and 6663.

Aforementioned subcluster seems to be ancient, with an estimated coalescence time of 24 ,672±3561 years for 10 mtDNA genomes analyzed.

Therefore, the present data do not allow us to infer exactly when the African mtDNA lineages were introduced into Gene Pool of

Eastern EuropeansBoth Prehistoric and more Recent gene flows...

(for instance, such as the potential Jewish L2a1 contribution42)

Might have led to African mtDNA admixture into Slavonic gene pools.


All individuals with African variants of mtDNA identified themselves as Ethnical Slavs

(ie ‘indigenous’ Russians, Slovaks, Czechs or Poles)

and were totally unaware of their

African Ancestry until molecular Genetic Studies.

Population (sample ID) HG HVS I sequence HVS II sequence Frequency and references
Russians (Tu_67) L1b 126 175 189 223 264 270 278 311 400 73 182 185GT 195 247 263 315iC 357 1/68311, 12, 13
Slovaks (Slv_222) L2a1 172 189 192 218 223 278 294 309 390 73 143 146 152 195 263 309iC 315iC 1/20716
Czechs (Cz_2972) L2a1 189 218 223 247 278 294 309 390 73 143 152 195 263 309iC 315iC 1/27915
Slovaks (Slv_191) L2a1 51 223 278 294 309 390 73 143 146 152 195 263 309iC 315iC 1/20716
Russians (Ka_69) L3b 124 223 278 294 362 59 73 152 217 263 315iC 1/68311, 12, 13
Poles (Pl_B_69) L3d 124 223 73 151 152 195 263 315iC 1/84912, 13
Russians (Vo_6) M1 129 182AC 183AC 189 249 311 73 195 263 309iC 315iC 2/68311, 12, 13
Russians (Vl_78) M1 183AC 189 249 311 73 195 263 315iC 1/68311, 12, 13 | tree | L

African admixture in Europe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Full figure and legend chart of African mtdna is Euro Slavic people(71K)

European Journal of Human Genetics – Reconstructing the phylogeny mtDNA report.doc …

Table 1 Chart- mtDNA control region seq. of  African-specific haplogroups detected in Slavs .


6 Responses to “Phylogenesis of African mitochondrial DNA lineages in European Slavs (slavic people).”

  1. ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

    Greetings ግረእቲንግስ to all….

    The phylogeny of AfricanAsiatic mtDna has done it again!!

    Recent studies carried out on the

    European Slavic Individuals in Addition to

    Matrilineal mtDna studies on

    Ashkenazi Hebrews both affirm and ultimately

    Conclude, that the Contemporary use of RACE is a complete illusory!

    Eight African genomes belonging to haplogroups L1b, L2a, L3b, L3d and

    M1 gathered from Russians, Czechs, Slovaks and Poles.

    Results of phylogeographic analysis suggest that at least part of the

    African mtDNA lineages found in Slavs (such as L1b, L3b1, L3d)

    Appears to be of West African Origin, testifying to an opportunity of their

    Occurrence as a result of migrations to Eastern Europe through Iberia.

    In the same vein, the Saharan Neolithic gene flow can be estimated as 13%,

    Taking the actual frequencies for the Sub-Saharan African haplogroups (51%) in

    Southern Northwest African samples

    (Tuareg, Saharans, and Mauritanians) as the

    Frequency of the African Neolithic, and that of the

    Iberian Peninsula (6.8%) as the

    Result of the putative Neolithic maternal gene flow.

    This value could rise to 23% when only

    south Portugal is taken into account.

    However, if we admit a recent 10% of slave trade input into this region, as

    Historically documented (Godinho, 1983), 13% would be

    left for the putative Saharan Neolithic gene flow.

    In addition, According to the leading science of

    Human Origins, known as the Out of Africa Theory,

    Anatomically modern humans first emerged in

    Africa 150,000200,000 years ago.

    All NonAfricans

    are descended from at least one group of humans who migrated

    Out of Africa into Western Asia

    50,00070,000 years ago.

    The first Modern Humans in

    Europe, the CroMagnon arrived from Western Asia

    Middle East (Lebanon) by 45,000 years ago and in

    Eastern Europe at the least by 40,000 years ago.

    Modern Humans of Spain entered the

    Iberian Peninsula more than 35,000 years ago.

  2. Barbara Kaplan Says:

    Hi Billy,

    I just found your website, having learned last week (from FTDNA) that my brother’s mtdna – and therefore mine – is L2a1.

    We are supposedly Ashkenazi Jews, but we’ve always suspected that somebody from Africa was in our lineaage.

    (We’re swarthy Mediterranean types with kinky hair, for whatever that’s worth.)

    In any event, I’m curious about Ethiopian Jews, who are supposedly the descendants of converts to Judaism and thus, to Orthodox Israeli rabbis, not quite “real” Jews.

    This may be true of their Y haplogroups, but if their mtdna is so frequently L2a1, and if about 2% of Ashkenazim are also L2a1, might that not be one of the original Jewish lineages?

    In other words, might not some of the Original Hebrew people be African and/or Ethiopian?

    And if so, wouldn’t the Falashas be as Jewish as any other member of the tribe?

    Thanks for your wonderful website.


    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Shalom, and Greetings Barbara thanks for your comment.

      To answer your question correctly, you wanted to know if Ethiopian Jews/Hebrews came from an Original Hebrew Lineage?

      You also mentioned, that you were curious about Ethiopian Jews, who are supposedly the descendants of converts to Judaism and thus, to Orthodox Israeli rabbis, not quite “real” Jews.

      Actually Falashas, are a Native Jewish/Hebrew sect of Ethiopia.
      Who trace their ancestry directly to Menelik, son of King Solomon of Israel and the Ethiopian Queen of Sheba.

      They are also said be descendants of Jews who fled Israel for Egypt after the destruction of the
      First Temple in 586 BCE and eventually settled in Ethiopia.

      (Excerpted from “Reunify Ethiopian Jewry,” World Union of Jewish Students)

      As early as the 16th century, Egypt’s Chief Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Avi Zimra (Radbaz)
      Unequivocally Declared that in Halachic (Jewish legal) issues, the Beta Israel were indeed Hebrew/Jews.

      And actually, Some Asiatic-Africans and Nilotic Africans are considered Hebrews as well.


      Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow Across and Around the Gate of Tears

      The (four ) major ethnic groups of Ethiopia today are the Tigrais, Amharas, Afar and Oromos.

      Oromos are one of the Cushitic-speaking groups of people living in East Africa.

      Cushitic speakers have inhabited parts of North-Eastern and Eastern Africa for as long as Recorded History.

      Together, they account for approximately three-quarters of the total national population.

      Amhara, Tigrais, and Gurages

      Speak Semetic languages and are considered to be descendants of Southern Arabians,

      Who trace their Ancestry back to the Ancient

      (Queen of Sheba/Makeda), Moses and King Solomon.

      The Hebrew language is a

      Semitic language of the African-Asiatic language family.

      Culturally Semitic Hebrew, it is considered a Jewish language.

      Hebrew in its modern form is spoken by more than seven million people in Israel while,

      Classical Hebrew has been used for prayer or study

      in Jewish communities around the world for over 2000 yrs.

      The Aramaic/Semitic translation of Hebrew is ‘Ib_ray based on

      Hebrew ‘Ib_ri ~ Understood to mean: One from the other-side of the River’..

      The Latin Hebrew translation was Hebraios used by the Late Greeks..

      The Old French language also used the translation Ebreu for Hebrew…

      Furthermore, the Ancient AxumitesGe’ez, the Ancient Semitic Language of Eritrea and

      E-thi-o-pia, is now known, Not to have derived from Sabaean,

      And there is Evidence of a Semitic speaking presence in Ancient E-thi-o-pia and

      Eritrea at least as Early as 2000 BC.

      (Approximately 4000 yrs old, this would be the era of the Egypt’s Middle Kingdom 2080 B.C. )

      Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity.
      Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, p. 57.

      Also since the land of Cush the son of Biblical Ham—is generally considered to be in the vicinity of the
      Ancient cities of Meroë and Napata, located in present-day Sudan/Nubia.

      Yet it should be stressed here that the split between the
      Cushitic and Semitic languages, branches of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic

      family, is ancient, probably predating the Holocene

      (see, e.g., Militarev [2003]).


      The Afro-Asiatic languages, which include SEMITIC languages such as ARABIC and HEBREW, are believed by Scholars to have Originated in ETHIOPIA.

      This is because the Region has very diverse language groups in close Geographic proximity, often considered a telltale sign for a linguistic Geographic Origin.


      We the Black Jews (1983) by
      (Dr. Yosef A.A. ben-Jochannan. volumes I & II)..

      Chronology of African-Asiatic Gods/Religions:


      Ptah/Ra’/Osiris Mysteries- 4100 BCE

      Yahweh/Jehova Judaism- 3760 BCE

      Jesus*(the Christ) Christianity- 1st Century C.E.

      Please understand the antiquity of African-Asiatic people who even pre-date Egyptian Culture 4100 BCE..

      People of The Nile Valley are also tied into Halfan Culture which is the PARENT CULTURE of all Civilizations

      The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

      One Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.

      The Halfan is seen as the Parent Culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across Africa’s Sahara and into Spain.

      Sometimes seen as a proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from

      “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

      The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on Specialized Hunting, Fishing, and Collecting techniques for Survival…

      The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

      The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other Cultures in the Region, including the Gemaian.

      Haplogroups L2a and L2a1 RMCA (recent most common ancestor)
      L2a~55,000 Y.B.P. / L2a1~33,700 Y.B.P. (years before present)

      [S. Keita, “Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis,” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

      Please have a look at my Blog of Ethiopians, Nubians, Egyptians, Hebrews as well others i will post a few.አክሱም-aksum-the-አፁሚተ-axumite-empire-of-ethiopiaeritreas-horn-of-africa/


      Ethiopian History

      (Kebra Negest): Queen of Sheba

      (Makeda) Queen of Sheba

      Wikipedia’s Queen of Sheba

      Falasha Hebrew/Jewish History

      History of Ethiopian Jews/Hebrews

      Origins of Hebrew Civilization is Afro-Asiatic

      Ethiopian Across the Gate of Tears: Mitochondrial Study of Ethiopians

      Thanks Again..

      Billy G

  3. Barbara Kaplan Says:

    Thanks, Billy.

    This is going to take me a while to absorb – and to brush up on my African history, of which I know way too little.

    (Interestingly, I live just two blocks from what is known as “Little Ethiopia” in Los Angeles.)

    Best wishes,

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Welcome back Barbara,

      There is a vast amount of literature on Ethiopians and the Hebrew affiliation..

      I will be updating my article with more information, as i am still researching on this subject matter..

      And yes, it is very interesting that you live in close proximity of Little Ethiopia, Los Angeles..

      The Jews of Ethiopia”), are the names of Jewish communities which lived in the area of Axumite and Ethiopian Empires (Habesh or Abyssinia), nowadays divided between Amhara and Tigray Regions.

      Ethiopia is one the Oldest continuous Independent Countries in Africa, with one of the longest recorded Histories in the World..

      Ethiopia has also seen human habitation for longer than almost anywhere else in the world, possibly being the location where modern Humans began.

      Ethiopia has often been mentioned in the Bible, as the Land that, the Second River flows out of, from Eden to the Water Garden.

      One example is in GIDEONS HOLY BIBLE:

      Genesis Chapter.2 vs. 10 & 13

      ( vs.10 And a river went out of “Eden” to the water garden and from thence it was parted. and became into four heads/parts.)

      ( vs.13 And the name of the second river is Gi’hon: the same is it that compasseth the Whole Land of E-thi-o’pi-a.)

      Another example of this is the story of the Ethiopian Eunuch as written in Acts, Chapter. 8 verse 26-27:

      “Then the Angel of the Lord said to Philip, Start out and go South to the road that leads down from Jerusalem to Gaza, which is Desert.

      “And he arose and went: And behold, a Man of E-thi-o’pi-a, and Eunuch of Great Authority under Can-da-ce
      Queen of E-thi-o’pi-ans, Who had the charge of all her Treasure, and had come to Jerusalem to Worship“.

      As well as this chapter from NUMBERS ch.12 Vs.1

      And Miriam and Aaron Spake against Moses because

      Of the E-thi-O’pi-an Woman whom he had Married:

      For he had Married an E-thi-O’pi-an Woman.

      There is also the Book of Amos: Chpt.9 Vs.7

      Are ye not, as Children of the E-thi-o’pians unto me,

      O‘ Children of Is-ra-el?

      Saith the Lord”

      Have not I brought up Israel, Out of the Land of Egypt ?

      And from the Philistines of Caph’tor and the Syrians from Kir ?

      And lastly there is I KINGS chpt.10 Vs.1 and 2

      Vs.1 { And when the Queen of She’ba heard of the Fame of

      Solomon Concerning the Name of the Lord, She came to prove him with Hard Questions}

      Vs.2 { And she came to Jeru’salem with a very Great Train, with

      Camels that bare Spices and Very Much Gold, and

      Precious stones: and when she was to come to Solomon,

      She Communed with Him of all that was in her Heart}

      The State of Sheba mentioned in the Old Testament is believed to have been in Ethiopia, but is sometimes placed in Yemen.

      The Axumite Kingdom is recorded once again as controlling part – if not all – of Yemen in the 6th century.

      According to the Ethiopian legend, best represented in the Kebra Negest, the Queen of Sheba was tricked by
      King Solomon into sleeping with him, Resulting in a child, named Ebn Melek (later Emperor Menelik I).

      The tradition that the Biblical Queen of Sheba was a ruler of Ethiopia who visited

      King Solomon in Jerusalem in Ancient Israel is Supported by the 1st century A.D. Jewish

      Historian Flavius Josephus, who identified Solomon’s visitor as a Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia.

      Please have a tour of my blog, and take your time to read through,
      as i always try to update this information as it comes available..

      Shalom Shalom,
      Billy Gambela

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: