Macro-Haplogroup L Family in “Yemen የመን / Oman ኦማን” Sabaeans, Habeshas of South West Asia.”


dark-colored-yemenis

Haplogroups L1,L2,L3A in the Near East reach their highest frequency in the Yemen Hadramawt (~35%).

Other Arab populations—Palestinians, Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, and Bedouin—have ~10%–15% of lineages of

sub-Saharan African Origin. These types are rarely shared between different Arab populations.

By contrast, non-Arab Near Eastern populations—Turks, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, and Georgians—have few or no such lineages, suggesting that gene flow from Africa has been specifically into Arab populations.

For comparison, southern European mtDNAs include only ~2% of these lineages, and northern Europeans <1% (Richards et al.2000).

The only European Region to stand out is Iberia, where ~4% of mtDNAs belong to these clusters, probably a trace of the

Medieval Moorish conquests

(Côrte-Real et al. 1996; Richards et al. 2000).

The most extensive pan-African haplotype (16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the L2a1 haplogroup.

This sequence is observed in West Africa among the MalinkeWolof, and others; in North Africa among the Maure/Moor

Tuareg in North Africa and West Africa and among the East African Dinka and Somali.

(Ely et. al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997)Moors – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The African Maure

Mauritania – Maures

HAPLOGROUP L2a

L2

There is also evidence from one sample (Semino et al. 1989) that in parts of Sicily, which was held by the Arabs between 8251091 a.d.

Haplogroup L1 and Haplogroup L2 amount to ~4%.

young-yemenis-boy Macro-Haplogroup L Familia

In

The Arabian Peninsula

Sub-Saharan Africa L lineages in Saudi Arabia account for 10% of the total. χ2 analyses showed that there is not significant regional differentiation in this Country. However, there is significant heterogeneity (p < 0.001) when all the Arabian Peninsula countries are compared. This is mainly due to the comparatively high frequency of sub-Saharan lineages in Yemen (38%) compared to Oman-Qatar (16%) and to Saudi Arabia-UAE (10%). Most probably, the higher frequencies shown in southern countries reflect their greater proximity to Africa, separated only by the Bab’al Mandab strait.Yemenis with Ak47 and Knife

However, when attending to the relative contribution of the different L haplogroups,

Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Yemen are highly similar for their L2 (36%), L3 (34%) and L0 (21%) frequencies whereas in

Oman and UAE the bulk of L lineages belongs to L3 (72%). In this enlarged sample of Saudi Arabs,

Representatives of all the recently defined East African haplogroups L4 , L5 , L6 and L7 , have been found.

The only L4 Saudi haplotype belongs to the L4a1 subclade defined by  (16207) T/C transversion. Although it has no exact matches its most related types are found in Ethiopia.

Four L5 lineages have been found in Saudi Arabia all have the same haplotype that belongs to L5a1 defined in the HVSI region by (16355 – 16362) motif.

It has matches in Egypt and Ethiopia. L6 was found the most abundant clade in Yemen . It has been now detected in Saudi Arabia but only once.

This Haplotype (16048-16223*-16224-16243-16278*16311) differs from all the previous L6 lineages by the presence of mutation (16243).

In addition it lacks the (16362) transition that is carried by all L6 lineages from Yemen but has the ancestral (16048) mutation only absent in one Yemeni lineage.

This Saudi type adds L6 variability to Arabia, because until now L6 was only represented by a very abundant and a rare haplotype in Yemen.

Attending to the most probable geographic origin of the sub-Saharan Africa lineages in Saudi Arabia, 33 (61%) have matches with East Africa, 7 (13%) with Central/West Africa whereas the rest 14 (26%) have not yet been found in Africa.

Some of them belong to haplogroups with Western Africa origin and the other half to Haplogroups with Eastern Africa adscription. It is also notable frequencies of Haplogroup L lineages reached the area as consequence of slave trade, but more ancient historic contacts with NorthEast Africa are also well documented.

The mtdna Of the Haplogroup L family remains indigenous in these Regions. (ex. 15o,000 b.p. to 70,ooo b.p. hap-grps Lo-L4)Yemins Elder with Afro Young Brothers

We compared the frequency of Haplogroups L1, L2, L3A in

Jewish Communities from the Near East with that in non-Jewish communities residing historically in the same area (table 1).

Near Eastern Jewish groups have smaller frequency of mtdna % in

Haplogroups L1, L2, L3A

(as, indeed, do Ashkenazi Jews [Thomas et al. 2002]).

The only exception is in Jews from Yemen, but, even here, these lineages amount only to a quarter of their frequency in the non-Jewish sample from the Hadramawt.

It is conceivable that Haplogroups L1, L2, L3A have been lost from the Jewish communities as a result of Genetic Drift

Although the independent loss of both L1 and L2 from all Jewish groups seems unlikely.

{However, L2a1a, as defined by a substitution at (np 16286)

(Salas et al. 2002), is now supported by a

Coding-region marker (np 3918) (fig. 2A) and was found in four of six Yemeni L2a1 lineages.

L2a1a occurs at its highest frequency in SouthEastern Africa

(Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

Both the frequent founder haplotype and derived lineages

(with 16092 mutation) found among

Yemenis have exact matches within Mozambique sequences

(Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps 16189 and 16309 (L2aβ2 [Salas et al.2002]),

and a minor portion, L2a1c, shares mutations at nps 16209, 16301, and 16354

(within cluster L2a α1 [Salas et al. 2002]).

The L2a1β2 HVS-I motif shows a pan-African spread (Salas et al. 2002).

Whereas the majority (26/33) of African American L2a complete sequences could be

partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps 3495, 3918, 5581, and 15229

(Torroni et al. 2001; Howell et al.2004),

None of these were observed in our Ethiopian L2a1 samples.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been

Observed in Sudan and in SouthEastern Africa (Salas et al. 2002).

Consistent with figure 7a of Salas et al. (2002),

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade,

Distinguished from West African lineages by a transition at np 16145.}

Several other lines of evidence also support recent Introgression – Hybridization

mtDNA lineages among Ethiopian, Egyptian, and Yemeni populations,

the MDS plot (fig. 3clustered them, together with Egyptians, in between

the Near Eastern and the West African and Southern African clusters

Consistent with that, the admixture analysis showed the Yemeni population as a

Hybrid of Predominantly Ethiopian and Near Eastern maternal Gene pools,

which provides no significant support for gene flow from Mozambique (table 2).

NOTE: Haplogroup L2a1 was found in 5 European Ashkenazi Jewish countries {Doron M. Behar1, Ene Metspalu2, Toomas Kivisild2,}

More than half of the Yemen L1, L2, L3A lineages occur at the tips of the mtDNA tree (cf. Salas et al. 2002),

Indicating that they have been generated by mutation relatively recently.

Furthermore, a majority of the L1, L2, L3A lineages in the Hadramawt—such as members of L2b, L2d, L3b, and L3d—trace back ultimately to West Africa,

So that it is likely that they were delivered to East Africa by the Bantu Dispersals.

{However, Supporting this suggestion, all of the L2a types in the Hadramawt

Occur at Elevated Frequency in the

Bantu Speakers of Mozambique.}

(Pereira et al. 2001; Salas et al. 2002).

Moreover, the chief L1a type in the Hadramawt also occurs at elevated frequency in

Bantu Speakers and is implicated in

The Bantu Dispersals, albeit having been picked up in East Africa en route.

(Salas et al. 2002). (Bantu languages)

Bantu Speakers are thought to have become first established to the East of the

Great Lakes region somewhat <2,000 years ago (Phillipson 1993).

Assuming that the sub-Saharan African input into Arabia is indeed directly from East Africa

(rather than including a component from west or southeastern Africa), as is most likely on historical and geographical grounds (Segal 2001),

This again limits the main spread into Arabia to within the last ~2,000 years.



Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Yemen and West Asia …

BioMed Central | Full text | Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula …

Eurasian And African mtDna in Saudi Arabian Population.text

Mitchondrial Sequences of Mali and Mauritania.pdf

Hadhramaut – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

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4 Responses to “Macro-Haplogroup L Family in “Yemen የመን / Oman ኦማን” Sabaeans, Habeshas of South West Asia.””

  1. NeferKemet Says:

    Salaam,

    According to this article, Is Yemen the founder for the L2a1a hapologroup/type?
    And, how do I find these lineages from Yemen?

    I need more help….

    Thank you.

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      This Article is showing the Connection of African-Asiatic mtdna in the Yemenis Population.

      The founder of your L2a1a is, Haplogroup L2a1, and her Founder is L2a which is prevalent in North Africa.

      There are two L2a clusters well represented in SouthEastern Africans,

      L2a1a and L2a1b, both defined by transitions at quite stable HVS-I positions.

      Both of these appear to have an Origin in West Africa or North West Africa.

      (as indicated by the Distribution of Matching or Neighboring types ex. The Maure, Bambara Yoruba etc..), and to has Undergone

      Dramatic Expansion either in South-Eastern Africa or in a population

      Ancestral to present-day South-Eastern Africans.

      The Very Recent Starburst Migrations within subclades L2a1a and L2a2 suggest a

      Signature for the Bantu Expansions, As also suggested by Pereira et al. (2001).

      This Particular Expansion is said to have begun After the Introduction of Agriculture,

      Which would indicate a date of ca . 30002500 BC for the Early Expansion within West Africa,

      Followed by first Eastwards and Southwards Migrations

      Beyond West Africa from about 1500 to 1000 BC.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantu_expansion

      [The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape]
      Antonio Salas,1,2,3 Martin Richards,2 Tomás De la Fe,1 María-Victoria Lareu,1 Beatriz Sobrino,1 Paula Sánchez-Diz,1 Vincent Macaulay,3 and Ángel Carracedo1

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC385086/

      So to precisely answer your question is Yemen the founder of L2a1a lineage, the answer is No.

      Your second question was, how do find lineages from Yemen?

      Which particular ethnic lineages of Yemen do you speak of?

      Ethnic Groups of Yemen:
      http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=YM

      I Cannot be absolutely certain, but my guess is more extensive research 🙂

      Here are a few ways, but again these are my suggestions, i cannot be certain for i am continuing my research as well..

      1. Join these scientific based community site and search their entire database for the lineages you seek.

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
      http://sciencedirect.com
      http://www.fsigenetics.com/

      2. Join a Yemen based community site and inquire about this particular lineage, just as you do here 🙂

      3. Read Books and other Gathered Material pertaining to the People, Lifestyle and Culture, Immigration and Genetic migrations.

      4. Keep a eye open for any upcoming data/reports, that comes readily available with new insights..

      (Beyond this point, its just more research) 🙂

      Thanks

  2. Felder Bolt Says:

    Excuse me Bileh, for my lack of knowledge in the subject.

    I ask why is so much stress and effort is put to show genetic proof true or false that the people who are rich in melinon, had no role in the building of civilization even to the point of screwing my brains by statments like, Dark skin Caucasoid.

    Help me understand how facts can over come falsehood..

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Felder,
      I completely understand your frustration.
      My Blog was created to obliterate all rhetorical, racist, and non-scientific untruths about African-Asiatic people.

      I have dealt with the origins of all ancient ethnic groups dealing with genetics, linguistics, customs, lifestyles and religions.

      Please check out my article and debate on Ethiopians, Egyptians, Nubians and Hebrews are all African who are genetically related..

      Thanks Again..

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