Afri-Asiatica Familia de Afrika-Ifriqiya* and West Asia (Nubian teens from pic / Aswan Egypt)


nubian-young-men-in-aswan-egypt1The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about

375 living language (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout

North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southwest Asia, and parts of the Sahel

(including some 300 million speakers) of (Arabic Dialects).

Afro-Asiatic also includes several ancient languages, such as

Ancient Egyptian, Biblical Hebrew, and Akkadian.

The term “Afroasiatic” was coined by Maurice Delafosse (1914). It did not come into general use until it was adopted by Joseph Greenberg

(1950) to replace the earlier term Hamito-Semitic, following his demonstration that Hamitic is not a valid language family.

The Hamitic family is located in Nile Valley’s Land of Ham, example. (Cush/ Nubia/ Egypt and West Asia).


afro-asiaticmap2

The name is now most often spelled “Afro-Asiatic”, though both spellings are in use. Some replace “Afro-Asiatic” with “Afrasian”.

I myself often utter plain “ol’ Asiatic !”

Though i sometimes prefer,  Afri-Asiatic-West Asian Individual scholars have called the family

Erythraean(Tucker 1966) and “Lisramic” (Hodge 1972).

The term “Hamito-Semitic” remains in use in the academic traditions of some European countries.

Afro-Asiatic is one of the four language families of Africa identified by

Joseph Greenberg in his book The Languages of Africa (1963).

It is the only one that extends outside of Africa, via the Semitic branch.

There are no generally accepted relations between Afro-Asiatics and any other language family.

Tunisia

The name  “AFRICA came into Western use through the Romans…   it is not the native name.

The “Original people of AfRICA” never referred to it by that name.

Africa/Egypt was called:

” Ta-Meri/ Ta-mery = ታመርይ,”…  “Kampt /Kemit/kmt = ክምት ,”… or  “Sais = ሳኢስ“… by  Ancient Asiatic inhabitants…

The Romans used the name Africa terra “land of the Afri” (plural, or “Afer” singular) — for the northern part of the continent,

“The North Africa Sahara” as the province of “Africa” with its capital “Carthage”, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia.

The origin of Afer may either come from:

Phoenician `afar, dust; 
-the Afri, a tribe—possibly Berber—who dwelt in North Africa in the Carthage area;

The Greek word aphrike, meaning without cold; 
-or The Latin word aprica, meaning sunny.

The Moorish historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the origin to the

Greek word phrike (φρικε, meaning “cold and horror”),

combined with the negating prefix a-, so meaning, a land free of cold and horror.

But the change of sound from ph to f in Greek is datable to about the first century,

so this cannot really be the origin of the name

Egypt was considered part of  “ASIA” by the “Ancients,” and first assigned to “Africa” by the geographer Ptolemy (85 – 165 AD)

, who accepted Alexandria as Prime Meridian and made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the “boundary” between Asia and Africa.

As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge.

Afri (singular, Afer) was the Latin name for an ancient people located on the shores of the

Southern Mediterranean Sea near the city of Carthage, nowadays Tunisia.

The first record of their existence was made during the Punic Wars (264-146 BC) between ancient Rome and Carthage.

The name may be connected with Phoenician `afar, dust (also found in other Semitic languages), or with Berber `ifri, cave.  Back in medieval historyIfri-qi-ya or Ifriqiyah (Arabicإفريقية‎) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western LibyaTunisia, and eastern Algeria. This area included what had been the Roman province called Africa, whose name it inherited. (North Africa)

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italy, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia. Its capital was Qayrawan (Kairouan) in central Tunisia.

The classical historian Flavius Josephus asserted that the region had been invaded by

Descendants of Abraham‘s grandson Epher, who gave it their name.Imhotep

Nubia_pyramids1

Phoenicians:

The name Africa has been connected with the Phoenician word afar, which means ”dust.” It has also has been connected to two Phoenician terms friqi or pharika, which means “land of corn or fruit.” It has also been hypothesized that Africa may have derived from a Phoenician root faraqa or faraq, meaning “separation or diaspora.”

Romans:
The Romans have been given credit for popularizing the name Africa in the West. They used the name Africa terra meaning “land of the Afri” (or singular version “Afer”) for the northern part of the continent. Its capital was Carthage, which is modern-day Tunisia.
The story told by some historians is that the Romans got the term from the Carthaginians, as a native term for their country. The Latin suffix “-ica” can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar).
Another theory is that the continent was named after the Roman general “Scicipio Africanus,” but his name meant “Sicipio of Africa,” which would mean the general was named for being from Africa.
Some say the term is drawn from the Latin adjective aprica (sunny).

Greeks:
The historian Leo Africanus (1495-1554) attributed the origin of “Africa” to the Greek word aprikē or aphrike. Phrike means cold and horror, when combined with the negating prefix a-, it means a land free of cold and horror.

Jewish:
The 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that Africa was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham, according to the Bible’s Genesis 25:4, whose descendants invaded Libya. The Hebrew name for the continent, Auphirah is supposedly written as Ophir in many Jewish records.

Arabic:
Some have attributed the name to the later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya (sunny place) in modern-day Tunisia. However, the Arab version is considered by most historians to be a derivative of the Latin version.

Hindi:
Another theory is that the word might stem from Sanskrit and Hindi in which the root Apara or Africa denotes that which, in geographical terms, “comes after” or to the west — in which case Africa is the western continent.

Yemeni:

Some have postulated that it is the name of a Yemenite chief named Africus who invaded North Africa in the second millennium B.C. and founded a town called Afrikyah.

Berber:
A number of historians believe the Romans got the name from a corruption of what the Berbers called the region in which they lived. The theory asserts that “Africa” stems from the Berber ifri (plural ifran), the word for “cave,” in reference to cave dwellers. The same word is found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran (also known as Ifrane) in northwestern Libya.

Egyptian:
A few historians argue that the word “Africa” is indigenous to the continent, and the idea that the Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Hindus or any Caucasoid group created the name Africa is absolutely inaccurate.
This theory asserts that Romans and Greeks began using the term only after coming in contact with African people, such as the Greek conquest of Egypt and the Roman conquest of North Africa and Egypt.
The term “Afru-ika” means “birthplace” or “Motherland,” according to historian Ivan Van Sertima. Af-rui-ka means “to turn toward the opening of the Ka, womb or birthplace.”
Another hypothesis is that the name of the 4th dynasty pharaoh, Kh-afre, reveals that an early Egyptian king had the name “Africa.” It’s believed by some that because modern Egyptologists and others often mix the order of the hieroglyphs that the ancients wrote Kh-afre is supposedly written as Afre-Kh or Africa.

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8 Responses to “Afri-Asiatica Familia de Afrika-Ifriqiya* and West Asia (Nubian teens from pic / Aswan Egypt)”

  1. Doug Smith Says:

    Hello Bileh,

    Very Informative Blog !!

    Ychromosomes results are M78/ V13 i have tested 67 markers and SNP tested.

    Do you have any Idea on when or how the V13 Descendants of M78 got to Albania?

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Hi Doug ! thanks for stopping by.

      From what i gather, from studies I read on M78/ V13.

      ( M78/V13) Within Europe, E-V13 is especially common in the

      Balkans and some parts of Italy.

      In different studies,

      particularly high frequencies have been observed in Kosovar Albanians (45.6%) (Peričic et al. (2005)),

      Albanian speakers in the Republic of Macedonia (34.4%) (Battaglia et al. (2008)), and Peloponnesian Greeks (47%)

      M78 originated in North East Africa, with a corridor for bidirectional migrations between
      the Trans-Meditteranean Migrations directly from Northeast Africa to Europe and Asia minor

      (mainly in the last 13.0 ky), as well as a flow from Northeast Africa to Western Asia (between 20.0 and 6.8 ky ago.)

      A single clade within E-M78 (E-V13) highlights a range of migrations in the Bronze Age of southeastern Europe.

      (below you will find the link to the genetic study).

      I would also like to ask, where are you located

      What Country/City ?

      Did you test for mtDna as well, and

      if so your assigned haplogroup ?

      What Dna company did you use ?

      http://dirkschweitzer.net/E3b-papers/MolecularBiologyandEvolution-07-24-6-1300.pdf

  2. Hi Bileh,

    I am Abdul and I have my Mother’s mtDNA More info:

    Haplogroup – L0a1

    HVR1 differences from CRS
    16129A
    16148T
    16168T
    16172C
    16187T
    16188G
    16189C
    16223T
    16230G
    16311C
    16320T

    HVR2 differences from CRS
    93G
    185A
    189G
    236C
    247A
    263G
    315.1C
    522-
    523-

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Abdul,

      Thanks for stopping by and sharing your results..

      Your Haplogroup Loa1 has East African Origin as well as migrations in East Africa, North Africa and SouthEast Africa..

      Haplogroup L0a1 is found at 4% among Cushitic Speakers and 6% among the Amhara Ethiopians, it has frequencies of 4% among the Tigrais and 5% among the Ethiopian population. It can be seen at 3% with Yemenis and 10% of Mozambique population,

      Three Ethiopian samples showed neither L0a1- nor L0a2-defining mutations and thus remain unclassified at the L0a level.

      One of them even lacked the 16188 transversion characteristic of L0a but shared both its defining coding-region mutation at np 12720 and the 16148 mutation in HVS-I. Control-region sequences of the L0f type have been found so far at marginal frequencies only in East Africa, with the highest incidence (3/12) among the Iraqw population of Tanzania (Watson et al. 1997; Knight et al. 2003).

      The phylogeny of the L0 clade in Ethiopians lends further credence to the idea that East Africa is the most likely source of Haplogroup L0a variation (Salas et al. 2002).

      In addition to my findings your Haplogroup Loa1 can be found among
      the Egyptian Population of Lower Egypt Alexandria

      In a study on the Population of Brazil, also yields the following ethnics groups related to your

      Haplogroup Loa1:

      Mbundu, Cabinda, Santiago, Bakaka, Bassa, Daba, Ewondo, Fali, Kotoko, Mafa, Podokwo,

      Tupuri, Uldeme, Afar-Ethiopians, Amhara-Ethiopians, Tigrai-Ethiopia-Eritrea, Balanta,

      Beafada from Guinea Bissau, Bijagó, Djola, Fula Preto, Mancanha, Mandinga, Mansonca,

      Nalu, Papel, Nairob, Turkana, Sena, Tswa, Forros, Mandenka, Limba, Loko, Temne, Nubians

      REFERENCES:

      Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking GenFlow:
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1182106/

      Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population sample
      http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1872497308001361

      mtDNA Variation in the South African Kung Their Genetic RelationshipsAfrican Populations
      http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002929707601633

      HVS-I sequences and coding-regions from São Paulo, Brazil:
      http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/miscArchiv/000/106/059/Suppl_Table.pdf

      MtDna Profile of West Guineans: Senegambia Regions:
      http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers/MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

      mtDNA sequences of Chadic-speaking populations from northern Cameroon
      suggest their affinities with eastern Africa:
      http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03014460412331287182

      Mitochondrial control region sequences from a U.S. “Hispanic” population sample
      http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1872497307003808

      Mitochondrial control region sequences from an African American population sample
      http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1872497309000805

      PhyloTree.org – mtDNA subtree L Van Oven M, Kayser M. 2009.
      http://www.phylotree.org/tree/subtree_L.htm

      May i ask what country are you located ?
      Which company did you use to administer this test, and have you taken a FGS Test as well?

  3. MY FATHER’S DNA E1b1a:

    Thanks Bileh,
    Before i answer your questions, please review my father’s DNA:PANEL 1 (1-12)
    Locus
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    DYS#
    393
    390
    19*
    391
    385a
    385b
    426
    388
    439
    389-1
    392
    389-2
    Alleles
    13
    21
    15
    10
    16
    18
    11
    12
    13
    13
    10
    31
    PANEL 2 (13-25)
    Locus
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    DYS#
    458
    459a
    459b
    455
    454
    447
    437
    448
    449
    464a**
    464b**
    464c**
    464d**
    Alleles
    17
    8
    9
    11
    11
    24
    14
    21
    29
    13
    15
    16
    17
    PANEL 3 (26-37)
    Locus
    26
    27
    28
    29
    30
    31
    32
    33
    34
    35
    36
    37
    DYS#
    460
    GATA H4
    YCA II a
    YCA II b
    456
    607
    576
    570
    CDY a
    CDY b
    442
    438
    Alleles
    10
    11
    19
    19
    15
    14
    15
    21
    32
    34
    11
    11
    PANEL 4 (38 – 47)
    Locus
    38
    39
    40
    41
    42
    43
    44
    45
    46
    47
    DYS#
    531
    578
    395S1a
    395S1b
    590
    537
    641
    472
    406S1
    511
    Alleles
    10
    8
    16
    16
    8
    10
    10
    8
    10
    9
    PANEL 4 (48 – 60)
    Locus
    48
    49
    50
    51
    52
    53
    54
    55
    56
    57
    58
    59
    60
    DYS#
    425
    413a
    413b
    557
    594
    436
    490
    534
    450
    444
    481
    520
    446
    Alleles
    12
    20
    22
    18
    11
    12
    13
    13
    7
    11
    28
    21
    13
    PANEL 4 (61 – 67)
    Locus
    61
    62
    63
    64
    65
    66
    67
    DYS#
    617
    568
    487
    572
    640
    492
    565
    Alleles
    12
    12
    15
    9
    11
    11
    11
    *Also known as DYS 394

    **On 5/19/2003, these values were adjusted down by 1 point because of a change in Lab nomenclature.

    ***A value of “0” for any marker indicates that the lab reported a null value or no result for this marker. All cases of this nature are retested multiple times by the lab to confirm their accuracy. Mutations causing null values are infrequent, but are passed on to offspring just like other mutations, so related male lineages such as a father and son would likely share any null values.

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Back, and Congratulations on your results.

      You belong to Haplogroup E1b1a also known as M2

      M2 can be found in 80% in Western Africa and 203% in Eastern Africa, but is also found in North Africa @ 28%

      This group is also found in South Africa and West Asia’s Middle East and Parts of Europe and Mediterranean.

      Wikipedia has the Origin of M2 as West Africa, But my finding shows a clear Eastern or North African Origin.

      (I will try to update this information to wikipedia, in the near future)

      The Distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by

      The ‘‘Bantu migrations (which occurred 3000-2500 B.C),’’ ?
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantu_expansion

      But their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers Cannot be explained in this way…

      Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

      Who went on to people the Nile Valley in The mid-Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988).

      Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

      The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

      One Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.

      M2- Date of Origin~ (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

      This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

      Progenitors

      of “Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

      They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

      Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

      The Halfan is seen as the Parent Culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

      E1b1a/M2 has an Origin Date of 20,00030,000 B.P.

      This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

      Which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are “No Bantu speakers there either.”

      Egyptian Y-chromosome frequency of E1b1a/M2:

      Y-chromosome (IV) E-M2 is Diversified with

      (1.2% Lower Egypt, (27.3%) Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

      ***************************************************************************************************************

      This Haplogroup E1b1a/M2 is also in North Africa and the Levant:

      Mauritania 8.0%, Algeria 8.5%, Libya 7.9% Supra Sahara Composite 4.4%

      Lebanon 3.7% , Iraq 1.4% and Palestine 1.4%, Oriental Jews 1.8% and Sephardic Hebrews 8.4%

      Haplogroup E1b1a has been found in 7.6% of a sample of Saudi Arabian population..

      NOTE:

      M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

      Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-ians… Garners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution…

      A deep clade test will give u a definitive haplogroup after the 67 marker test, however there are not many publications at this time, that has studies on these newly named subclades…

      There are 34 subclades that you could belong to under E1b1a
      http://thegeneticatlas.com/E-tree.htm

      More Citations:
      http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf
      http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-7-
      http://www.iijg.org/Documents/AVOTAYNU_XXIII_2.pdf
      http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/10/59
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1a_(Y-DNA)
      Haplogroup E1b1a Melungeon/Mulatto by FTDNA
      http://www.familytreedna.com/public/coremelungeon/default.aspx?section=yresults
      P.S.
      (please check article above for more information on E1b1a)

  4. Thank you Bileh,

    My testing was from “african DNA”. I hope these findings make us DNA cousins.
    I enjoy your professional efforts to make all of us more human.
    Again…

    I thank you and I hope to keep your blogs as a future reference.
    Hopefully you may have live forum sessions in the USA.

    By the way…
    I was born in North Carolina on Native American Land.
    I am from the Howard/Butler clan. I have a file container on E1b1a in Europe, and Asia.

    Abdul

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      You are most welcome Abdul!

      My paternal side of the Family is from Robeson County North Carolina, and we also share E1b1a/M2.
      There are 34 subclades under this group, we all are definitely related genetically through the E1b1a Family..

      Please continue to check out my blog for updates..

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