Egyptians, E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Nubians and Hebrews are the Same Ethnic People: NILE VALLEY: North Africa / Sahara / Horn of Africa and West Asia..



This is the Ancient Nuzi Map of Eden, which supports the existence of the African Eden.

Link To Photo Of Original Clay Tablet

The Nuzi Map – made of clay may have been made 120 years before The Flood of Noah or possibly closer to Creation.

Cocoa "Nubia" Baby

nubian-girl-with-henna-tatoos

The Nuzi Map portrays the main city within Eden/Aad as being South of the cited mid-point. That is, on the Nuzi Map the city of Aid appears to be perhaps as far south as the Dahlak Archipelago to the Northeast of Asmara, Eritrea (Ethiopia) or nearer the Sudan/Eritrean border or even further to the North perhaps nearer the Suakin Archipelago and Port Sudan.   It is very probable that ruins of Eden will be found throughout this entire area.”Land of Ham and Shem MapThe Nuzi map proves the existence of the 4 rivers chronicled in the “Holy Bible”.

Those 4 rivers traverse around the entire country of Ethiopia/HaBashan. Eden is located in Ethiopia.

The term for Eden was Aden/Adin/Aad – which also means: To give pleasures, has the same prime root word as Eden or Adan, to be soft pleasant or voluptuous land.  Basically, this was the best place in the whole world to live flourish and be fruitful.

Egypt-Ethiopia/Kush-Nubia-Sudan was some of the places where man walked with GOD in the cool of the day ‘Where the Son of God’ met with man-kind. It would be the same place where, people would return after the Deluge – they would return to their nativityAfrika.

NOTE: When the word Ethiopia is used it referred to ALL of AFRICA and not just the current location.  Africa, Ethiopia, Egypt, Nubia are different words for the same people!

We now see that the Fertile Crescent was connected to the other Fertile Crescent in the Nile Valley and along the Nile River that traversed through the center of Africa and beginning in what is now call Uganda.

Where they from the same source?

Do you really believe that people never traveled UP and DOWN thewhole Nile in all the thousands of years man has lived on this Earth-planet?

And since they did, some people stayed where they traveled and mini-civilizations flourished.

The locale where the Biblical Adam and Eve, otherwise known as the

The Adamite Unit: (the Wombman and the Hue-Man) was probably born is now

Sudan/Ethiopia/Kenya at the Breast of the East African continent.

The Egyptians has identified this region as the (Mouth of the Nile) were the “Original” people resided.

Tekeze River ተከዘ ሪቨር of Eritrea/EthiopiaThe Tekeze River on the Nuzi map is not shown on many modern maps, flows into the Atbara River, which is one of the three main tributaries of the Nile River.   And, it appears that the Tekeze River is the river that is clearly shown on the ancient Nuzi Map and is very close to Aad/Eden.

The Tekeze River begins in modern Ethiopia on the Ethiopian/Eritrean border, traverses West-northwest through Ethiopia and Eritrea, and then flows into the Atbara as it enters the Sudan.

The Atbara then flows northwest through Sudan until it meets the Nile at the town of Atbarah, Sudan.

Nubia's Atbarah River of the Nile.jpgThis city of Atbarah is located on the Southeast corner of the big bend of the Nile (i.e. South of the 5th cataract or waterfall).

Remember Indigenous peoples “never” used the phrase CATARACT that was a European invention to divide the Family of Africa.

Thus, the Nuzi Map reveals that the Edenic City of Aad is in very close proximity to the Tekeze River,

Which begins due South of the Dahlak Archipelago (Ethiopia). Therefore, Eden is in Africa near the “East or Horn of Africa”.

(Excerpted from an internet site) “Ekowa©

African Presence In Early Asia, Edited by Runoko Rashidi & Ivan Van Sertima

African Origins Of Civilization, by Cheikh Anta Diop


The (four ) major ethnic groups of Ethiopia today are

The Tigrais, Amharas, Afar and Oromos.

Together, they account for approximately three-quarters of the total national population.

Amhara, Tigrais, and Gurages

Speak semetic languages and Are considered to be descendants of Southern Arabian Conquerors,

who trace their Ancestry back to Ancient (Queen of  Sheba,Moses and King Solomon.

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba Ethiopian- Afro Queen of Sheba : Makeda ማከዳ

(click link to see Ethiopian/Yemenis mtDna breakdown)…

articlerender.fcgi &  mtdna TB1

Whereas Tigrais still live in the area of the Ancient Aksum kingdom, the Amharas and Gurages have expanded inland.

The Semitic-speaking Axumites, or Habash sometimes Amharic~ Abesha, አበሻ `ābešā; (Abyssinians), had their capital city, Aksum,

In the western part of the province of Tigray.

During the first 6 centuries (1a.d.- 6a.d) they controlled territories North to Upper Egypt, east to the Gulf of Aden and

Southern Arabia, south to the Omo River, and west to the Cushite Kingdom of Meroë  (Munro-Hay 1991).

Because Amharas have largely taken the role of the political and cultural elite in the country,

Amhara Ethiopian Boy

There is a process of “Amharization,” which can be understood, at least partly, as a matter of prestige and

which leads to the cultural assimilation of other minority populations.

Afar Ethiopians Girls

The Oromos and the Hamer People as well as the Afars speak Omotic or Cushitic languages and are purported to have connectionsto

Ancient Egyptians, Ethiopian women from Hamer tribe

Since the land of Cush—the son of Biblical Ham—is generally considered to be in the vicinity of the Ancient cities of Meroë and

Napata, located in present-day Sudan.

Yet it should be stressed here that the split between the Cushitic and Semitic languages, branches of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic

family, is ancient, probably predating the Holocene

(see, e.g., Militarev [2003]).

Ethiopian Boy

The linguistic reconstructions of Semitic vocabulary, related to farming and agriculture, have supported the theory that the

origin of Semitic languages is in the Near East (Diakonoff 1988; Militarev 2003).

On the other hand, the finding of all major branches of the Afro-Asiatic language tree in Africa/Ethiopia,

Including those that are not spoken elsewhere in the world, suggests that the homeland of the Afro-Asiatic

language family may have been somewhere close to Africa’s southwestern Ethiopia (Ehret 1995).

However, both cultural and historic evidence show tight connections between East Africa and the Semitic cultural substrate in

the Near East and southern Arabia, Which points to four distinct phases of Semitic cultural intrusion into Ethiopia:

Falasha Ethiopians

First, related to the Sabaens in the 1st millennium b.c.;

Second, as the arrival of Falasha Jews from southern Arabia in the first 2 centuries a.d.;

Third, during the 4th–6th centuries, when Syrian missionaries brought,

Christianity to Aksumites/Axumites አፁሚተand to their descendants,

The Tigrais ቲግራኢስ and the Amharas አምሃራስ :

And fourth, because of the influence of Muslim Arabs, which primarily affected

The southeastern parts of the country..

(Levine 1974).Falasha ፋላስሃ  Ethiopians from Gondar ጎንዳር 2006The ethnonym “Ethi-op-ians”—the people with the “burnt face”—was coined by the Greeks, although it may originally have been applied

to the Nubians, who were (also) part of the Cushite/Kushite kingdoms.

(Harris 1971)

{A total of 168 different mtDNA Haplotypes} were observed in

270 Ethiopians and Eritreans, and 72 Haplotypes were recovered in 115 Yemeni samples

(fig. 2; tablesA1A6 [online only]).

Approximately one-half of both Ethiopian (52.2%) and Yemeni (45.7%)

mtDNA lineages belonged to the L clades specific to sub-Saharan Africa (fig. 2A;table 1),

Whereas the other half was divided between derived subclades of haplogroups M and N (fig. 2B; table 1) that are,

With the exception of M1 and U6 lineages, more common outside Africa.

Consistent with the coexistence of Sub/SupraSaharan African and Eurasian

mtDNA lineages of “Ethiopian, Egyptian, and Yemeni” populations, the MDS plot (fig. 3) ClusteredTogether with Egyptians,

In between the Near Eastern and the West African and southern African clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic- and Cushitic-speaking populations of Ethiopia

were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

(P>.05) in FSTdistances between themselves (table A7).

Virgin Mary and angels on mural in Abreha and Atsbeha church

Ethiopian Painting 2005 by Sean McClean

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century BC)

Early Painting of African Jesus (Yeshua) from Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt (6th century BC)

(Eth-ic) -definition: a set of moral principles, esp. ones relating

to or affirming a “specified group” , field or form of conduct.

(-Opia) Origin Greek- meaning: Ops, Op, Eye , Face ....

African-Hebrew Jesus (Yeshua)* and Disciples (circa) 300 A.D.

Ancient Man and his Civilizations African Hebrews?

Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow across the Gate of Tears..

Extensive Female-Mediated mtdna Gene Flow from Nilotic Sub-Saharan Africa into Yemen

Ethiopian Y-Chromosome and mtdna Polymorphism. PDF (929 K)

Kebra Nagast – The Queen of Sheba and Her Only Son Menyelek

https://www.care.org/careswork/countryprofiles/56.asp

The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora..

NORTH-EAST AFRICA

The African Origin of Eden. Jonh G.Jackson. 1933

African presence in Ancient World and Nile Valley  By Runoko Rashidi

People of Ethiopia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Garden of Eden – Tribes of Atlantis

Abreha wa Atsbeha church | Pictures and Paintings

http:Abraha  references.html

Egypt, Ethiopia – Sudan, Abyssinia, the Freemasonic Orientalist ?

Abyssinia

Nubia – Crystalinks

http://hearts-4-hope.org

Zagwe dynasty

The History of Ethiopian Jews

Halakha Matrilineal Hebrew Birthright

Halakha Female Hebrew Inheritence

African-Asiatic- Hebrew  Black Sabbath Roots …

Falasha (Ethiopian) Jewish History

African Jews – Wikipedia

Black Hebrew Israelites – Wikipedia

Judeo-Christian History of the Nile Valley

Queen of Sheba (960 B.C.)

Queen of Sheba

Ethiopian Treasures – Queen of Sheba, Aksumite Kingdom – Aksum

Ancient History Sourcebook: Accounts of Meröe, Kush, and Axum

Jews and Judaism from Africans in the African diaspora – Wikipedia

Rastafari religious movement

The Origin of Hebrew Civilization is Afroasiatic – ColorQ’s Bible …

Will-Smith-film-about-the-last-of-the-Nubian-Dynasty-when-Blacks-of-Ethiopian-Descent-ran-Egypt

Halle Salassie

Reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation’s history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate.

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67 Responses to “Egyptians, E-thi-o’-pi-ans, Nubians and Hebrews are the Same Ethnic People: NILE VALLEY: North Africa / Sahara / Horn of Africa and West Asia..”

  1. Zarahan Says:

    VEry interesting blog !

    One of the 4 rivers that flowed out of Eden

    was Gihon which encompassed the whole land of Ethiopia,

    according to Genesis. Do you have any data on this ? ?

    • Billy Gambela Says:

      Try looking at a Gideons Holy Bible: Genesis Chapter.2 vs 10-13

      ( vs.10 And a river went out of “Eden” to the water garden and from thence it was parted. and became into four heads/parts.)

      (vs. 11 the name of the first is Pi’son: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Hav’i-lah, where there is Gold.

      “Havilah” (literally meaning “stretch of sand”) is the name of various lands and/or people mentioned in the Bible.

      I believe that Havilah could be part of the modern day

      {eastern “stretch of sand” sahel regions}…

      Sudan-Nubia/ and Sahel (Eritrea) and (aksum/axumite regions)…

      {In Ancient hieroglyphics the word “Nubia” means Land of Gold}

      “Hav’i-lah where there is Gold” in Ancient Kush’s Land of Ham…

      (vs.12 And the the Gold of that Land is Good: there is Bdellium and the Onyx Stone)..

      {Bdellium is an “Aromatic” gum like Myrrh that is exuded from Trees}

      (used for incense, as well as to embalm the dead in Ancient Egyptian times..),

      {These “Particular Trees” are also “Native” to the Horn of Africa} (commiphora myrrha)

      {Onyx was used/traded in Egypt as early as the 2nd Dynasty From

      Nubia/Ethiopia to make bowls and other pottery items.}

      (vs.13 And the name of the second river is Gi’hon: the same is it that compasseth the Whole Land of

      E-thi-o’pi-a.)

      NOTE: The Afro-Asiatic languages, which include SEMITIC languages such as ARABIC and HEBREW, are believed by Scholars to have Originated in ETHIOPIA.

      This is because the Region has very diverse language groups in close Geographic proximity, often considered a telltale sign for a linguistic Geographic Origin.

      Billy Gambela
      ብልልይ ። ግምብለ

      • Anne Fitchett Says:

        Hi Billy,

        Can you please e-mail me the references of

        Scholarly articles about Ethiopia being the

        Origin of Semitic languages.

        Thanks
        Anne

      • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Please be Advised... All Citations on mtDna and
        Semitic languages are in Report Above.

        All of the references pertaining to the

        Ethiopian Semitic Origin are in the Article above.

        Click on the (date in blue) next to the Names of Scholars to view the Full Study. .

        Click on the( orange link) @ the bottom of Study to View Ethiopian MtDna Report...

        These are the Doctors names below:

        (Ehret 1995).
        (Diakonoff 1988; Militarev 2003).

        ብልልይ።ግምብለ

  2. mercerd Says:

    Very interesting material !

    where do you find such topics ?

    Great Stuff !

  3. My research led me to this page, and it confirms what I found.

    What such wonderful energy that has been returned to me.

    Truly exciting! Hotep !

    • ቢልልይ ጋምበላ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep ሆትፕ and Shalom ስሃሎም
      Yes…. it’s that Energy ! … Positve Energy is the Truth..

      How fortunate, for us to cross paths, Searching for the Truth !

      ( JOHN ch.8 vs.32)-

      { And “ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you” free” }

      I Appreciate your comments !

      Thanks for stopping by ….

      Billy Gambela
      ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

  4. I’m confused.

    Hyperbole aside, you’re saying that the Garden of Eden story was set in Ethiopia

    The modern Ethiopia?

    When the Bible pretty clearly makes it out to be in Mesopotamia?

    So how did the story get from one place to the other?

    And How would things like Cain going “East of Eden” work out if it was in Ethiopia?

    East of Ethiopia is simply the Indian Ocean...

    I’m not trying to be sarcastic, I want to understand your theory.

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep ! = ሆተፕ , Shalom ! = ስሃሎም and Greetings ግረእቲንግስ,

      Thanks for your inquiry,

      I overstand why you may be perplexed, as to my Interpretation.

      I will do my best to describe this, using the following areas of Research:

      1.Modern Genetics

      2.Linguistics and Culture

      3.Biblical Accounts

      4.Geography and Hydrology

      5.Botany~note: (is a branch of biology and is the scientific study of plant life and development.)

      My Conclusions:

      1. MODERN GENETICS, has already proven that Civilization the

      Homo Sapien Sapien has its Origin in East Africa going back 188,000 ybp.

      Genetics also shows thats the mtdna thats associated with populating

      Southwest Asia (the Middle East) took place around 80,000 ybp.

      These are the mtdna Haplogroups their place of Origin and Origin Date:

      ጥhe Mitochondrial Eve L0 and her descendants:

      L0 has a East African origin and is 112,000-188,000 B.P.

      L1* has a East African origin and is 107,6000-174,300 B.P.

      L2 has a East African origin and is 87,000-111,100 B.P.

      L3 has a East African origin and is 84,000-104,000 B.P.

      2.LINGUISTICS and CULTURE:

      The linguistic reconstructions of Semitic vocabulary,

      related to Farming and Agriculture,

      have supported the theory that the origin of

      Semitic languages is in the Near East (Diakonoff 1988; Militarev 2003).

      On the other hand, the finding of All major Branches

      of the Afro-Asiatic language tree in Africa/Ethiopia,

      Including those that are not spoken elsewhere in the world,

      Strongly suggests that the Homeland of the Afro-AsiaticLanguage Family

      may have been somewhere close to Africa’s southwestern Ethiopia (Ehret 1995).

      Hebrew language is is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

      Culturally Semitic Hebrew, it is considered a Jewish language.

      Hebrew in its modern form is spoken by more than seven million people in Israel while,

      Classical Hebrew has been used for prayer or study

      in Jewish communities around the world for over 2000 yrs.

      The Aramaic/Semitic translation of Hebrew is ‘Ib_ray based on

      Hebrew ‘Ib_ri ~ Understood to mean:

      One from the other-side of the River’..

      The Latin Hebrew translation was Hebraios used by the Late Greeks..

      The Old French language also used the translation Ebreu for Hebrew...

      Furthermore, Ge’ez, the Ancient Semitic Language of Eritrea and

      E-thi-o-pia, is now known, Not to have derived from Sabaean,

      And there is Evidence of a Semitic speaking presence in Ancient E-thi-o-pia and

      Eritrea at least as Early as 2000 BC.

      (Approximately 4000 yrs old, this would be the era of the Egypt’s Middle Kingdom 2080 B.C. )

      Source:
      Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity.
      Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, p. 57.

      3.BIBLE ACCOUNTS:

      According to Bible Scholars the first 4 books in Genesis

      Pertaining to the Founding of the Hebrew Nation are as follows:

      1.Genesis- Founding of the Hebrew Nation, 2. Exodus- the Covenant with the Hebrew Nation.

      3. Leviticus- Laws of the Hebrew Nation. 4. Numbers- Journey to the Promise Land.

      NOTE: E-thi-opia is mention in the Bible~Genesis Chpt.2 Vs.10-14 describes the 4 Locations.

      BIBLICAL HYDROLOGY OF EDEN:

      Vs.10 And a River went out of Eden to the Water Garden; and from thence it was parted into four heads/parts.

      {ጥhe First River Out of the Water Garden of Eden is Pi’son from Ha-vi-Lah}

      {ጥhe Second River Out of the Water Garden of Eden is Gi’hon from Eጥhiopia}

      Vs.11. Pi’son Land of Havilah, Vs.13. Gi’hon of Eጥhiopia,

      Vs.14 Hid’de-kel: that is it which goes toward the east of Assyria, and the 4th river is Eu-phra’tes,

      (Note: Vs.14 describes the Mesopotamia location of the Tigris River and the Euphrates going out of Eden, Northerly

      Then Easterly towards Assyria- Iraq/Mesopotamia)..

      This Northerly route has the same route as the 3 rivers in todays East Africa, which are

      The White Nile-Uganda/Sudan, The Blue Nile-Ethiopia and The Tekeze River-Eritrea.

      (Keep in mind according to Genesis Chpt.10 Vs.7, Cush’s (Ethiopia/Nubia) other sons were):

      Seba, “Havilah”, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecah

      ጥhe Book of Amos: Chpt.9 Vs.7-

      Are ye not, as Children of the E-thi-o’pians unto me, O‘ Children of Is-ra-el?

      Saith the Lord”

      Have not I brought up Israel, Out of the Land of Egypt ?

      And from the Philistines of Caph’tor and the Syrians from Kir ?

      (Philistines of Caph’tor is modern day Turkey via Syria)

      I KINGS chpt.10 Vs.1 and 2

      Vs.1 { And when the Queen of She’ba heard of the Fame of Solomon Concerning the Name of the Lord,
      She came to prove him with Hard Questions}

      Vs.2 { And she came to Jeru’salem with a very Great Train, with Camels that bare Spices and Very Much Gold,
      and Precious stones: and when she was to come to Solomon, She Communed with Him of all that was in her
      Heart}

      4.GEOGRAPHY:

      The location of Ethiopia. is without a doubt in Eastern Africa also known as the Horn of Africa.

      (And by the way the East of Eጥhiopia would be Eritrea or Somalia or even Yemen/Southern Arabia

      ex.Yemen/Oman) between the Red Sea Near Eden‘s Gulf of Aden/Eden

      NOTE:

      The term for Eden: Was Aden/Adin/Aad

      which also means: To give pleasures,

      Has the same prime root word as Eden or

      Adan, to be soft pleasant or voluptuous land.

      Basically, this was the best place in the whole world to live flourish and be fruitful.

      The Axum Kingdom used the name “Ethiopia” as early as the 4th century.

      It is also the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of

      The Queen of Sheba, the Aksum Kingdom was also the First Major Empire to convert to Christianity.

      5.BOTANY:

      In the Bible Genesis Chpt.2

      (vs.12 And the the Gold of that Land is Good: there is Bdellium and the Onyx Stone).

      Bdellium Trees are used to extract a reddish-brown resinous material, an dried sap of a number of trees,

      But primarily from Commiphora myrrha, otherwise known as Bdellium is

      Native to Yemen, Somalia, the eastern parts of Ethiopia’s Horn of Africa.

      Commiphora myrrha is a tree in the Burseraceae family.

      Bdellium was an adulterant of the more “Costly” Myrrh

      (Commiphora myrrha); guggul is still used as a binder in Perfumes.

      In addition the word bedolach occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible.

      They grow exclusively in the Horn Africa

      (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Northeast Kenya) and the Southern Arabian Peninsula

      (Yemen, Oman) and nowhere else in the World..

      Afterword:

      Trying to explain Eden in ancient Mespotamia may show some difficulties,

      However the 5 points mentioned, must constitute a plausible designation..

      ብልልይ።ግምብለ

    • Tsion Abera Says:

      It was once possible to go “East of Eden” because the world was one big land mass.

  5. ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

    GENETICS continued...

    The Nile Valley and (East) Great Rift Valley Civilizations and mtDna Migration routes.

    The White Nile respectively spills from Lake Victoria Uganda, near Kenya

    and flows North-bound meeting the Blue Nile spilling from Lake Tana in Ethiopia.

    Subsequently, the Tekeze River flows from Eritrea and Ethiopian Border in a west Northerly fashion, Joining the two Rivers at the Town of Atbarah (AtBarah river)

    Which then Merges with the White Nile via Sudan-Khartoum/Nubia. With full northern Continuity flowing

    through Egypt and the Mediteranean Sea and the Levant..

    This Nile Valley route has the same migration as certain Haplogroups Mtdna such as L2a1 and

    L3* and M1 from “South to North”.

    These particular haplogroups also share the migrations to and from West Asia’s middle east etc.. (Southern Arabia)

    L2a1, L3* and M1 have notable frequencies in Nile Valley, Ethiopia, Egypt, as well as Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman.

  6. Absolutely no Argument from me there, but

    The people who wrote the Genesis Account of Creation knew what the Nile was, and refer to it by that Name elsewhere.

    So why would the people who wrote Genesis insist on calling the White and Blue Niles by the Names of two completely Unrelated Rivers

    That are more than a thousand miles away?

    Understand that I’m not saying you’re Wrong,

    I’m just not understanding how the Story gets from East Africa to Mesopotamia.

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Thanks for your Comments..

      To answer your inquiry correctly, I must raise two points..

      One, I must ask you to try and understand that Mesopotamia may not have been directly in Eden,

      But still otherwise related/connected..

      (through the seas, the people, language, culture etc..)

      Two, I must point out to your mentioning of
      (the People who wrote Genesis)

      And how they knew of the Nilotic Rivers, and

      Why would they insist on referring to them by Other Names is a Great Question!!

      Who are the people/Authors of the Original Bible?

      What are there Ethnicity/Ethnic Origins?

      Where is the Origin of the Semitic Language and Culture?

      What you will have to do my friend is very extensive research..

      I am still continuing mine..

      (P.s.) I am not the first to come to this conclusion.. the mtdna report on this article elaborates

      The King Solomon, Moses and the Queen of Sheba relation..

      To the Bible and Ethiopia/Ethiopians.

      Please read entire article above, citations are ready and available.

      Hotep Shalom Shalom

      Thanks for Stopping By

      ብልልይ።ግምብለ

      • Meshwesh Says:

        What do you think would have been the Y haplotype of the original inhabitants of this geographic area?
        I believe it was E1b1b1.

        What about modern day Yemen being the kingdom of queen Sheba?

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Azul አዙል Shalom ስሃሎም Hotep ሆተፕ
        Thanks again for your comments and thoughts.
        I must reiterate that some of your questions may have been answered previously..

        Question 1. What do you think would have been the Y haplotype of the original inhabitants of this geographic area?
        My Answer. The Original Inhabitants of this area would be family of the E-Ychromsome Family Group.

        The chronology would be as follows:

        PN2 (35,000 B.P.)
        M2- (30,000 B.P.)
        M35- (22,400 B.P.)
        M78- (18,600 B.P.)

        Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”, who went on to people the Nile Valley in
        The mid-,Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988); This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’ These particular groups in age and geographical origins also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C.

        The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt. One Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.
        This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the “Progenitors” of “Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..
        They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing. Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

        The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain. Sometimes seen as a proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.
        The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan,which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival’ the material remains of this culture are primarily Stone Tools, Flakes, and a Multitude of Rock paintings.

        The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

        Question 2. What about modern day Yemen being the kingdom of queen Sheba? My Answer. I believe modern day Yemen (Sabta/Sheba) to be geographically one of the many Empires of Makeda and the Kushites, which included Meroë/Seba etc… For more please see my previous comments to Marcos from Dec. 6, 2010, Dec 9, 2010 and the comment above from April 9, 2011..

        REFERENCES:

        Halfan Culture:

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

        Nat’l Geographic, Ancient Egyptian Origins Expert; feat. Dr. S.O.Y. Keita:

        http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/geopedia/Ancient_Egypt

        Y-Chromosome Variation in Egypt/North Africa by Dr. S.O.Y. Keita:

        http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

        Y-Chromosome Haplotypes in Egypt by G.Lucotte and G.Mercier:

        http://wysinger.homestead.com/haplotypes_in_egypt.pdf

        Wikipedia Y-Chromosome Haplogroup E Familia:
        E1b1-PN2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1_(Y-DNA)
        E1b1a- M2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1a_(Y-DNA)
        E1b1b-M35 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b_(Y-DNA)
        E1b1b1a M78 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)

        Video documentation by Dr. Keita, BioCultural Origins of Egypt:

        Hope you find this information serviceable to your inquiries..

  7. Ok, well, Thanks anyway...

  8. This is a Good Blog!

    My Questions are:

    1. I want to know more about how Somali and Ethiopian are related to each other?

    Although there are living in adjacent each other or in the same place in East Africa.

    2. Do Somalis also belong to Egyptian People or are they from Yemen?

    3. Some people says Somalis is mix, they born from interaction Ethiopian and Arab.

    Is that true, does any body have Proof?

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Thanks for Stopping by..

      I will do my best to answer your inquiry on Somali Relations to

      Ethiopians, Egyptians and the Yemenis population..

      1. Somali are Definitely related to Ethiopians, they share the same genetic markers.

      Somali Males share the Y-chromosomes of E3b and E3b1 which is common among the

      The Horn of Africa, Ethiopian male population and among Some Yemenis People.

      Haplogroups E3b and E3b1 are also among the Nubian and Egyptian population with notable frequencies

      The Somali Females share genetic ancestry with Ethiopians, Egyptians, and Yemenis through

      mtDna Haplogroups M1 ,L3 and L2a1, which in return also share ancestry with the 3 mentioned above.

      The Somali population also speaks a Cushitic language thats has its Origin In the Horn of Africa.

      Are the people from the Horn of Africa mixed with the Sabaeans/Southern Arabia Population ?

      I would believe so, due to the location and proximity of the two locations,

      Combined with the migrations to and from Yemen/South West Asia.

      However understanding, that the Cushitic and Semitic Languages has its

      Origins in the Horn of Africa as well as the Genetic markers,

      Concludes they All have an strong East African Origin..

      Below is a list of genetic citations on the Somali and Horn Population:

      http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2004_v74_p000-0130.pdf

      http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/hape3b.pdf

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15457403

      http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers%5CMtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

  9. I Am Totally Impressed by your Research and Conclusions,

    Being Kenyan of Nilotic people, History tells me my people came along the River Nile..

    Through many years before settling in Mt Elgon,

    We are Predominantly Pastorolist and Great Archers,

    I would also like to know, were the Egyptians Black Skinned?

    Were the Pharaos Black skinned Nubians or Fair Skinned Arabs at the time of Moses?

    If the former, could you shed some light on the Egyptian (original) Tribes?

    Kindly send me a link to more of these researches

    Shalom

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep ! ሆተፕ , Shalom ስሃሎም

      Thanks for your comments..

      Your Question(s) was,

      Are the Ancient Egyptians Black skinned/Black Nubians?

      Or were they Fair Skinned Arabs at the time of Moses?

      To put it in the most simplest terms the Ancient Egyptian were 100% of African Origin.

      As far as there Culture, it would have derived from the South Nilotic Peoples

      ex. Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Burundi etc..

      The Nubians had control of Egypt in the 25th Dynasty under Taharqa and Kashta..

      The pre-Dynastic Egyptian culture was developed in the South as well..

      The Ancient Axumite Ethiopians also controlled these regions long after the Dynastic Age of Egypt.

      One must also look at the Diversity among the African Continent,

      We are able to Produce All Complexions and Shades.

      Modern Genetics shows the Majority of the Egyptian Male Population belongs to the Y-chromo, E-Family

      Haplogroups on the Y-chromosomes show the most predominant groups are my Fathers {M2,M35,M78} among others..

      Haplogroup M2 which I belong to, has the highest % among the White Nile Nubian-Egyptians, Kenyans, Tutsis etc..

      As well as 80% among Western Senegalese and some Nigerians and 8.4% of Sephardic-Hebrews in North Africa.

      As for the Maternal they are African as well, mtDna L1, L2, L3 and M1 are predominant among the Female polulation.

      Haplogroup L2a, which I belong to has the Highest Frequency in Egypt and Nile Valley @ 20% among the Females..

      And 10% among Western Moroccan-Sephardic Hebrews and 20% among the Niger/Nigerian Population..

      Furthermore Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Nubians Share the Same Genetic Profiles and Haplogroups.

      They share the same Afro-Asiatic languages and Customs, and would also share the same Phenotype/Features…

      My Family has a Broad Color of Complexions my Father is a Dark Cocoa Brown, My Mother is Fair Skinned and I am a Reddish-Brown Copper-Tone Color.

      The Ancient Egyptians could have been any of the colors above, However no matter what there color was, they are still

      Unequivocally of African descent, Africa has the Largest Diversity and Broadest Trend Physiognomy

      In Biblical times it was said that Moses was a Hebrew living in Egypt,

      He must have looked like the indigenous Population, if he was able to live among them with out being exposed.

      In closing the Ancient Egyptian could have been any multitude of complexions among African People..

      (P.S. just have a tour of my Blog and articles all citations and studies are there..)

      http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers/MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

      http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

  10. The principle criterion for the telling of His’tory is that it must be Flattering.

    That is why you assume facts that are not in evidence and ignore facts that are in order to

    Promote the idea that Eden is in your Homeland.

    The fact you assume is that it is known where

    Noah was after the flood relative to where he was before the flood.

    There is no connection in scripture that links the two locations other than a
    flood which put the Ark adrift for weeks on end.

    The fact you Ignore is the Geography given in Genesis 2:8-14.

    That Geography in No Way describes Northeast Africa.

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep ! ሆተፕ, Shalom ስሃሎም and Greetings ግረእቲንግስ

      Welcome Patrick Archer,

      Now if you would like to present your Evidence, Please do so I Encourage this.

      However this is starting to get a little Redundant, about my Interpretation when is it backed up by Evidence.

      All citations and Quotes/References are Stated or Posted above..

      If you prefer, I will re-post all my findings against your socalled claims.

      I will be demonstrating my Five Points of Evidence, and you can post your rebuttle:

      1.Modern Genetics

      2.Linguistics and Culture

      3.Biblical Accounts

      4.Geography and Hydrology

      5.Botany~note: (is a branch of biology and is the scientific study of plant life and development.)

      I would Love to discuss this matter on the Geography of Eden and Original People of Eden

      As I have mentioned, I have touched this topic in more ways than One,

      Please Post your Evidence the Garden of Eden

      Location and be Mindful of the 5 points mentioned..

      I Await your Response..

      • The Geography given in Genesis 2:8-14 is the same Geography that is found in Tunisia.

        The name Pishon is found there and the name Asshur is found in the name Tasili N’Ajjir.

        The Tasili N’Ajjir is the site of some very interesting Pre-Historic rock paintings from about 8,000 B.C.

        When the Sahara was a grassland. On the river with four heads in Tunisia there is a town which has existed since before the

        Phoenicians arrived and founded Carthage.

        That Town was on the River and it was called Uden.

        When the Romans came it was called Uthina and today it is called Oudna.

      • Billy Gambela Says:

        Welcome back Patrick

        I will explain why Eden is Not in Northern Africa Tunisia, As i ascertain, the Biblical EDEN‘s location in Eastern Africa...

        GENETICS OF MODERN HUMANS

        Though my ancestors are Indigenous to North Central Africa/Tunisia Over 55,000 years ago

        NOTE: Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North-Central Africa with an Origin Date of 55,150 B.P.

        Would place L2a in the Upper Paleolithic era in North Africa beginning around 50,000 years before the present (ybp),
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Paleolithic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mousterian_Pluvial

        Modern Genetics shows All of Modern Humans Dates back 188,000 ybp in East Africa.

        The Mitchondrial Eve L0 and her descendants L1, L2, L3, etc. have an East African Origin

        (excerpt from making the African mtDna landscape)

        The main puzzle is the almost ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a,

        Which we suggest may have become”Prevalent” somewhere in

        North-Central Africa { Prehistoric Central North Africa }

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Central_North_Africa

        Example: Modern day Tunisia near Algeria and Libya..

        Spreading both East and west along the Sahel belt ~20,000 years ago at

        The peak of the Last glacial maximum (or somewhat earlier).…

        We recognize, however, the Origins of these Haplogroups may be more Ancient.

        (L2, for example, may be well >70,000 years old )

        I belong to the Ethiopian-Nubian/Egyptian mtDna L2a1

        http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=385086

        http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/43026_Doron.pdf

        mtdna Chart on page 5 (click clock-counter wise to view)

        http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers/MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

        Modern Genetic Migrations Continued also to fortify my Biblical River routes

        My Biblical interpretation explains the Location of the East African Rivers, similar to mtDna Migrations.

        GENETICS continued…

        The Nile Valley and (East) Great Rift Valley Civilizations and mtDna Migration routes.…

        The White Nile respectively spills from Lake Victoria Uganda, near Kenya

        and flows North-bound meeting the Blue Nile spilling from

        Lake Tana in E-thi-o’pi-a.

        Subsequently, the Tekeze River flows from the Eritrea and

        Ethiopian Border in a North Westerly fashion, Joining the two

        Rivers at the Town of Atbarah (AtBarah River) Sudan/Nub-i-a

        Which then Merges with the White Nile/BlueNile via Sudan-Khartoum/Nubia.

        With full Northern Continuity flowing through Egypt and the Mediteranean Sea and the Levant..

        This Nile Valley route has the same migration as certain Haplogroups Mtdna such as L2a1 and

        L3* and M1 from “South to North”.

        These particular haplogroups also share the migrations to and from West Asia’s middle east etc.. (Southern Arabia)

        L2a1, L3* and M1 have notable frequencies in Nile Valley, Ethiopia, Egypt, as well as Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman.

        (Excerpt from krings nile valley mtdna study on Hpal site 3592 L1, L2)

        The Nile River Valley has been a corridor for human migrations between Egypt and Nilotic-sub-Saharan Africa,

        Dr.Matthias Krings, analyzed mtDNA variationin 224 individuals from various locations along the river.

        Sequences of the first hypervariable segment (HV1) ofthe mtDNA control region and a Polymorphic

        HpaI site at position 3592 allowed us to designate eachmtDNA as being of “Northern” or “Southern” Affiliation.

        Proportions of northern and southern mtDNA dif-fered significantly between Egypt, Nubia, and the south-ern Sudan.

        http://genapps.uchicago.edu/labweb/pubs/krings.pdf

        *******************************************************************************************************************************

        GEOGRAPHY OF GARDEN OF EDEN:

        GENESIS Chpt.2

        Chapter 2 verses 8 -14

        Verse 8. And the Lord planted a Garden Eastward in Eden: And there he put Man whom he had Formed

        Verse 9. Out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every Tree that is Pleasant to the Sight, and Good for Food;

        The Tree of life also in the midst of the Garden, and The Tree of know-ledge of Good and Evil.

        BIBLICAL HYDROLOGY OF EDEN

        ( vs.10 And a River went out of “Eden” to the water garden and from thence it was parted. and became into four heads/parts.)

        (vs. 11 the name of the first is Pi’son: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Hav’i-lah, where there is Gold.

        “Havilah” (literally meaning “stretch of sand”) is the name of various lands and/or people mentioned in the Bible.

        I believe that Havilah could be part of the modern day

        {easternstretch of sand” sahel regions}…

        Sudan-Nubia/ and Sahel (Eritrea) and (aksum/axumite regions)…

        {In Ancient Hieroglyphics the word “Nub” means Gold< and the Word Nubia means Land of Gold}

        From then on, the Romans referred to the area as the Nobatae.

        http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11147a.htm

        “Hav’i-lah where there is Gold” in Ancient Cush’s Land of Ham

        (vs.12 And the the Gold of that Land is Good: there is Bdellium and the Onyx Stone)..

        {Bdellium is an “Aromatic” gum like Myrrh that is exuded from Trees}

        (Used for incense, as well as to Embalm the dead in Ancient Egyptian times..),

        {These “Particular Trees” are also “Native” to the Horn of Africa} (commiphora myrrha)

        {Onyx was used/traded in Egypt as early as the 2nd Dynasty From

        Nubia/Ethiopia to make bowls and other pottery items.}

        (vs.13 And the name of the second River is Gi’hon: the same is it that compasseth the Whole Land of

        E-thi-o’pi-a.)

        { I believe this Biblical Hydrology mimics the White-Nile/Pi’son and Blue-Nile/Gi’hon }

        Vs.14 Hid’de-kel: that is it which goes toward the East of Assyria, and the 4th river is Eu-phra’tes,

        (Note: Vs.14 describes the Mesopotamia location of the Tigris River and the Euphrates going out of Eden, Northerly

        Then Easterly towards Assyria- Iraq/Mesopotamia)..

        *************************************************************************************************************************************

        LINGUISTICS

        NOTE: The Afro-Asiatic languages, which include SEMITIC languages such as ARABIC and HEBREW, are believed by Scholars to have Originated in ETHIOPIA.

        The Linguistic Reconstructions of Semitic vocabulary, related to Farming and Agriculture, have supported the theory that the

        origin of Semitic languages is in the Near East (Diakonoff 1988; Militarev 2003).

        On the other hand, the finding of All Major Branches of the Afro-Asiatic Language Tree in Ethiopia,

        Including those that are not spoken elsewhere in the world, suggests that the HOMELAND of the Afro-Asiatic

        Language family may have been somewhere close to Africa’s Southwestern

        Ethiopia (Ehret 1995).

        Since the land of Cush—the Son of Biblical Ham—is generally considered to be in the

        Vicinity of the Ancient cities of Meroë and Napata, located in present-day Sudan.

        Yet it should be stressed here that the split between the Cushitic and

        Semitic languages, branches of the Afro-Asiatic linguisticFamily, is Ancient,

        Probably Predating the Holocene
        (see, e.g., Militarev [2003]).

        (The Holocene period is from 12,000 B.C)

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocene

        *********************************************************************************************************************************

        BIBLE ACCOUNTS: Gideons Holy Bible KING JAMES version)

        {According to Bible Scholars the first 4 books in Genesis

        Pertaining to the Founding of the Hebrew Nation are as follows}:

        1.Genesis- Founding of the Hebrew Nation, 2. Exodus- the Covenant with the Hebrew Nation.

        3. Leviticus- Laws of the Hebrew Nation. 4. Numbers- Journey to the Promise Land.

        (Keep in mind according to)

        1. GENESIS Chpt.10 Vs.6

        And the Sons of Ham/Kham; Cush, Miz’ra-im, and Phut and Canaan.

        Genesis Chpt.10 Vs.7

        Cush’s (Ethiopia/Nubia) other sons were):

        Seba, “Havilah”, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecah

        GENESIS Chpt. 13 Vs.1-2

        And Abram went up out of EGYPT, He and his Wife,

        And all that he had, And Lot with him, Into the SOUTH.

        And Abrams was Very Rich in Cattle,

        In Silver and in GOLD

        GENESIS chpt. 16 Vs.1-2

        Now Sa’rai Abram’s Wife Bare him No Children:

        And she had a Hand Maid,

        An Egyptian, Whose Name was Ha’gar.

        And Sa’rai said unto Abram, Behold now the

        Lord hath restrained me from

        Bearing: I Pray thee, go in unto my Maid;

        It may be that I obtain Children by Her.

        And Abram Hearkened to the Voice of Sa’rai..

        GENESIS Chpt.17 Vs. 15

        And GOD said unto Ab-ra-ham As for

        Sa’rai thy Wife, Thou Shalt not call Her name

        Sa’rai, but Sarah shall be her Name be.

        GENESIS Chpt. 25 Vs. 12

        Now these are the Generations of Ish’ma-el,

        Ab-rah-am’s Son, Whom Ha’gar the Egyptian, Sarah’s

        Hand-maid, Bare unto Abraham

        GENESIS Chpt. 25 Vs. 18

        And they Dwelt from Hav’i-lah unto

        Shur, That is before EGYPT, As Thou Goest Toward Assyria:

        And he Died in the Presence of All his Breth-ren..

        GENESIS Chpt. 37 Vs.25-28

        (Vs.25)

        And They Sat down to Eat Bread: And they lifted up their Eyes and looked, and

        Behold , a Company of Ish’me-el-ites came from Gilead with their Camels bearing

        Spicery and Balm and Myrrh, going to carry it DOWN to EGYPT

        GENESIS Chpt. 50 Vs. 7-8 and Vs.26

        (Vs.7-8)

        And Joseph went up to Bury his Father:

        And with him went up all the Servants of Pharaoh, The Elders of

        His House, And All the

        Elders of the Land of EGYPT

        And All the House of Joseph and

        His Brethren, and His Father’s House:

        Only their little Ones, and their Flocks and thier Herds,

        They Left in the Land of Goshen./Egypt

        (Vs.26)

        So Joseph Died, being a Hundred and Ten years Old:

        And they Embalmed him, And he was put in a Coffin in Egypt.

        2. ጥhe Book of Khamows/Amos: Chpt.9 Vs.7

        Are ye not, as Children of the E-thi-o’pians unto me,

        O‘ Children of Is-ra-el?

        Saith the Lord”

        Have not I brought up Israel, Out of the Land of Egypt ?

        And from the Philistines of Caph’tor and the Syrians from Kir ?

        (Philistines of Caph’tor is modern day Turkey via Syria)

        3. I KINGS chpt.10 Vs.1 and 2

        Vs.1 { And when the Queen of She’ba heard of the Fame of

        Solomon Concerning the Name of the Lord,
        She came to prove him with Hard Questions}

        Vs.2 { And she came to Jeru’salem with a very Great Train, with

        Camels that bare Spices and Very Much Gold,

        and Precious stones: and when she was to come to Solomon,

        She Communed with Him of all that was in her Heart}

        4. I CHRONICLES

        (First Book of the Chronology of Adam and the Hebrew Nation)

        Chpt.1 Vs.1-4 and 8

        {vs1. ADAM, Sheth, E’nosh, vs.2. Ke’nan, Ma-ha’la-le-el, Je’red}

        { vs.3. He’noch, Me-thu’se-lah and La’mech}
        Lamech’s son and grandsons

        { vs.4 Noah, Shem, Ham and Ja’pheth.}

        {vs.8 The Sons of Ham: Cush, and Miz’ra-im, Put and Canaan}

        5. NUMBERS ch.12 Vs.1

        And Miriam and Aaron Spake against Moses because

        Of the E-thi-O’pi-an Woman whom he had Married:

        For he had Married an E-thi-O’pi-an Woman.

        6. HOSEA chpt.13 Vs. 4

        Yet I am the Lord thy God from the Land of EGYPT, and thou shalt

        Know no god but me: for there is no Saviour beside me.

        7. Acts Chapter. 8 verse 26-27:

        “Then the Angel of the Lord said to Philip, Start out and go South to the road that leads down from Jerusalem to Gaza, which is Desert.

        “And he arose and went: And behold,
        A Man of E-thi-o’pi-a, and Eunuch of Great Authority under Can-da-ce

        Queen of E-thi-o’pi-ans, Who had the charge of all her Treasure, and had come to Jerusalem to Worship“.
        _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

        The State of Sheba mentioned in the Old Testament is believed to have been in Ethiopia , but is sometimes placed in Yemen.

        The Axumite Kingdom is recorded once again as controlling part – if not all – of Yemen in the 6th century.

        According to the Ethiopian legend, best represented in the Kebra Negest, the Queen of Sheba was tricked by
        King Solomon into sleeping with him, Resulting in a child, named Ebn Melek (later Emperor Menelik I).

        **The Tradition that the Biblical Queen of Sheba was a ruler of Ethiopia who visited

        King Solomon in Jerusalem in Ancient Israel is Supported by the 1st century A.D. Jewish

        Historian Flavius Josephus, who identified Solomon’s visitor as a
        Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia.
        ************************************************************************************************************

        NOTE: The SONS of HAM Biblical Geography

        CUSH- Location is Ethiopia/Nubia .

        MIZ’RA-IM- Location is Ta-Merry/Egypt

        PUT-Location is present day Libya.

        CANAAN-Location is present day Is-ra’-el

        Also keep in mind that according to Genesis 10:6,

        Mizraim/Egypt was the Younger brother of

        Cush/Ethiopia-Nubia and Elder brother of Phut/Libya and Israel/Canaan,

        Whose Families together made up

        the Hamite branch of Noah’s Descendants.

        All Bible Dictionaries agree that the name “Ethiopia” in our English Old Testaments is ‘Cush’ in the Hebrew.

        This is so, not only in the verse before us, but in every instance throughout the Old Testament.

        The Truth is that the Hebrews called Ethiopia “Cush” in their own tongue.

        But what has not been so well recognized is that the Hebrews used this name ‘Cush’ of more than one place.

        The name is derived from Cush the Son of Ham, the son of

        Noah, in Genesis 10:6.

        In addition the word “Ethiopia” is a Greek word meaning “Burnt Faces.”

        The Hebrew word Cush, translated as “Ethiopia,” was used in Biblical Times to refer to

        The Entire Nile Valley South of Egypt, including Nubia/Sudan and Abyssinia/Ethiopia”

        (Edward Ullendorff, Ethiopia and the Bible, p. 5, quoted in The Sign and the Seal, p. 450).

        http://nabataea.net/eden4.html

        http://www.hope-of-israel.org/dynmoses.htm

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_Empire

        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15457403

        http://www.ethiopiantreasures.toucansurf.com/pages/aksum.htm

        http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/nubia1.html

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_ethnic_divisions

        http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/43026_Doron.pdf

        http://books.google.ca/books?id=JY5Nt8_83r4C&pg=PA10&dq=philistim&lr=#v=onepage&q=philistim&f=false

        *******************************************************************************************************************************************

        BOTANY:

        In the Bible Genesis Chpt.2 Vs.12

        (vs.12 And the the Gold of that Land is Good: there is Bdellium and the Onyx Stone).

        Bdellium Trees are used to extract a reddish-brown resinous material, an dried sap of a number of trees,

        But primarily from Commiphora Myrrha, otherwise known as Bdellium is

        Native to Yemen, Somalia, the Eastern parts of E-thi-o’pi-a’s Horn of Africa.

        Commiphora myrrha is a tree in the Burseraceae family.

        Bdellium was an adulterant of the more “Costly” Myrrh

        (Commiphora myrrha); guggul is still used as a binder in Perfumes.

        In addition the word bedolach occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible.

        They grow Exclusively in the Horn of Africa

        (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Northeast Kenya) and the Southern Arabian Peninsula

        (Yemen, Oman) and Nowhere else in the World..

        http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/133259/

        http://www.socyberty.com/History/The-History-of-Incense.332309

        http://oneearthherbs.squarespace.com/important-herbs/myrrh-gum-commiphora-myrrha.html

        http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/products/afdbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=17990

        “Ancient Wine; The Search for the Origins of Viniculture” Patrick E. McGovern, 2003 ISBN 0-691-07080-6

        *******************************************************************************************************************************

        Mr. Archer you have not Referenced or Proved anything thus far

        Explain Verses 11-12 in Genesis using your Carthage theory

        Explain Pi’son which compasseth the Whole land of Havilah where there is

        Gold, Onyx Stone and Bdellium which does Not grow in Tunisa/Carthage

        Myrrh also known as Bdellium is a reddish-brown resinous material,

        The dried sap of a number of trees, but primarily from

        Commiphora myrrha, which is native to Yemen, Somalia, the Eastern parts of E-thi-o’pi-a.

        ***********************************************************************************************************************************

        EGYPTIAN RECORDED ACCOUNTS:

        We also have the First Documented Expedition to the land of Punt, from Ancient Egypt

        Time period- (2487–2474 BC, 5th Dynasty) ~ or perhaps Earlier…

        The earliest recorded Egyptian expedition to Punt was organized by Pharaoh Sahure Of the Fifth Dynasty (25th century BC) ~

        Although GOLD from PUNT is recorded as having been in EGYPT in the time of King Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt 2575 to 2467 BCE

        PUNT apparently, also yielded a quantity of Costly

        African MYRRH, GOLD, IVORY and BLACKWOOD etc..

        (the land of Punt is the Horn of Africa location)

        In Addition we have the Palermo Stone which also corroborates some of these events and also mentions

        Expeditions to the Sinai and to the Exotic land of Punt,

        As well as to The Diorite quarries northwest of Abu Simbel in Nubia.

        The Mainstream view is that Punt was located to the South-East of Egypt,

        Most likely on the Eastern Coast of the Horn of Africa.

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_stonestone

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puntland

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrrh

        Land of Punt Map. click link below:

        CHRONOLOGY of KUSHITE-ASSYRIAN Struggle over JUDAH

        734 B.C : Assyria (under Tiglath-pileser III) Invades
        Philistia and advances as far as the Egyptian Border..

        728 B.C : Kush (under Piye) conquers Lower Egypt then withdraws..

        712 B.C. : Kush (under Shabaka) Re-Conquers All of Egypt..

        701 B.C. : Assyria (under Sennacherib) Invades rebellious Phoenicia,

        Phillistia, and Judah.

        Kushite Egypt (probably under joint rule of Pharaohs Shabaka and Shebitku) Confronts the

        Assyrians before they can seize Jerusalem..

        674 B.C. : Assyrian (under Esarhaddon) tries to Invade Egypt and is

        Defeated by Kushite-Egyptian forces under Taharqa..

        667 B.C. : Assyria (under Assurbanipal) responds to Taharqa’s

        Re-establishment of his Rule over Egypt by invading the Country. It conquers Thebes and

        Drives Taharqa South..

        664 B.C. : Taharqa dies and is succeded as Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty

        By his kinsman Tanwetamani. Meanwhile, Assyria establishes the Rival 26th Dynasty..

        663 B.C. : Assyria ( under Assurbanipal) Pillages Thebes and Drives

        The Kushites from Egypt Permanently...

        586 B.C. : Babylon (under Nebuchadrezzar) re-conquers rebellious Jerusalem.

        It Destroys the City and Forces Judah’s Leadership classes into Exile...

        NOTE: University Libraries Devote Entire Shelves to Books that Deal with the period, the

        So-Called “Era of the Hebrew Monarchy” – the time from the Late Eleventh Century A.D. to the

        Early Sixth Century B.C. (1020 A.D.-586 B.C.)..

        Reference from Henry T. Aubin’s: The Rescue of Jerusalem. 2002 Soho Press.

        (The Alliance Between Hebrews and Africans in 701 B.C.)

        Quebec Writers’ Federation Award Winner of 2002 Henry T. Aubin

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_Writers%27_Federation_Awards

        http://www.henryaubin.com/

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shebitku

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taharqa

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Jerusalem

        ***************************************************************************************************************************
        EUROPEAN HISTORIAN ACCOUNTS: by African-Asiatic Authors

        1. Diodorus of Sicily writes:

        The E-thi-o’pi-ans say that the Egyptians are One of their Colonies

        Which was brought into Egypt by Osirus.

        They even allege that this country was origanally under Water,

        But that the Nile, Dragging much mud as it Flowed from Ethiopia

        Had finally filled it in and Made it part of the Continent…

        They add that from them as from their Authors and Ancestors the

        Egyptians get most of their Laws.

        2. Herodutus the Greek historian states: The Egyptians said that they believed the

        Colchians to be Descended from the Army of Sesostris. My own conjectures were

        Founded, first, on the Fact that they were Black-Skinned and have Woolly Hair..

        3. The Greek Historian Strabo mentioned the Importance of MIGRATIONS in

        HISTORY and believing that this Particular Migration has proceeded from

        Egypt to Ethiopia, remarks: Egyptians settled Ethiopia and Colchis

        (colchis is located in modern day western georgia, near the black sea)

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colchis

        {excerpt from THE AFRICAN ORIGIN of Civilization by Cheikh Anta Diop}

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheikh_Anta_Diop

        published in paris 1955 reprinted 1974 in usa

        ETHIOPIA and THE ORIGIN of CIVILIZATION by John G. Jackson

        Excerpt from pg.3

        In discussing the Origin of Civilization in the Near East, Professor Charles Seignobos in his

        History of Ancient Civilization, notes that the first civilized inhabitants of the Nile (Pi’son-Gi’hon) and

        Tigris-Euphrates (Hid’de-kel and Euphrates) Valleys,

        Were a Dark-Skinned People with Short Hair and Prominent Lips: and that they are referred to by Scholars as

        Cushites (Ethiopians), and Hamites (Khamites) by Others..

        John G. Jackson

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_G._Jackson_(writer)

        (ethiopia and the origin of civilization published in 1939)

        http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Seignobo.html

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_and_Judaism_in_the_African_diaspora

        ******************************************************************************************************************************

        AFTERWORD:

        Trying to explain Eden in ancient Tunisia/Carthage may show some difficulties,

        However the 5 points mentioned, must constitute a Plausible Designation..

        1. Modern Genetics

        2. Linguistics and Culture

        3. Biblical Accounts

        4. Geography and Hydrology

        5. Botany~note: (is a branch of biology and is the scientific study of plant life and development.)

        * Egyptian/Kemetic Recorded accounts

        ** European Historian accounts

        Please Post your References and Citations to Disprove my Claims..

  11. During Ancient Egyptian times, what was in West Africa?

    Was West Africa Populated during this Time?

    • Nefer,

      DNA suggests that West Africa has been inhabited for at least 20,000 to 30,000 years.

      “L1b, L3b, and L3d imply that West Africa has been inhabited since at least 20,000–30,000 years ago.”

      (Source). L1b (which is my haplogroup) is frequent in West Africa and is 30,000 years old.

      I’m Nigerian-Igbo. L1, from which L1b comes is approx 174,300 years old with an East African origin.

      L1b is also found among North Africans, whom tend to cluster with West Africans, in addition to being found all over Africa. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC385086/

      Also, Africa’s Oldest known Boat the Dufana Canoe, dated to be almost 8,000 years old, was found in Nigeria.

      “Peter Breunig of the University of Frankfurt, Germany, an archaeologist involved in the project,

      Says the Canoe’s age “forces a reconsideration of Africa’s role in the history of water transport.

      The “oldest known boat” found in Egypt is dated 5000 years old, located in the desert sands of Abydos, Egypt.”

      It predates Egypt’s oldest known boat by 3,000 years.

      http://www.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de/~sfb268/c7/dufuna.htm

      As to your question regarding what was in Africa during the times of ancient Egypt,

      Here are some cultures in the BC era and AD era in West Africa:

      Nok Culture (Nigeria) Est. approx. 500 B.C.

      Jenne Jeno (Mali) – “Considered to be among the oldest urbanized centers in sub-Saharan Africa.

      It has been the subject of archeological digs by Susan and Roderick McIntosh

      (and others) and has been dated to the 3rd century BCE.

      There is evidence of iron-production, use of domesticated plants and animals,

      And complex heterarchical urban development as early as 900 CE.”

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jenn%C3%A9-Jeno

      “Oral traditions record that the founding Soninke population of Jenné-jeno migrated from Ja.

      The time period represented by the tell deposits at Jenné-jeno extends from 250 BC,

      When iron-using peoples established the first permanent settlement at the site, to AD 1400″ http://www.arkeologi.uu.se/afr/projects/BOOK/Mcintosh/mcintosh.pdf

      Igbo-Ukwu (Nigeria) Approx 900 A.D. - Bronze ceremonial objects start being made

      ‘Igbo Ukwu is an archaeological site near the modern town of Onitsha, southeastern Nigeria.

      The site was part of the Nri Kingdom, and it was used in the 10th century AD.

      The site has several parts, including a main burial, and associated caches and shrines.”
      Source: http://archaeology.about.com/od/iterms/g/igbo_ukwu.htm

      Look up Nsude Pyramids (Nigeria) as well.

      I’m sure you’re aware of such kindgoms as the Mali, Songhai, Benin, Ghana, etc.

      Just a few writing systems in West Africa:

      Bamum (Cameroon), Vai (Liberia), Nsibidi (Nigeria), Adinkra (Ghana)

      May I ask you your ethnic origins?

      You can reply on my site if you want.

      http://migrationstoriesofnigerianigbo.wordpress.com

      • Hi there,

        I’m hoping that you can help me somehow…
        I’m trying to piece my geneology in hopes of finding my relatives and
        true birth certificate.
        My scarification symbols are those of the Andikra tribe….

        I have the names:
        Isabella Hearris, Rosa Soffia Bravia, Agfa Bravlia, Tarsia, Rosita, Sophia, Jose, etc….

        All these names are inscribed on my skin and I have no birth cert.
        I understand that this tribe originated in southern Ethiopia and they later migrated to Ghana.
        I am hoping that someone has information…I was born in/59.
        I was taken to various countries and slavery was involved…

        Thanks for your assistance.

      • (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Hello there Isabel,

        I would like to ask what country were you born in? and what countries do you parents come from?
        And lastly what country do you currently reside as of now..

        I have done some research on the Andinkra tribe symbols and the custom of scarification..

        Adinkra Symbols is one of the highly valued hand-printed and hand-embroidered cloths.
        Its origin is traced to the Asante people of Ghana and the Gyaman people of Cote’ d’lvoire (Ivory Coast).

        However, the production and use of Adinkra have come to be more associated with the Asante people than any other group of people.

        The traditional mourning cloth worn by the people residing in Ghana and Cote’ d’Ivoire,
        The area of Asante in particular, is referred to as “Adinkra”.

        These people, known as the Ashanti, are members of a large cultural group who identify strongly with a culture and collection of traditions known as the Akan.

        As for the geneaology there are plenty of systems that will allow you to do surname checks, I will list them below with other references and information that i have attained…

        Also if you are interested in taking a mtDna or have a male family member take a Y-chromosome test, this will reveal your early ethnic origins, as well as connecting you to other groups whom you may share genetic ancestry with.

        References and Citations: Geneaology and Surname sites and History of Andinkra

        Afri-Geneas surname search engine:

        http://www.afrigeneas.com/

        African American Geneaology:

        http://www.accessgenealogy.com/african/

        Ancestry.com Access Geneaology:

        http://www.accessgenealogy.com/african/

        Family Tree Dna: for Ancestral Origins

        http://www.familytreedna.com/Default.aspx?c=1

        Asante People of Southern Ghana:

        http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/people/Asante.html

        Culture of Ghana and Gyaman people of Cote’ d’lvoire (Ivory Coast)

        http://www.africaguide.com/country/ghana/culture.htm

        Brief history of African Scarification and Video:

        http://www.taracronica.com/tracys-posts/history-of-a-tattoo

        http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=isp_collection

        P.S. you may also check out my friends blog from Nigeria

        http://migrationstoriesofnigerianigbo.wordpress.com/

        Thanks…

  12. A river with just four heads is a small river; most rivers have many more heads.

    The Nile has hundreds. Since rivers flow from mountains to sea,

    One should look in a place where the mountains are near the sea.

    Semitic people first appear on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea near Byblos about 3200 B.C..

    Modern Genetics can tell only so much since people move and get moved.

    And over the millennia sorting it all out can be somewhat impossible.

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Patrick O’ Patrick..

      You have Not Designated the Four Rivers, nor Placement that Corroborates your Genesis Eden Theory wit Facts

      You have Not Placed any References or Citations to Substantiate your Claims. Nor Explained the following:

      1. Pishon connection with Hav’i-lah the Land of Gold which is Good nor explain Onyx Stone or Bdellium

      (which in native to the Horn of Africa) Genesis Chapter 2. verse 11

      (Nor debate the word Nub-i-A which means land of Gold)

      2. Havilah which is a son of Cush/Ethiopia Genesis Chapter 10 verse 7.

      3. The Second River Gihon which compasseth the Whole land of E-thi-o’pi-a Genesis chapter 2. verse 13

      Obviously you failed to read my citations, otherwise you would have known that the
      Semitic People, Semitic Culture and Language

      Have their Origin in the Horn of Africa..

      Excerpt from Ethiopian mtDna Study.

      Since the land of Cush—the son of Biblical Ham—is generally considered to be in the

      Vicinity of the Ancient cities of Meroë and Napata, located in present-day Sudan.

      Yet it should be stressed here that the split between the Cushitic and

      Semitic languages, branches of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic

      Family, is Ancient, probably Predating the Holocene

      (The Holocene period is from 11,700 B.C)

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocene

      (see, e.g., Militarev [2003]).

      Modern Genetic Migrations Continued also to fortify my Biblical River routes

      My Biblical interpretation explains the Location of the East African Rivers, similar to mtDna Migrations.

      GENETICS continued...

      The Nile Valley and (East) Great Rift Valley Civilizations and mtDna Migration routes.…

      The White Nile respectively spills from Lake Victoria Uganda, near Kenya

      and flows North-bound meeting the Blue Nile spilling from Lake Tana in E-thi-o’pi-a.

      Subsequently, the Tekeze River flows from Eritrea and Ethiopian Border in a west Northerly fashion, Joining the two Rivers at the Town of Atbarah (AtBarah River) Sudan/Nub-i-a

      Which then Merges with the White Nile via Sudan-Khartoum/Nubia. With full northern Continuity flowing

      through Egypt and the Mediteranean Sea and the Levant..

      This Nile Valley route has the same migration as certain Haplogroups Mtdna such as L2a1 and

      L3* and M1 from “South to North”.

      These particular haplogroups also share the migrations to and from West Asia’s middle east etc.. (Southern Arabia)

      L2a1, L3* and M1 have notable frequencies in Nile Valley, Ethiopia, Egypt, as well as Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman.

      I will close with this ….

      If you Do Not have any Documentation, Citation, Authors, Books, Quotes, References, or Bibliography

      DO NOT WASTE MY TIME THANK YOU

      Shalom ስሃሎም Shalom ስሃሎም

      • My Citation is Genesis 2:8-14.

        That’s all there is regarding Eden.

        But if you want more consider this:

        “Fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt.” Caesar

      • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

        “Fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt.”

        Translation~ Men readily believe what they want to believe.

        “Ecce Signum, Ergo Emitte Lucem et’ Veritatem”

        Translation~ Behold the Proof, Therefore Send out light and Truth

        GOOD BYE Patrick..

      • CushiteBoy Says:

        HOTEP

        Fantastic! Work Brother,
        We Need more information about, Ethiopia is the Origin of Semitic languages.

        10x

      • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Hotep ሆተፕ My Brother!

        Thanks for your comments!

    • Please explain how this trumps the information that Billy has Provided.

      I’m trying to understand where you’re coming from, but…you need to present some Evidence, some Citations something.

      That Caesar quote is not evidence and it actually seems to apply to you and Not Billy.

      At least he presented his Evidence with References…

      • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

        Hey Laura

        Hotep ! = ሆተፕ , Shalom ! = ስሃሎም and Udo ኡዶ

        Fiat volvntas tua – Let Thy will be Done (Biblical)

        Fiat justitia (et ruat caelum) – Let justice be done. (though the heavens fall)

        Excerpt comment below from a Visitor on Patrick Archer’s Blog

        What I want to know is when did Madagascar rise from the waters?

        Maybe the great flood was caused by the water displaced by Madagascar’s rise?

        After all, having a mountain range sink under water, as Patrick Archer says occurred,

        Would cause massive waves but would generally Lower the sea level rather than Raising it.

        Which would Place Eden somewhere near the Nile Rift Valley

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rift_Valley_Province

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Nile

        and Mr. Archer in need of Professional Help.

        By that I mean an Introductory course in Geophysics, of course.

        Comment by Konrad Talmont-KaminskiDecember 16, 2007 @ 8:20 pm

        http://bacon.umcs.lublin.pl/~ktalmont/index.html

        And that was a Educated comment from your Blog!!

  13. Great!!
    Do you have a Book?

    • ብልልይ ። ግምብለ (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep Isaac!

      I am sorry, I do not have a Book out at this time, however I am working on

      Some material pertaining to this subject matter..

      For now, I am still researching..

  14. Please, See… The Origin of the Igbos: Past, Present and Future

    http://www.nigeriansreport.com/2010/07/origin-of-igbos-past-present-and-future.html

    to broaden information on this subject.

  15. Billy:

    This is a facinating topic for me.
    Thank you for sharing with us your ideas and toughts.
    What is this test you mentioned above?

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Welcome and Thanks for your comment..

      The above test is an ancestral origin test through mtdna and y-Chromosome from each parent..

      Please have a tour and explore our conversations about dna origins, linguistics and anthropology..

  16. Old School C Says:

    How’s it going brotha. I had a question.

    I was debating with this Asian guy because he said that the oldest human fossils were found in 1985 in Longgupo, Zhenlongping Village, Miaoyu Town of Wushan County.

    They called it Wushan Man (2.04 million years old)”

    This makes its status as a Homo fossil critically important to the study of humans origins as it suggests that H. erectus was not the first human species to leave Africa and supports the argument made by some that H. erectus evolved in Asia and not Africa.“.

    I find it hard to believe when geneticists have found no evidence of this. The Khoisan People have shown, according to genetic studies to have the oldest DNA markers on this planet.

    Their DNA has to be atleast 50,000 years old.

    These people are a direct link genetically to the Y Chromosomal Adam. Aint no way in hell ima let some nincompoop tell me some BS like that.

    He tried to call me an Afro-Centrist but, these are White geneticists proving what Black folk already knew.

    But yet this Asian guy swear to me that oldest bones came from Asia.

    You know what, I dont have a problem with that theory since all land was called Asia before the Earth broke into the continents we have today. All im saying is, the proof isnt there.

    My question to you is, what do you make of these theory?.

    I personally believe there is foul play involved.

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Hotep, and Welcome Brotha Oldschool C

      To answer you question correctly,
      you wanted me to comment on the Wushan Man being the oldest human fossil found in Asia?

      My answer to that, is the Wushan found in Asia is indeed old, but not the oldest as far as antiquity..

      The oldest known fossil comes out of Africa-Ethiopia and is called Ardipithecus which date back from early as 3.2- 4.4 million years ago..

      The Wushan Originally considered a subspecies of Homo erectus in 1985, it is now thought by one of the scientists, Russell Ciochon, that first described it to be based upon fossilized fragments of an extinct non-hominin ape.

      Back in 1995, ten years after the initial discovery Milford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan, who saw the specimens on a trip to China several years ago, isn’t even convinced that the partial jaw is a hominid. “I believe it is a piece of an orangutan or other Pongo,” he says.

      He bases that conclusion on a wear facet on the preserved premolar, which to him suggests that the missing neighboring tooth is shaped more like an orang’s than a human’s.

      Then much later in June of 2009 Russell Ciochon declared he was now convinced that the Longgupo fossil and others like it do not represent a pre-erectus human, but rather one or more mystery apes indigenous to southeast Asia’s Pleistocene primal forest.

      In contrast, H. erectus arrived in Asia about 1.6 million years ago, but steered clear of the forest in pursuit of grassland game.

      There was No Pre-Erectus Species in Southeast Asia after all.
      *****************************************************************************************************************
      Ardipithecus:

      In a Special issue of Science, an international team of scientists has for the first time thoroughly described Ardipithecus ramidus, a hominid species that
      lived 4.4 million years ago in what is now E-thi-o’pi-a.

      The name Ardipithecus ramidus stems mostly from the Afar language, in which Ardi means “ground/floor” and ramid means “root“.
      The pithecus portion of the name is from the Greek word for “ape“.

      These fossils were dated to between 4.32 and 4.51 million years old.

      Altogether, forty-seven different authors from around the world contributed to the total study of Ardipithecus and its Environment.

      The primary authors are Tim White of the University of California, Berkeley, Berhane Asfaw of Rift Valley Research Service in Addis Ababa, Giday WoldeGabriel of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Gen Suwa of the University of Tokyo, and C. Owen Lovejoy of Kent State University.

      “These are the results of a mission to our Deep African Past,” said WoldeGabriel, who is also Project co-Director and geologist.
      ******************************************************************************************************************
      Homosapiens and mtdna migrations:

      Homosapiens are Anatomically modern humans, and according to Mitochondrial DNA and fossil evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago.

      Early human migrations began when Homo erectus first migrated out of Africa over the Levantine corridor and Horn of Africa to Eurasia almost 2 million ybp, more or less about 1.8 million years ago, a migration probably sparked by the development of language.

      Modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa up to 200,000 years ago and reached the Near East around 70 millennia ago.(70K B.P.)

      From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50 millennia ago, and on to Australia by 40 millennia ago, when for the first time H. sapiens reached territory never reached by H. erectus.

      Europe was reached by H. sapiens around 40 millennia ago, replacing the Neanderthal population.
      East Asia was reached by 30 millennia ago.

      The Khoisan people belong to Macro-Haplogroup L Family for thier mtDna goes back at least from
      151,600–233,600 Years Before Present..

      Khoisan-speaking populations can generally be divided into two distinct groups, the San and the Khoi.
      San populations consist of 10 different Kung groups

      The Khoisan people also belong to the Y-Chromosome markers of Haplogroup A..
      Haplogroup A represents one of two deep branches in the Y-chromosomal family tree, the other currently known as Haplogroup BT; Therefore, the lineage began evolving shortly after the time of Y-chromosomal Adam.

      ******************************************************************************************************************
      References and Citations:

      (Khoisan) Mtdna Macro-Haplogroup L / Y-Dna Haplgroup A

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macro-haplogroup_L_(mtDNA)

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_A_(Y-DNA)

      mtDNA Variation in the South African Kung and Khwe—Genetic Relationships to Other African Populations

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1288201/

      Wushan Man from wikipedia:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wushan_Man

      Ardipithecus from wikipedia also known as Ardi:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardipithecus

      Out of Africa I: Who, When and Where? (eds, Fleagle, J. G. et al. Springer, 2009)

      http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F459910a

      Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature.

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7477345

      National Geographic News June 17, 2009: Early “Human” Is Ape After All, Discoverer Decides

      http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/06/090617-early-human-ape-mystery.html

      Oldest Skeleton of Human Ancestor Found:

      http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/10/091001-oldest-human-skeleton-ardi-missing-link-chimps-ardipithecus-ramidus.html

      Before Lucy, There Was ‘Ardi': First Major Analysis Of Early Hominid Published In Science:

      http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091001110548.htm

      • Dear Bileh,

        You say

        >>>>> there was no pre-erectus species in Asia after all>>>>>>>
        but are you familiar with this study :

        “Until recently, anthropologists thought that such early hominids did not disperse from Africa to Asia until 1 million years ago. New fossil finds and dates from Asia, including the authors’, now suggest that early Homo arrived in East and South Asia by 2 million years ago.”

        Link for the full text :http://www.uiowa.edu/~bioanth/homo.html

        I understand You blog celebrating the long roots of Seemic -origins. Surely many of us has its marks in our DNA, since the Mid-East was the intensively populated / succesfully food-producing / combining trafic area. So it’s only natural Your blog taking sides. Still even me, a Siberian mammoth-hunters’ sons’ daugther can glanze and even sometimes read it.

        Ps. Keep it simple and don’t kill us with the too long answers – or does that indicate it’s a never-ending story ;) ?

      • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Welcome Bridget, and thanks for stopping by.

        If you were to carefully read my comments, I quoted this paragraph from the scientific study by Russell L. Ciochon, which i will paste below. He said there were no Pre-Erectus species in Asia?

        He was simply was stating that the oldest and most archaic species originated in Africa and then spread to Asia.

        The person who commented on my blog wanted me to speak on the Wushan Man being the oldest human fossil found in Asia?

        My answer to that, is the Wushan found in Asia is indeed old, but not the oldest as far as antiquity..

        The oldest known fossil comes out of Africa-Ethiopia and is called Ardipithecus which date back from early as 3.2- 4.4 million years ago..

        The Wushan Originally considered a subspecies of Homo erectus in 1985, it is now thought by one of the scientists, Russell Ciochon, that first described it to be based upon fossilized fragments of an extinct non-hominin ape.

        Back in 1995, ten years after the initial discovery Milford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan, who saw the specimens on a trip to China several years ago, isn’t even convinced that the partial jaw is a hominid. “I believe it is a piece of an orangutan or other Pongo,” he says.

        He bases that conclusion on a wear facet on the preserved premolar, which to him suggests that the missing neighboring tooth is shaped more like an orang’s than a human’s.

        Then much later in June of 2009 Russell Ciochon declared he was now convinced that the Longgupo fossil and others like it do not represent a pre-erectus human, but rather one or more mystery apes indigenous to southeast Asia’s Pleistocene primal forest.

        In contrast, H. erectus arrived in Asia about 1.6 million years ago, but steered clear of the forest in pursuit of grassland game. There was No Pre-Erectus Species in Southeast Asia after all.

        The above quote was emphatically stating that the Origin of Pre-Erectus was not found in Southeast Asia, but found exclusively in Africa.. (reference for quote under the mystery ape of Pleistocene Asia).

        REFERENCES:

        The mystery ape of Pleistocene Asia:

        http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v459/n7249/full/459910a.html

        Wushan Man from wikipedia:

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wushan_Man

        Ardipithecus from wikipedia also known as Ardi:

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardipithecus

        Out of Africa I: Who, When and Where? (eds, Fleagle, J. G. et al. Springer, 2009)

        http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F459910a

        Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature.

        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7477345

        National Geographic News June 17, 2009: Early “Human” Is Ape After All, Discoverer Decides

        http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/06/090617-early-human-ape-mystery.html

        Oldest Skeleton of Human Ancestor Found:

        http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/10/091001-oldest-human-skeleton-ardi-missing-link-chimps-ardipithecus-ramidus.html

        Before Lucy, There Was ‘Ardi’: First Major Analysis Of Early Hominid Published In Science:

        http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091001110548.htm

        I hope this sets the record straight. Please feel free to post your references.

  17. Thomas Lofaro Says:

    WOW. This is amazing stuff.

    Thank you for your dedicated research on this topic. In understanding where we all truly came from we can eliminate the racial tensions that divide us.

    I have a couple broad questions here and maybe you can direct me to the answer or answer it for me.

    (FYI I am a mixture of arab and italian races.) Hopefully without too much rehashing of what you have already said

    you can briefly address the following:

    1) Do you believe ancient man started from ethiopia and gradually migrated north to eventually become what is now know as the caucasian man (40,000yrs ago).

    2) Do you believe people of arab decent are the first true semites which derived their culture from the kushite peoples of Africa(70,000 yrs ago)?
    Up until now there are many religious viewpoints on this topic with moses having three sons, but i dont see the connection between this and any accurate historical viewpoints that I have came across.

    3) Are the first semites more directly decendents of the sumerian peoples or the ethiopian/nubian peoples???

    Thank you so much and please forgive me if you have already cleared up these questions…

    • (Billy Gambela) Says:

      Welcome Thomas and thanks for your questions.

      Now to will try to answer your 3 questions with based on research and findings, some of this information on the semitic origin including linguistics and culture has been previously discussed..

      1). Do i believe the ancient man started from Ethiopia migrated north to eventually become what is now know as the caucasian man (40,000yrs ago).

      My Answer:
      Yes …. Ancient man would have came from Africa, it could be Ethiopia as well as Kenya, Uganda or around the great lake regions of the Nilotic family..

      The first Asiatic migrations from man would have come from either Y-Chromosome types: Haplgroup E and J.

      Haplogroups E and J respectively belong to Ethiopians as Well as Arabs and Italian Males..

      Haplogroup E has and African-Asiatic Origin and Origin Date of 50,000-55,000 years before present.
      This would be the first male group to enter South West Asia, now know as Arabia or Middle East.

      E1b1b is found at high frequencies in East Africa and North Africa and is the only subclade that is found in Europe and Asia at significant frequencies. E1b1b is common among Afro-Asiatic speakers in Africa as well as among Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo speakers in East Africa and Sudan.

      E1b1b is at once the most common E subclade amongst East African Maasai, Somalis, Ethiopians, Eritreans and North African Sudanese, Egyptians, Berbers and Arabs. It is also common in the Near East, from where it spread into the Balkans and the rest of Europe!

      Most European who belong to Haplogroup E which has an African origin belong to the subclade E-V12
      Haplogroup E1b1b1a which translate to E-V12 which again According to Dr.Cruciani et al. (2007),
      E-V12 likely originated in North Africa.

      Haplogroup J has more of an Near East Arabian Peninsula Origin with an Origin Date of 45,000-50,000 YBP.
      It evolved in the Arabian Peninsula and was then carried into North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia.
      It also has a moderate presence in Southern Europe (especially in central and southern Italy, Malta, Greece, and Albania..

      2). you asked: Do i believe people of arab decent are the first true semites which derived their culture from the kushite peoples of Africa (70,000 yrs ago)?

      My Answer:
      No… The Kushites are an Ethiopian Colony, Ethiopia in the semitic language and bibilical times was known as Cush.
      The Kushites otherwise known as the Nubians also belong to Haplogroups E and J, with Haplogroup E having antiquity over Haplogroup J as far as places of origin and origin dates as well as migrations to Asia.

      Evidence based on Male-DNA in the Y-chromosome indicates that the Exodus began between 60,000 and 50,000 years ago. In his view, the early travelers followed the southern coastline of Asia, crossed about 250 kilometers 155 miles of sea, and colonized Australia by around 50,000 years ago.

      3). Are the first semites more directly decendents of the sumerian peoples or the ethiopian/nubian peoples???

      My Answer:
      The first semites would have came from the Ethiopians, the Nubians, the Egyptians then later the people of Sumer which is the Levant and modern day Iraq. People of African descent also are indigenous to parts of the Levant and Arabia as well from early migrations 50,000 years ago.

      By analyzing the Y chromosome DNA from males in all regions of the world, geneticist Spencer Wells has concluded that all humans alive today are patrilineally descended from a single man who lived in Africa around 60,000 years ago..

      Hope that you’ll find this useful…
      Thanks..

      • Thomas Lofaro Says:

        Wow, yes.

        Thank you so much again for sharing your Knowledge, So let me just see if I get what you are saying.

        The first semites DID derive there culture from early ethiopian and nubian culture

        BUT THEIR Exodus was into Southern Asia and Australia, where as the Exodus from Egypt of the Hyksos peoples?

        (which i assume are EITHER the ancestors of modern arabs OR related to the people of Sumer in some way) into the land of canaan was not related to the story portrayed in the orignal hebrew texts (later to be translated and adapted to european biases as the BIBLE).

        Sorry if I am still not understanding a couple of the finer points…if you could correct me once more if I have misunderstood….

        THANK YOU SO MUCH Mr Gambela!

      • (Billy Gambela) Says:

        The Semitic language and Culture would have derived from early Ethiopian, Nubians and Egyptians..

        The Biblical Exodus, would have been between 15th and 13th century B.C. around 3000 years ago.
        When i mentioned the exodus, I was emphatically talking about the Scientific Evidence based on Male-DNA in the Y-Chromosome,

        Which indicates that the Exodus of modern man began between 60,000 and 50,000 years ago, 47,000 years before the Biblical Exodus.

        The Creation Story in the Bible is not as archaic as the people who still inhabit these parts of Africa and Asia..

        CHRONOLOGY of African-Asiatic Gods/Religions:

        NAME OF GOD/ RELIGION-/ GREGORIAN YEAR

        1. Ptah/Ra’/Osiris Mysteries- 4100 BCE

        2. Yahweh/Jehova Judaism- 3760 BCE

        3. Jesus*(the Christ) Christianity- 1st Century C.E.

        Please understand the antiquity of African-Asiatic people who even pre-date Egyptian Culture 4100 BCE..

        People of The Nile Valley People are also tied into Halfan Culture which is the PARENT CULTURE of all Civilizations

        The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

        One Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.

        Hopes this makes it clear about the origin of Semitic People, Language and Culture which has an African-Asiatic origin..

        The Origin of Hebrew Civilization is Afroasiatic:

        http://www.colorq.org/Bible/default.aspx?d=Historical_Background&x=Afroasiatic

  18. It is the most relistic and unbiased article. I thank you Billy Gambella.

    I would like to know where could the capital seat of the legenday queen “Sheba”.

    Do you belive it was in Axum?

    The origin of Ghion/Blue Nile is Lake Tana, but the other guardians of Aden are far away.

    I was expecting Aden to be some where around Lake Tana and the first man Adam (or his grand son) to have lived there. Could you comment on this? Just your belief.

    Sorry, one more thing directly related to the topic.

    Ethiopian Jews, Felasha migrated to israel was reported to have diffrent genetic profile and concluded to be “Ethopic”. How do you compromize your findings with Israel Officials result?

    • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Markos, Thanks for stopping by…

      I will answer your questions in the following order.

      1. Was Axum the capital seat for the Queen of Sheba?

      My answer is Axum could be just one of the Kingdoms under the Rule of Queen of Sheba.

      According to Ethiopic History, Queen of Sheba was known and Makeda or Candace in the Legendary Kebra Negast… Also the The Ethiopian Orthodox Church claims that the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum houses, The Biblical Ark of the Covenant in which lie the Tablets of Law upon which the Ten Commandments are inscribed..

      2. Was the Garden of Eden near Gihon of Ethiopia or around Lake Tana?

      I believe the Garden of Eden and the Four rivers are as follows:

      BIBLICAL HYDROLOGY OF EDEN:

      Try looking at a Gideons Holy Bible: Genesis Chapter.2 vs 10-13

      ( vs.10 And a river went out of “Eden” to the water garden and from thence it was parted. and became into four heads/parts.)

      (vs. 11 the name of the first is Pi’son: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Hav’i-lah, where there is Gold.

      “Havilah” (literally meaning “stretch of sand”) is the name of various lands and/or people mentioned in the Bible.

      I believe that Havilah could be part of the modern day

      {eastern “stretch of sand” sahel regions}…

      Sudan-Nubia/ and Sahel (Eritrea) and (aksum/axumite regions)…

      {In Ancient hieroglyphics the word “Nubia” means Land of Gold}

      “Hav’i-lah where there is Gold” in Ancient Kush’s Land of Ham…

      (Vs.12 And the the Gold of that Land is Good: there is Bdellium and the Onyx Stone)..

      {Bdellium is an “Aromatic” gum like Myrrh that is exuded from Trees}

      (used for incense, as well as to embalm the dead in Ancient Egyptian times..),

      {These “Particular Trees” are also “Native” to the Horn of Africa} (commiphora myrrha)

      {Onyx was used/traded in Egypt as early as the 2nd Dynasty From

      Nubia/Ethiopia to make bowls and other pottery items.}

      (Vs.13 And the name of the second river is Gi’hon: the same is it that compasseth the Whole Land of

      E-thi-o’pi-a.)

      (Vs.14 Hid’de-kel: that is it which goes toward the east of Assyria, and the 4th river is Eu-phra’tes,

      Vs.14 describes the Mesopotamia location of the Tigris River and the Euphrates going out of Eden, Northerly

      Then Easterly towards Assyria- Iraq/Mesopotamia)..

      This Northerly route has the same route as the 3 rivers in todays East Africa, which are

      The White Nile-Uganda/Sudan, The Blue Nile-Ethiopia/ Lake Tana and The Tekeze River-Eritrea.

      NOTE: The Afro-Asiatic languages, which include SEMITIC languages such as ARABIC and HEBREW, are believed by Scholars to have Originated in ETHIOPIA.

      This is because the Region has very diverse language groups in close Geographic proximity, often considered a telltale sign for a linguistic Geographic Origin.

      3. You wanted to know about the genetic ethiopic profile of Falasha’s within regards to Israel results ?
      First let me say, I am not sure what do mean by Israel Official Results..

      Falasha tradition claims to trace their ancestry to Menelik, son of
      King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba.

      I will list some Genetic reports on Ethiopians and the Hebrew Populations.

      REFERENCE:

      Queen of Sheba: Kebra Negast

      http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/kebra_budge.pdf

      Founding Mothers of Jewish Communities:

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379128/?tool=pmcentrez

      Ethiopian Mitochondrial Study:

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1182106/

      History of Ethiopian Hebrews:

      http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/ejhist.html

      Kingdom of Axum

      http://archaeology.about.com/cs/africa/a/aksum.htm

      Queen of Sheba and Axum:

      http://www.ethiopiantreasures.co.uk/pages/aksum.htm

      The African Origin of the Garden of Eden:

      http://www.africawithin.com/jgjackson/jgjackson_african_origin.htm

      Hope you will find this information useful..

      • Thank you Billy,

        I am more or less satisfied by your answer. But, let me put my question the other way

        1. Some scholars say (i read but don’t have the sitation), Meroe is the most likely seat for the legendary queen sheba, and there is no as such significan’t archiological finding at Axum during the time of King Solomon. As you said i also believe axum has decended the tradition as he claims Meroe to be his ancesster. Comment on this.

        2. Ethiopian Jews (migrated to Israel) was tested for any genetic linkage of the true Jewishness and the result was diffrent, except some minor linkage with Yemen Jews. I hope you have heard this.

        In conclusion they were taken as Ethopic like other Ethiopians. I also believe they are not diffrent genetically from other Ethiopians, or most other northern Ethiopians are genetically Jewish as you have said. Just comment on this.

        Thank you

      • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

        Welcome Markos,

        I have went over this subject numerous times, with all citations and references from archeology, and genetics.

        I understand that there is a lot of information
        to read, the reason is so that i dont have to repeat information that has been spoken previously..

        1. So now you want to know if the Legendary Queen of Sheba was seated In Meroe.

        I have stated previously that the Queen of Sheba, also known as
        Makeda or Candace/ Kandake who could have had Kingdoms in Ethiopia and Nubian-Egypt.

        Also keep in mind that Sheba is the name of the Land, which is known as Saba/Seba.

        This is the Map of the Geographic locations of Sheba, according to the Geneisis from the Bible:

        (If you notice, seba, sheba, and sabtah are 3 locations of the queens kingdoms)..

        Excerpt: However, else- where in Josephus‘ Antiquities, he identifies Saba (Sheba) as a Ethiopian capital.

        He writes “Saba, that was the capital city of the Ethiopians
        its name was subsequently changed to Meroë by Cambyses.” known location down the Nile from Khartoum/Sudan.

        This identification further helps to confirm Josephus’ statement about the Queen who visited Solomon, since we know of Egyptian conquests to and from Ethiopia.

        Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia, and of Sheba itself with Meroë in Nubia, comes in Genesis 10:7. Here, Sheba is presented as a grandson of Kush.

        Also according to Josephus, the Egyptian writer Apion most strenuously insisted that the Hebrews were of Egyptian Origin. He affirmed that when they were cast out of Egypt They still retained the Native language of that Land..

        Further, if Seba, a son of Kush (Gen. 10:7), can be identified with Sheba, then the connection of Sheba with Ethiopia is further strengthened.

        Josephus‘ identification of the Queen of Sheba as
        The Woman who ruled Egypt and Ethiopia” is supported by his identification of the Ethiopian capital as Saba, which is the same as the name of the Southern Arabian kingdom conventionally considered the Queen’s domain.

        There is also Archeological Evidence of the

        Solomon and Sheba in Ethiopia, under the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

        Previously, I have mentioned from the Book of
        Stuart Munro-Hay, 2005,
        The Quest for the Ark of the Covenant“, Tauris

        (reviewed in Times Literary Supplement 19 August 2005 p 36).

        2. You asked about Ethiopian Jews who migrated to Israel was tested for any genetic linkage of the
        (true Jewishness) and the result was diffrent, except some minor linkage with Yemen Jews…

        Also what do you mean by true jewishness?

        Ethiopians and Other Africans from East, Central and North and West are the “Original Hebrews“.

        You may be speaking of the Y-chromosome Jewish test called Kohanim Y-markers, Which still would
        include the some of the Ethiopian Male population..

        However According to Halakha, the Oldest Normative Definition used by Hebrews for self-identification, a person is Matrilineally a Hebrew by Birth.

        Only Halakha can define who is or is not a Hebrew when a question of Hebrew identity, lineage, or parentage arises about any person seeking to define themselves or claim that they are Hebrew.

        As a result, mere belief in the principles of Judaism does not make one a “Jew”.

        Similarly, even non-adherence by a Hebrew to the 613 Mitzvot, or even formal Conversion to another Faith, does not make one lose one’s Hebrew status.

        Thus the immediate descendants of all Female Hebrews (even apostates) are still considered to be Hebrews, as are those of all their Female Descendants.

        Even those Descendants who are not aware they are Hebrews, or practice a faith other than Judaism, are defined by this perspective as Hebrews, as long as they come from an Unbroken Female line of Descent.

        This Matrilineal concept would unequivocally show the mtDna genetic relation of Ethiopian, Nubians and Egyptians to the Hebrew Population.

        Another way for to confirm the authenticity of the Original Hebrew, is to follow the “Origin of Eden” According to

        Bible Scholars the first 4 books in Genesis:

        Pertaining to the Founding of the Hebrew Nation are as follows}:

        1.Genesis- Founding of the Hebrew Nation, (Ethiopia, Sudan-Nubia, and Egypt)

        2. Exodus- the Covenant with the Hebrew Nation. (13th-14 century B.C. from Africa/Egypt)

        3. Leviticus- Laws of the Hebrew Nation. ( The Laws of Moses and Hebrews)

        4. Numbers- Journey to the Promise Land.

        (NUMBERS ch.12 Vs.1)

        And Miriam and Aaron Spake against Moses because

        Of the E-thi-O’pi-an Woman whom he had Married:

        For he had Married an E-thi-O’pi-an Woman.

        AFTERWORD:
        The Studies I listed previously proves this with Genetics, Archeology, Linguistics as well as Biblical Accounts who are the Original Hebrews..
        Ethiopians, Nubians, Egyptians and Hebrews are Genetically the same People. These African-Asiatic people
        are the first people to inhabit these biblical geographic regions. (Lands of Ham & Shem)

        References:

        THE QUEEN OF SHEBA: A QUEEN OF EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA

        http://jbq.jewishbible.org/assets/Uploads/293/293_Sheba2.pdf

        Nubian Queens in the Nile Valley and Afro-Asiatic Cultural History

        http://wysinger.homestead.com/fluehr.pdf

        Nubian Queen of Axum:

        http://www.ethiopiantreasures.co.uk/pages/aksum.htm

        Halakha Matrilineal BirthRights:

        http://www.fact-index.com/h/ha/halakha.html

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halakha

        A Book of the Beginnings, Volume 2 by G.Massey
        pg. 23 Hebrew Cruxes with Egyptian illustrations:

        613 Mitzvot:

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/613_mitzvot

        Saga of Sepharda by Debra Katz

        http://billygambelaafroasiaticanthropology.wordpress.com/2009/04/27/the-saga-of-sepharda-by-debra-katz-source-found-online/

        Hope this find this information useful..

  19. yedidyah Says:

    I do like the Truth for one, thank you my Brothers & Sisters, praise the most High YHVH.

    • Bileh* Gambela በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Peace ፐአቸ, Shalom ስሃሎም, and Hotep ሆተፕ, to you.

      Come Again ቾመ አጋኢን…

  20. Hi Bileh, am back,
    Who are the Sabaeans mentioned in the Book of Zachariah (as men who came from the desert). I am asking this because i have heard many theories that they are the present day “Sabaot” or “Sebei” tribes living in the Slopes of Mt.Elgon in Western Kenya/Eastern Uganda.
    Does the fact that the names seem close and the fact that these are Nilotic migratory tribes give this possibility any plausibility?

    Please answer me.

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      ወልቾመ ባችክ Welcome back and thanks for the support!!

      I will try my best to answer your questions in three parts: starting with the first question:

      1. Who are the Sabaeans mentioned in the book of Zachariah (as men who came from the desert).

      2. Could they be the present day “Sabaot” or “Sebei” tribes living in the Slopes of Mt.Elgon in Western Kenya/Eastern Uganda.

      3. Does the fact that the names seem close and the fact that these are Nilotic migratory tribes give this possibility any plausibility?

      ************************************************************************************************************

      My Answer to Question #1,

      1. I believe that Seba, Sheba and Saba are the names of Geographical Locations of Ancient East African Kingdoms. I also affirm that they are related to the Queen of Sheba Kingdoms, Secondly from what i have researched and read, I draw the conclusion that the Sabaeans could have had Kingdoms in the following locations: D’mt, located in northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Nubia due to their hegemony over the Red Sea as well as Northern Sabaean Territory known by Ancient Hebrews as Egypt, Mitzraim and Khebt. As well as Southern Arabian regions in Yemen also known as Saba.

      Later, in the mid-1st millennium B.C., the Southern Arabian immigrants, or Sabaens, appeared again in Ethiopia. These were Military or Trading Colonists who maintained contact with their Country of Origin for Centuries.

      The Semitic-speaking Axumites, or Habash (Abyssinians), had their capital city, Aksum, in the western part of the province of Tigray. During the first 6 centuries A.D., they Controlled territories North to Upper Egypt, East to the Gulf of Aden and Southern Arabia, south to the Omo River, and west to the Cushite Kingdom of Meroe ̈ (Munro-Hay 1991).

      Keep in mind according to Old Ancient Hebrew text the names Kheb, Kepsh and Kush were all names for Ancient Ethiopia. Also an excerpt from the Book of the Beginnings by Gerald Massey pg.190 2nd paragraph, reads as follows: The Egypt wherein Israel played the Zonahs, in the persons of two women Aholah and Aholibah, was the Land of Khebt, the Genetix a Celestial Region belonging to the Sabaeans Religion, hence the Paramours, who were Sabaeans from the Wilderness/Desert.

      Also the words wilderness and desert are used interchangeably when spoken of this passage.

      My Answers to Questions #2 and #3

      2. Are present day “Sabaot” or “Sebei” tribes living in the Slopes of Mt.Elgon in Western Kenya/Eastern Uganda.
      Sabaeans?

      First let me say the Sebei are from Sudan and Uganda and are Nilotic and speak Kupsabini.
      The Sebei is now known mainly as Sabini, and the Sabaot also speak a Nilotic Langauge from Kenya/Uganda.

      There is also Linguistic evidence of Semitic languages being spoken in Eritrea and Ethiopia since at least 2000 BC.

      The Ancient Sabaeans wrote and spoke in an Ancient African Semitic language, also the ancient Sabaean Kingdom established power in the early 1st millennium BC. In the 1st century BC it was conquered by the Himyarites Kingdom.

      3. Does the fact that the names seem close and the fact that these are Nilotic migratory tribes give this possibility any plausibility?

      The fact that the names are close, does raise an eyebrow but you must also consider that they speak two totally different african languages and have somewhat different cultural practices.

      So could they be the Ancient Sabaeans?

      My answer is that it is plausible from migratory routes they could be Genetically related, as most Africans are.
      But as far as Historical or Linguistical accounts, i have not found any proof to substantiate this claim..

      Although the names are similar, the linguistic origin and historical backgrounds are divergent ….

      REFERENCES:

      The Sebei:

      http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9124354#

      Sebei people from wiki:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sebei_people

      Sabeans from Yemen and wiki:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabaeans

      http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108153.html

      Sabaeans by Stuart Munro-Hay:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabaeans#cite_ref-munro-hay_0-1

      Sabaean language:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabaean_language

      Book of the Beginnings by Gerald Massey:

      http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Gerald_Massey

      Ethiopian Mitchondrial Report:

      http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers%5CEthiopian_Mitochondrial_DNA_Heritage.pdf

      Ethiopian-Sabaeans and Yemenis mtdna Haplogroups:

      http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182106&rendertype=table&id=TB1

      Queen of Sheba:

      http://www.professorevans.com/Queen%20of%20Sheba%20story%20&%20biblio.pdf

      Hope this information, will be advantageous for you…

  21. To Meshwesh once more you know nothing of what you speak of as the original inhabitants of arabia were Africans boy, you need to learn about how the euro slaves came to Africa and arabia and then became arabs.

  22. therie essien Says:

    hello people! great and interesting site,
    but pls be advised of wasting too much time on endless geneologies that dont really profit the soul.

    what matters is that we have the Holy Spirit to help us; that we can get back to Kingdom of God.

    i am a nigerian who believes that it all started in Africa, it’ll still factor here greatly in these end times!

    pls be careful with the mtdna testing…no hand or head marks, beware strong delusion and that other mark…

    God bless us all!

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Hello and Welcome..

      I am a researcher and soulsearcher..
      Genealogy is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral traditions, historical records, genetic analysis, and other public records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members.

      I also believe that discovering ones ancestry/history and relatives, not only profits the soul but also connects families together through research.
      One can still connect with the Holy Spirit as well as journey to the Kingdom of God by doing so.

      I also agree and find it scientifically true, that it all started in Africa. All Humans, Religions, Languages, most Customs and Creeds etc, fundamentally began in Mother Africa thousands of years ago..

      Genetic testing such as mtDna which is inherited from the wombman/Female can be found in all modern humans, no matter thier Race, Religion or Creeds from all parts of the World.

      Thus, it all began in Africa, from the our Mitochondrial “EVE” the Mother of All Living around 200,000 years ago.

      I do appreciate your comments, but please be advised this is an Anthropology site.

      The study of Humanity. This site is based on scientific facts NOT opinions.

      I would also like for you to clarify, your statement
      (“pls be careful with the mtdna testing…no hand or head marks, beware strong delusion and that other mark”)???

      Please be clear about your statements, so that we can discuss and educate our visitors as well..

      Thanks for Stopping by, and Stay Blessed.

      REFERENCES:

      Humans/Homosapiens:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_sapiens

      Anthropology:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology

      Genealogy:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genealogy

      mtDna/Mitochondrial DNA:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MtDNA

  23. The Ethiopians (“people with the burnt face”), like the Nubians (Sudanese), Eritreans, Somali, share linguistic and DNA genetic markers with present-day Egyptians.   Are Egyptians Africans? Yes.  

    Yes, Egypt is not the only civilization that racist Whites/Europeans have tried to claim. Case in point, great Zimbabwe was claimed by racists to have been founded by a lost Roman legion!        

    The fact is, Zimbabwe, featuring the Great Enclosure Wall, was built by the Shona-speaking people. Zimbabwe is one of the unique and marvelous monuments on the African continent–second only to the pyramids of the Nile Valley.  

    Egypt as white, and not a part of Africa?   Not so.  

    Egypt is as African as Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Chad, Morocco, Uganda, and all the other 48 African nations.    

    REFERENCES:  

    1. Pharaohs and Kings by David M. Rohl (Paperback – Jun 24, 1997) (32)  

    2. Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): Vowels, Tone, Consonants, and Vocabulary (Voices from Asia) by Christopher Ehret (Paperback – Aug 30, 1995)  

    3.  Afrasian Languages, Igor M. Diakonov, Nauka Press, Moscow, 1988.  

    4.  King James Bible, II Kings and Isaiah, Old Testament.  

    5. Billy Gambela Blog, Afri-Asiatic Anthropology Blog. [...]

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome and Thanks for your the historical accounts of Zimbabwe as well as The Nile Valley Family.

      This goes along well with my previous discussions and comments of the Great African Civilizations and Kingdoms.

      Also, I am most humbled for you adding my blog as your list of references…

  24. therie essien Says:

    my most profound and humble apologies, all protocol observed!

    I am a humble amateur writer, a Christian with little or no anthropological experience to support my opinions.

    however, my opinions do not evolve or exist in a vacuum or from out of the void.

    from my little study of the King James Authorized Version (The Holy Bible,) i find that Adam’s disobedience affected and is still affecting us all. you call it anthropology, geneology, i also see it to be of great religious record.

    i do not mean to offend with my zeal, apologies once again!

    however, if we agree that Adam was the starting point, then we agree that there is a source, just as there are Isrealites and Gentiles, there is a history, a journey, a root and a root cause.

    coming across this academic site, i am pleased to say that it has added immensely to my research on Africa’s true place in the scheme of things.

    if we try to avoid Adam’s error, then we can try to avoid Solomon’s, and Samson’s, and Ahaseuru’s silliness. this is the religious theme behind Deliverance: finding out where an ancestor, four generations back, may have erred.

    this is an anthropology site: i wonder if you will be interested in the point where Science stops and God’s Word continues…to INFINITY? so your site interested me, because…

    the black race has sufferred so much! growing up i never knew Egypt was even in Africa, or that simon of Cyrene was African, or that Moses might have been Egyptian, like paul or Mark.

    dollies were white then, and the devil was depicted as black!

    and then i heard we were all from HAM; and under a curse…to be the servant…Good Lord, i thought.

    now, through sites like these, because of my curious mind, i descovered that Queeen Charlotte, wife of George the third of Great Britain, had predominantly black blood, and from her lineage sprung Queen Victoria seed too.

    geneology is important to me, because now i see that we may quite possibly be the children of God told not to mix with the decendants of Cain, who wanted Thier way of doing things, not His (God’s,) and thus the ancient hebrew could’ve been us…lied to by the differrent colonial masters from the tribe of Dan, that we were ugly, pagan, evil, from ab initio, untill we actually believed…and still believe it!!!

    my research is crucial to the way Africans see themselves. our pagan dances may not even be our culture, if we were there right in the time of Lucius of Cyrene, who ministered to the Lord.

    I am so very sorry for sounding so opinionated; please accept my apologies. further more; i cant explain my other comments without sounding opinionated, or can i? but he who will hear will hear, it is written.

    thank you for being so thorough and methodical!

  25. therie essien Says:

    ok, am sorry, i forgot to add my referrences! uh; here goes!

    1.) Anna Renee is still talking (website) : Christianity’s African roots; Kingdom of Axum-Ethiopia
    2.) The African Triumph by Bob Sheppard
    3.) FROM THE BIBLE-Exodus 13: 2, 15/ Exodus 4: 22/ Romans 6: 9/ 1st Corinthians 15: 45/ Gen. 9: 19, 10: 1-20/ Psalm 68: 31/ Isa 19: 21-25/ Mt 2: 13-15
    4.) The Law Keepers by Chawviv Ben Yisreal (how the Isrealites/Hebrews connect to the African Slave Trade)
    5.) Through Zena’s Eyes: Charlotte, Queen of England
    6.) Simon of Cyrene (Wikipedia)

    to name a few.

    • Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ Says:

      Welcome Back and thanks for your comments.

      First let me say without total disregard of your comments, that i partially agree with your statements.

      This particular article was constructed to show that Africans ie. (East Africans, West Africans, North, Central and South), as well as the African-Asiatics from South West Asia (the Middle East) are genetically related.

      I also stated previously, Thus, it all began in Africa, from the our Mitochondrial “EVE” the Mother of All Living around 200,000 years ago.

      This would be 196,000 years before the Old testament Hebrew Bible and 198,000 years before Christianity and 198,389 years before King James version was revised and published in 1611.

      The King James version was actually the third of its kind, officially translated into English; The first having been the Great Bible commissioned by the Church of England in the reign of King Henry VIII, The second having been the Bishop’s Bible of 1568.

      I also used the King James version and Gideons Holy Bible as well as other Bibliography and techniques to disprove and prove the geographic location of the Garden of Eden in East Africa as well as an African Semitic Origin.

      It is not my intention to underscore any religion or any religious practices, I only intend to show that African-Asiatic people are archaic and are the mothers and fathers of all civilizations.

      Thanks again, for your input to this discussion..

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