The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade: Only 4.4% of Slaves were Shipped to North America (U.S. & Canada) The Majority 93.6% of Slaves were shipped to Central America, South America and the Caribbean Islands #slaveryfacts

Posted in A Subtle Racist Classification, African American is not a Nationality., African Diaspora, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, Indigenous people, Semetic People with tags , , , , , on November 28, 2013 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

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Facts and Figures

  • Number of Slaves Transported by Each European Country (12)

  Country   Voyages   Slaves Transported  
  Portugal (including Brazil)   30,000   4,650,000  
  Spain (including Cuba)   4,000   1,600,000  
  France (including West Indies)   4,200   1,250,000  
  Holland   2,000   500,000  
  Britain   12,000   2,600,000  
  British North America, U.S.   1,500   300,000  
  Denmark   250   50,000  
  Other   250   50,000  
  Total   54,200   11,000,000  
  • Number of Slaves Delivered to Each Country / Destination  (12)

  Country / Destination   Slaves Delivered     %  
  Brazil   4,000,000     35.3  
  Spanish Empire (including Cuba)   2,500,000     22.1  
  British West Indies   2,000,000     17.7  
  French West Indies (including Cayenne)   1,600,000     14.1  
  British North America & U.S.   500,000     4.4  
  Dutch West Indies (including Surinam)   500,000     4.4  
  Danish West Indies   28,000     0.2  
  Europe (including Portugal, Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, etc.   200,000     1.8  
  Total   11,328,000     100.0  
  • Number of Slaves Leaving African Ports (12)

  African Port   Number of Slaves Departing     %  
  Senegambia (including Arguin), Sierra Leone   2,000,000     15.4  
  Windward Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Ivory Coast   250,000     1.9  
  Gold Coast (Ashanti)   1,500,000     11.5  
  Slave Coast (Dahomey, Adra, Oyo)   2,000,000     15.4  
  Benin to Calabar   2,000,000     15.4  
  Cameroons / Gabon   250,000     1.9  
  Loango   750,000     5.8  
  Congo / Angola   3,000,000     23.1  
  Mozambique / Madagascar   1,000,000     7.7  
  Total Leaving African Ports   13,000,000     100.0  
  • First Employment of Slaves in the Americas (12)

  First Employment   Number of Slaves     %  
  Sugar Plantations   6,000,000     54.5  
  Coffee Plantations   2,000,000     18.2  
  Mines   1,000,000     9.1  
  Domestic Labor   1,000,000     9.1  
  Cotton Fields   500,000     4.5  
  Cocoa Fields   250,000     2.3  
  Building   250,000     2.3  
  Total   11,000,000     100.0  

       These data were derived from the W.E.B. Du Bois database of slaving voyages, which was later combined with other databases to form the comprehensive Voyages database of nearly 35,000 slaving expeditions, estimated to represent 80% of the total  (32).

  Period   Number of Slaves Accounted For     %  
  1450-1600   409,000     3.6  
  1601-1700   1,348,000     11.9  
  1701-1800   6,090,000     53.8  
  1801-1900   3,466,000     30.6  
  Total Slave Exports   11,313,000     100.0  
  • Abolition Dates in the New World

Country   Date of Abolition   Comments
Upper Canada   1793   Ontario between 1791 and 1840
Haiti   1794   Revolution of slaves began in 1791
Lower Canada   1803   Quebec between 1791 and 1840
Argentina   1813    
Chile   1823    
Federal Republic of Central America   1824   Included Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Mexico   1829    
Jamaica (British Empire)   1834    
Guadeloupe (French Empire)   1848    
Peru   1851    
Surinam (Dutch Empire)   1863    
United States   1865   Following the Civil War
Puerto Rico   1873    
Cuba   1880    
Brazil   1888    
  • U.S. Census Data by Race – 1800 to 1860 (84)

Census Year Total Population

Breakdown By Race

Total,  %  Black
White Total Black Free Black Slave
1860 31,443,321 26,922,537 4,441,830 488,070 3,953,760

14.1

1850 23,191,876 19,553,068 3,638,808 434,495 3,204,313 15.7
1840 17,063,353 14,189,705 2,873,648 386,293 2,487,355 16.8
1830 12,860,702 10,532,060 2,328,642 319,599 2,009,043 18.1
1820 9,638,453 7,866,797 1,771,656 233,634 1,538,022 18.4
1810 7,239,881 5,862,073 1,377,808 186,446 1,191,362 19.0
1800 5,308,483 4,306,446 1,002,037 108,435 893,602 18.9

Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster

Image

Sources and Selected Links

Primary Sources

  1. Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite Jr., The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record    hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/index.php

  2. fizzog’s photostream, Gate of No Return, Cape Coast Castle,    www.flickr.com

  3. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Reading Room,_Images of African-American Slavery and Freedom    www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

  4. Circumcisioninfo.com

  5. Alex Haley, Roots: The Saga of an American Family,  Doubleday: Reissue edition (August 17, 1976), copyright 1976 by Alex Haley

  6. Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O’Rourke, Power and Plenty: Trade, War and the World Economy in the Second Millennium, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. In the UK, Princeton University Press, Woodstock, Oxfordshire. c. 2007 by Princeton University Press.

  7. wayfaring stranger, The door of no return, Gorée Island, www.flickr.com

  8. Mark Moxon, La Maison des Esclaves (Slave House) Image    www.moxon.net/senegal/ile_de_goree.html

  9. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, A History of Public Health in South Carolina,    www.scdhec.net

  10. MSN Encarta, Emancipation Proclamation,    encarta.msn.com

  11. Wikipedia, Fort Wagner,    en.wikipedia.org

  12. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870, Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York, c. 1997 Hugh Thomas

  13. R. Reynolds, An Accurate MAP of Africa From the Latest Improvements and Regulated by Astronomical Observations From A New Universal Collection, 1771, Engraved for Drakes Voyages, London: T. Cooke, University of Florida Map & Imagery Library    www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPAFRICA-D.HTML

  14. United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section, Map No. 4045 Rev. 4, AFRICA, January 2004    www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/africa.pdf

  15. Slavery in America, Map of West African Slave Ports c. 1750,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  16. NASA, Astronomy Picture of the Day, Earth at Night, 2000 November 27,    antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html

  17. Slavery in America, Slave Trade From Africa to the Americas 1650-1860,    www.slaveryinamerica.org

  18. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Nigeria,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

  19. Slavery in the North, Slavery in Massachusetts,    www.slavenorth.com

  20. Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery, A History of Slavery in Africa, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, c1983, second edition c2000 Paul E. Lovejoy

  21. Joseph C. Miller, Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade: Statistical Evidence on Causality, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 11:385-423

  22. James Ciment, Atlas of African-American History, Checkmark Books, An Imprint of Facts On File, Inc., c2001 by Media Projects Inc.

  23. Charles T. Webber, The Underground Railroad, Oil on Canvas at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Subscription Fund Purchases, Accession Number 1927.26,    www.cincinnatiartmuseum.org    [inscribed, verso: This picture is painted for the love of my dear wife Frances Augusta Webber-C.T.W. Dec 22, 1891]

  24. Ohio Memory, An Online Scrapbook of Ohio History,    Underground Railroad Painting, omp.ohiolink.edu

  25. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Senegal,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

  26. Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitochondria,    micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html

  27. Genetics Home Reference, Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions, Y chromosome,    ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome=Y;jsessionid=E08860AEBFD0E58ED766FE844F97C806

  28. PBS.org, African American Lives, Who Am I? A Genealogy Guide& African American Lives DVD c. 2006 Kunhardt Productions, Inc, Educational Broadcasting Corporation, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.    www.pbs.org/wnet/aalives/genealogy.html

  29. Ancestry.com, Slave Registers of former British Colonial Dependencies, 1812-1834,    www.ancestry.com

  30. Ancestry.com, U.S. Census Collection,    ancestry.com/?rc=locale%7E&us=0   [contains key word searchable census records from 1790 to 1930. Paid membership required]

  31. Cyndi’s List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet, African-American,    www.cyndislist.com/african.htm

  32. Voyages, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database,    www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces   [this site contains the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade database known as the Voyages Database]

  33. BeyondBooks.com, Guest Experts, Professor Ira Berlin,    http://www.beyondbooks.com/chat/1999/berlinarchive.asp   [an interview with Professor Ira Berlin, a noted historian of southern and African American life. Berlin is Professor of History at the University of Maryland, and has authored a number of books on African American history]

  34. Family Tree of Beth Nolan – Tasmania Australia, Compiled by Beth (Nolan) Stott,    stott.customer.netspace.net.au/famtree2.htm   [a typical family tree]

  35. University of Massachusetts Lowell, African-American Roots Project,    www.uml.edu/roots/Default.asp

  36. National Geographic Genographic Project, A Partnership Between National Geographic Society and IBM, Gene Project to Trace Humanity’s Migrations,    reference.aol.com/natgeo/_a/gene-project-to-trace-humanitys/20050413141909990001

  37. Visit Zambia, New DNA test results trace Oprah Winfrey’s ancestry to Liberia / Zambia,    www.visitzambia.co.zm/lk/news/new_dna_test_results_trace_oprah_winfrey_s_ancestry_to_liberia_zambia   [discussion of Oprah Winfrey's DNA analysis and the tribes she is likely descended from]

  38. Mitochondria Interest Group Website, MIG icon image: Rat brain dendrite illustrating 6 mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang. NINDS, NIH,tango01.cit.nih.gov/sig/home.taf?_function=main&SIGInfo_SIGID=60    [image of a rat brain dendrite illustrating six mitochondria. Courtesy of Dr. M. Brightman and L. Chang, NINDS, NIH.]

  39. Library of Congress, American Memory, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875, Feb. 27, 1869, Fifteenth amendment to the Constitution,    memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=015/llsl015.db&recNum=379    [resolution by the Senate and the House of Representatives, regarding the 15th amendment to the Constitution, providing voting rights to all adult males including former slaves]

  40. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave,    sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/07.html    [contains the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, online]

  41. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage, The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, Oxford University Press, New York, c. 2006 David Brion Davis

  42. Street Law & The Supreme Court Historical Society Present… Landmark Cases Supreme Court, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),    www.landmarkcases.org/dredscott/home.html    [a description of the Dred Scott case and Supreme Court decision. Provides a teacher's guide for covering the material with students.]

  43. The Louisiana Purchase, A Heritage Explored, An Online Educational Resource from LSU Libraries Special Collections,    www.lib.lsu.edu/special/purchase/history.html#outline1    [an interesting history of the Louisiana Purchase]

  44. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children & Families, HHS NEWS, Campaign Launched in Nashville to Identify, Assist Victims of Human Trafficking,www.act.hhs.gov/news/press/2007/human_trafficking_victims.htm

  45. PBS.org, Africans in America, Judgement Day, Dred Scott’s fight for freedom,    www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html    [a very good description of Dred Scott's life at the time he was pursuing his freedom in the courts]

  46. Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Collection, Scott v. Sandford, Taney, C.J., Opinion of the Court, www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0060_0393_ZO.html     [transcript of the opinion of Chief Justice Taney. Each Justice wrote his own opinion, and all of the documents are included on this website]

  47. Christine’s Genealogy Website, Who are your people?,    ccharity.com

  48. Guardian Unlimited, Church apologizes for benefiting from slave trade,    www.guardian.co.uk/religion/Story/0,,1705628,00.html

  49. The Evangelist, Official Publication of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany, Church’s failures of two millennia include repression, Crusades, Inquisition, www.evangelist.org/year2000/0699fait.htm

  50. msn Encarta, John Paul IIJohn Paul’s Achievements,    encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552499_2/John_Paul_II.html

  51. Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves (Paperback), Mariner Books, Reprint Edition (February 10, 2006), c. 2005 by Adam Hochschild, Hardcover Edition published by Houghton Mifflin, New York (January 7, 2005)

  52. CNN.com Transcripts, Live From President’s Day, Aired February 16, 2004, Miles O’Brien, CNN Anchor, and Rick Shenkman, Presidential Historian, transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0402/16/lol.01.html    [a humorous interview about the Presidents on Presidents Day, sharing little known facts]

  53. Wikipedia, Franklin Pierce,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Pierce

  54. United States Senate, Historical Minute Essays, The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner,    www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/The_Caning_of_Senator_Charles_Sumner.htm

  55. Wikipedia, Ain’t I a Woman?,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ain’t_I_a_Woman%3F

  56. New Jersey State Bar Foundation, Students’ Corner, Forty Acres and a Mule,    www.njsbf.org/njsbf/student/respect/fall02-2.cfm   [a concise discussion of the origin of the phrase '40 acres and a mule,' a promise made to freed slaves as the Civil War was in its final months. Unfortunately, the benefits turned out to be short lived.]

  57. Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, What About My 40 Acres & A Mule?    www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1994/4/94.04.01.x.html    [an interesting discussion by Gerene L. Freeman of the promise of 40 acres and a mule, in the context of teaching a predominantly African-American group of students about playwrights of African descent who emerged as a result and/or in spite of the American slave system.]

  58. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Citizen Information Service, Massachusetts Facts, Part Four, Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War Hero, www.sec.state.ma.us/cis/cismaf/mf4.htm    [provides a brief biography of Sergaent William H. Carney, Civil War hero and member of the Massachusetts 54th Regiment, a black brigade that became famous for the assault on Fort Wagner. Carney was the first African-American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor, the nation's highest honor. The site includes an account of the battle of Fort Wagner in Carney's own words.]

  59. Wikipedia, Strange Fruit,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strange_Fruit

  60. PBS, Independent Lens, Strange Fruit,    www.pbs.org/independentlens/strangefruit/film.html    [includes a sound clip of the song 'Strange Fruit,' sung by Billie Holiday]

  61. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Finding Oprah’s Roots – Finding Your Own, First EditionCrown Publishers, New York, c. 2007 by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

  62. African Ancestry, trace your dna . find your roots,    www.africanancestry.com    [a commercial site that offers DNA testing. One of the labs used in the PBS African American Lives genealogical study of prominent African-Americans, hosted by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.]

  63. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Ghana,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gh.html

  64. Wikipedia, Sojourner Truth,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sojourner_Truth

  65. New Orleans Convention & Visitors Bureau, A Brief History of New Orleans,    www.neworleanscvb.com/static/index.cfm/contentID/sectionID/1/subsectionID/0

  66. Blupete.com, History of Nova Scotia, Book #1: Acadia, Part 6 — The Deportation of the Acadians, Ch. 04 – Introduction,    www.blupete.com/Hist/NovaScotiaBk1/Ch04.htm

  67. Wikipedia, Henry Box Brown,    en.widipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Box_Brown

  68. eSSORTMENT, Henry ‘box’ brown information,    va.essortment.com/henryhenry_rnls.htm

  69. Amistad Research Center,    www.tulane.edu/~amistad/amessays.htm

  70. Exploring Amistad at Mystic Seaport, Supreme Court Justices 1841,    amistad.mysticseaport.org/discovery/people/bio.justices.html#thompson.list

  71. Wikipedia, List of Presidents of the United States,    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States

  72. University of South Florida, Florida Center for Instructional Technology, Exploring Florida, Key West: Civil War,    fcit.usf.edu/Florida/docs/k/keys15htm

  73. Keys Historeum, Presented by the Historical Preservation Society of the Upper Keys, History of Key West,    www.keyshistory.org/keywest.html

  74. The Floridians, A Social History of Florida, Florida Under Civil Strife, The Civil War and Reconstruction, The Road to Secession,    www.floridahistory.org/floridians/civilw.htm

  75. Florida National Guard Heritage Center, Civil War,    www.floridaguard.army.mil/history/CivilWar.asp?did=1305

  76. Fort Taylor.org, Key West, Florida, Fort Taylor Features    www.forttaylor.org/features.html

  77. Shotgun’s Home of the American Civil War, Chronology of the American Civil War    www.civilwarhome.com/timeline.htm

  78. New York Press, January 5, 2001, William Bryk, Mr. Wood Is Mayor, Volume 14, Issue 1    www.newyorkpress.com/print.cfm?content_id=3400

  79. Google Book Search, text of mayor wood’s message to council 1861, Harper’s Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A.D. to 1902, Page 435, by Benson John Lossing, John Fiske, Woodrow Wilson – United Staes – 1901,    books.google.com/books?q=text+of+mayor+wood%27s+message+to+council+1861&btnG=Search+Books

  80. Google Book Search, the national cyclopaedia of american biography fernando wood mayor of new york, page 388, by James Terry White – 1893    books.google.com/books?q=the+national+cyclopaedia+of+american+biography+fernando+wood+mayor+of+new+york

  81. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Online Exhibitions, The Dred Scott Decision and its Bitter Legacy,    www.gilderlehrman.org/collection/online/scott/index.html

  82. BBC, Long lost roots of Black Britons revealed by groundbreaking BBC TWO documentaryMotherland: A Genetic Journey,  www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2003/02_february/05/motherland.shtml    [Describes a BBC Documentary about the Motherland Project, The study took DNA samples from 229 volunteers, all of whom had four African-Caribbean grandparents. It was found that 13% of the ancestors of today's Black Britons of Caribbean descent are of European origin. Analysis of the male and female lines showed that 27% have a Y chromosome passed from father to son that traces back to Europe (the male line), whereas only 2% have mitochondrial DNA that traces to Europe, passed from mother to child (the female line).]

  83. Science Museum (UK), Genetic Journey to the Motherland, www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/antenna/motherland/index.asp    [Information about the Motherland Project. Using DNA analysis, hundreds of British Afro-Caribbeans discovered the part of Africa their forebears came from. Some of the results are surprising.]

  84. U.S. Census Bureau, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056.html

  85. Waynet.org, Levi Coffin House State Historic Site,    www.waynet.org/levicoffin/default.htm

  86. Vicki Betts, University of Texas at Tyler, Files by Newspaper Titles, Atlanta Southern Confederacy, March 1861 – May 1863, F. Geutebruck    www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/southern_confederacy.htm

  87. Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, Supreme Court Opinions, Amistad, Opinion of Justice Story    www.law.cornell.edu/background/amistad/opinion.html    [Opinion of the court in the Amistad case, delivered by Justice Story]

  88. Central Intelligence Agency, Map of Sierra Leone,    www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sl.html

Selected Links & Sources

Image Collections

Map Collections

Songs, Narratives, Plays and Online Exhibitions

Museums, Libraries, Institutes, Databases

Genealogy

Resources for Teachers and Students

Miscellaneous


Last updated:  June 13, 2009      © 2007, 2008 Neil A. Frankel Contact: webmaster

Egyptians and Hebrews [Asiatic-Africans] in America before Christ/Columbus 1000-800 B.C. . (The Indigenous Americans)

Posted in African Diaspora, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, Ashkenazi Hebrews L2a1, Asiatic African, Blood type O, Blood Types Americas, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Egypt, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Habeshas, Indigenous people, North America / North Africa, O-positive blood, Semetic People, Semitic, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, The United States and the Arab World with tags on August 16, 2011 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

Did ancient Hebrews reach the shores of the North and South American continents thousands of years before Christopher Columbus?

What evidence is there for Hebrew and Israelite occupation of the Western Hemisphere even a thousand years before Christ?

Was trans-Atlantic commerce and travel fairly routine in the days of king Solomon of Israel? Read here the intriguing, fascinating saga of the TRUE DISCOVERERS OF AMERICA!

A stone in a dry creek bed in New Mexico, discovered by early settlers in the region, is one of the most amazing archaeological discoveries in the Western Hemisphere. It contains engraved on its flank the entire Ten Commandments written in ancient Hebrew script! Hebrew scholars, such as Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis University near Boston, have vouched for its authenticity.

I visited the site of the huge boulder, near Las Lunas, New Mexico, in 1973 and photographed the Hebrew inscriptions. A local newspaper reporter guided me to the mysterious site, located out in the middle of the New Mexico desert. We watched for rattlesnakes, as we hiked in to the spot where the boulder lies, unmoved and in situ for who knows how many mysterious centuries. Who put it there? Who wrote the incredible inscription of the TEN COMMANDMENTS in an ancient Hebrew dialect?

In his new book The Origins and Empire of Ancient Israel, author-historian Steven M. Collins points out that the “Las Lunas Stone” inscription in archaic Hebrew was written in the Hebrew letters of the style of the Moabite Stone, dated to about 1,000 B.C. This would place the writing on the stone to the time of the kingdom of ancient Israel under its most affluent and powerful king, Solomon, who reigned from 1014 B.C. to 974 B.C.

Exactly how old the writing is, however, is not known. George Morehouse, a geologist, studied it and concluded it is between 500 and 2000 years old, based on the weathered patina on the rock. However, the inscriptions have received periodic scrubbings, says Collins, and therefore some of the ancient evidence of weatherization could have been removed in the process. Collins points out that the punctuation in the inscription matches that found in ancient Greek manuscripts of the fourth century.

Dr. Barry Fell states that separation points found in the artifact date to as early as 1200 B.C.

Evidence of Ancient Egyptians:

Literally hundreds of inscribed Phoenician, Celtic and Basque stone grave markers have been found in Susquehanna Valley of Pennsylvania, dated to 800-600 B.C., over 2,000 years before the fateful voyage of Columbus! It must be said, therefore, that Christopher Columbus did not really “discover” America. Rather, he and his intrepid sailors rediscovered the “New World”!

Incredible as it may seem, the presence of ancient Egyptians has been found in the writing system of the Wabanaki/Micmac Indians in Maine, a sub-tribe of the Algonquins. It has even been documented, says Collins, that the ancient Egyptians sailed the Pacific Ocean as far as Polynesia and Hawaii, searching for gold, about 1,000 B.C. – during the very time of Solomon’s Empire in Israel.

One proof of this fact is an inscription in ancient Ogam and Libyan – the language of Egyptian merchantmen – found near the Rio Grande River of Texas. The inscription states than an Egyptian-Libyan king by the name of Shishonq visited North America a number of times. It is translated as, “A crew of Shishonq the king took shelter in this place of concealment.” Says Dr. Barry Fell, several kings of this name ruled Egypt and Libya between 1000 and 800 B.C.

Interestingly, the Bible itself mentions a king of Egypt by the name of “Shishak” (“Shishonq”) who invaded the Kingdom of Judah during the time of Rehoboam, son of Solomon, after the kingdom of Israel separated from allegiance to the throne of David. Shishak was no doubt an ally of Jeroboam, the king of Israel, at that time. He was a mighty king and plundered the Temple and riches of the kingdom of Judah (see I Kings 14:25-26).

Steve Collins declares:

“It is significant that Dr. Fell noted the time period of ‘1000-800 B.C.’ as marking a period of significant Old World exploration of the New World. This time frame exactly parallels Bible records showing international travel and commerce flourished with fleets undetaking multi-year voyages and visiting other continents.

This time frame begins with the reigns of Kings David and Solomon, but continues through much of the history of the northern kingdom of Israel, the dominant partner in the Phoenician alliance until Israel fell circa 721 B.C. The conclusion is inescapable that the record of ancient history verifies the biblical accounts.

The Bible is not a detailed history of all that happened in the ancient world, but it confirms what archaeology and epigraphy have shown about the real state of commerce and travel in the ancient world”

(Collins, page 227, emphasis mine except boldface).

“A date of 800-700 B.C. for this stele confirms that the triple alliance of Israel, Egypt and Phoenicia lasted long after the lifetime of King Solomon. The Bible records that the ten tribes of Israel forsook worshiping the Creator God after Solomon’s death, and adopted the religious customs of Egypt, Tyre and Sidon. Biblical accounts show that Israel and Phoenicia were still very closely allied during the reign of King Ahab of Israel (circa 850 B.C.), and there is no evidence that their alliance suffered a breach until approximately 721 B.C., when Israel ceased to be a nation in the Mideast. . . .

Therefore the Iowa stele showing that these ancient nations were still working together around 800 B.C. in the New World is consistent with biblical accounts” (ibid., p.212).

In addition to these discoveries, another stele exhibiting the ancient Egyptian-Libyan script was unearthed on Long Island, New York. Dr. Barry Fell states that it also probably dates to around the ninth century B.C.

Still another amazing discovery was made in Oklahoma, where another stele was found which contained references to the gods Baal and Ra, with an inscription which was “an extract from the Hymn to the Aton by Pharaoh Akhnaton.” Although the dating of Akhnation is purported to be in the 13th century B.C., new Egyptian dynastic dating methods indicate he was much closer to 800 B.C.

Immanuel Velikovsky points out that Akhnaton was a member of the 18th dynasty in Egypt, which co-existed with the divided kingdoms of Israel and Judah during the 800s B.C. He was a contemporary of king Jehoshaphat in Jerusalem, and reigned from 870-840 B.C. (see Ages in Chaos, p.229). This Oklahoma stele is written in Iberian-Punic, a language descended from Phoenician-Hebrew, and Barry Fell declares that it is “scarcely older than 800 B.C.”

(see Collins, p.212, Fell, America B.C., p.159).

REFERENCES:

They Came Before Columbus – Dr Ivan Van Sertima, YouTube

Amazon.com: They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence .

Bryan Wilhite: Africa and the Pre-Columbian Contacts with America

When the Earth was called Muu Le Muria Washutaw Muurs 2/4 …

Before Columbus or the Egypt Pyramids Washitaw Muurs 1 of 4 …

 

 

Egyptians and Semitic People  in Ancient America

Egyptians and Hebrews in America Before Christ –

Islam and Muslims in America before Columbus

The African Civilizations in  Americas – Before BC

Pre-Columbian Muslims in the Americas

Once Reviled, Black Hebrews Now Fêted – Forward.com

Hispanic Muslims In America Before Coloumbus.  

African Hebrew  Slavery and Land of Israel  American Aliyah … -

Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

RaceandHistory.com -AFRICAN BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA

My Moms MtDna Migration Map. (A Nubian.Egyptian Family from Aswan Egypt)

Posted in afri asiatic, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, anthrolpology, DNA, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 30, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

egypt-nubian_wedding-copy

l2a1-asiatic-african-geodna-map-copy

This is Highlighted feature Map of the migrational route of My Mother’s mtDNa results  yields the Pan-African Asiatic,

Haplogroup -L2a1 @ positions

16086C, 16223T16278T16294T16309G , 16368C, and 16519C. motif : (sp40) (H054)

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Middle East and North Africa Related Ethnicites

Part of the “AfrI-Asiatic-Semitic Family”.   The process was very simple and pain-less.

This Map shows my Mother‘s Northern Nile Valley migration as well as West Asia from  Nat’l Genographic

It took all of 3 minutes to extract saliva from my inner cheek.   place the swab back in the container that’s enclosed in the package with

(instructional dvd included..)

I then sent off my package “anonymously” with a “generated ID” number to follow the process “Online”

Blah blah Blah………  4 weeks later example…….

My Mother‘s Ethnic Ancestral Origins and Migrations

NileValley / Sahara/ West Asia”

(Nubian-Egyptian)( Cushite-Khamite) ..

BAM   !! U now have an Ethnic Origin The cost are from $79-$149 and takes about 4-6 weeks to process.

At completion you will be assigned a Haplogroup with a Migration Map of Whatever Region your DNA Originates...

The Americas, Africa, Madagascar , Asia, Europe , Australia etc..

Excerpt from GeneticEthiopian Study : copy and paste the link below in your web browers to view:

(http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182106)

All Ethiopian {L2} lineages can be seen as derived from the two subclades { L2a1 and L2b }

(click link for Ethiopian/Yemenis Haplogroup mtDNA BreakDown): > articlerender.fcgi

Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps {16189 and “16309″}

However, whereas the Majority (26 out of 33“African Americans” share Haplogroup {L2a}

complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps

{L2a1e-3495, L2a1a-3918, L2a1f-5581, and L2a1i-15229″}..

None of those sequences, (shown above) were observed in our Ethiopian {“16309″} L2a1 samples.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa

Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transitionnp16145″.

(Dr. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study> (2002)....

(NOTE): You have to do extra research such as,

Dna data Bases or Forums for comparative matches as well as ,

Public record Genetic studies, to pin-point the Highest Frequencies !! of your Personal DNA number sequence).

DNA-animation

THE  GOVt  in all countries and Monarchs alike .. WorldWide have DNA DATABASES

They know who you are ..   but do you know who you Are ?

(With the Scare tatics and  Biological Threats and

Exotic Flu Viruses this Science is Imperative !

(ex. the swine flu and vaccine ready H1N1 companies)

To know who You are)...

Something to ponder on ...

(the term “African-American” is a

(Corporate Constitutional definition/term:

that was implemented in December of 1988,

to hide your True Ethnic Nationality..)

OFFICE OF MANGEMENT AND BUDGET:

Federal Register Notice on Oct.30, 1997

Revisions to the standard for the Classification of Federal Data On Race and Ethnicity

Copy and paste link into your web browser to view site:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/rewrite/fedreg/ombdir15.html

Celebrities and their Countries of Origin:

Morgan Freeman mtDna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara

Oprah Winfrey – Haplogroup L3b Kpelle / Whoopi Goldberg – Guinea Bissau

Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone  his (moms)- Angola.

Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

Dr. Mya Angelou is related to the Mende people of Liberia and Sierra leone who migrated from Western Sudan.

Dr. Mae Jemison L1a listed as West Africa via African Ancestry…

Tina Tuner Haplogroup L2a Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Niger, South Sudan, Kenya.

AfricaNews – Exclusive: Isaiah Washington mtdna on Dual citizenship – Sierra Leone

India Arie- Nigeria,  Issac Hayes- Ghana..  R.I.P.

Chris Tucker- Y-Dna is  E3b Mbundu from Angola  and his Mtdna is L1c* Bamileke of Cameroon

(Don Cheadle has Afro-Asiatic male Y-chromosomes R1b and Chris Rock has Central African-Asiatic Y-chromosome B21a  with notable frequencies in North Cameroon from Uldeme..)

Forest Whittiker, Danny Glover and T.D. Jakes – are mtDna L1c and Y-chromo E3b Nigerian (Igbo-people)

Judge Hatchett is from Nigeria- Yoruba/Hausa...

John Legend’s mtDna belongs to the Mende from Sierra Leone and his Y-Dna belongs to the Fula of Guinea Bissau..

Wanda Sykes from the hit show Curb Your Enthusiasm belongs to the Tikar and Fulani  from Cameroon, and others thats not mentioned?

President Barack Hussein Obama – Kenyan-American…

Most of the individuals that were tested with African Ancestry had West African Ancestry?

Genetic Genealogy and the Ancestries of African Americans by Dr.Rick Kittles.pdf

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Billy_H_Ga…

Lets Go people .. What are u waiting for ?

Nubia.Sudan.Meroe.Pyramids.

Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian Ancestry,

First-generation Egyptian immigrants, or Descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the United States.

In the 2007 U.S. census, the number of people with Egyptian Ancestry was estimated at 195,000,

Although some estimates range from 700,000 to 2 million.

The large majority of Egyptians in the U.S. are Coptic Orthodox

Some Christians in Egypt are increasingly marginalized.

NOTE:

One of the Largest community of Egyptian Americans are located in

Northeastern Virginia and the Washington, DC, Metropolitan area.

Other Egyptian American communities are concentrated in

Jersey City, New Jersey, Levittown,

New YorkSteinway Village in Queens, and

New YorkBay Ridge in Brooklyn, New York,

As well as in California, mainly in and around the

Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas,

And parts of Florida and, increasingly, Philadelphia.

African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora.

It is estimated that the current population of recent

African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.

Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S.

EthiopiaEritreaEgypt,  Somalia,

NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone, and South Africa.

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  Egyptian population Haplogroup L …

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA and  Study of Human Evolution

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins

Investigation in the mtdna genetic structure of  Barbadians Haplogroup L …

Mitochondrial control region sequences from  U.S. “Hispanic Haplogroup L…

BioMed Central | Additional Files | The RHNumtS compilation ..

.Figure 2

Africa | Africa Map | Travel Africa | African Safari

Africa the Continent – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Evidence of the Early Penetration of Negroes into Prehistoric Egypt”

African diaspora – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Egyptian American – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of  the newly 53 African colonized countries

“The socalled Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau”

NJ State Police  mtdna Micro-Chip Technology called Gene-Chip..

Revisions to the U.S. OMB Standards for Negro Racial Classification of Federal Data …

H.R. 2647-NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2010 CONFERENCE ..

Terracotta Goddess Isis from 18th Dynasty Collections

ብልልይ።ግምብል

Egypt mtDNA and the Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ Dna DiversitY.. The Maternal Hamito-Semitic.. mtDna Haplogroup L

Posted in anthrolpology, Blood type O, Cushitic, DNA, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Egypt MtDNA, Ethiopia, Habeshas, Haplogroup L2 and L3 in West Asia, Indigenous mtDna (mother's) of Egypt, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, O-positive blood, Semitic with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

Meritaten Tasherit 18th Dynasty

egypts_awakening-mamoud

Dna Diversity Indigenous Egyptians at Gurna-Luxor contd..

Northern Egyptians are a bit more cosmopolitan in their ancestry 64.8% indigenous with  Y-Haplogroup E family.

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R , Y- chromosomes. However, some of these Near Eastern and European Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa (G, K2, R1a, R1b are 8,000 B.P. and older) and any historical contribution from foreign men is more likely to be in the 15% area. Divided by two (no recent female contribution to speak of). This makes non-dynastic Egyptian population around the 7% mark in Lower Egypt; and only some of this is Arab.

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Diversity of 58 individuals from

Upper Egypt, more than half (34 individuals) from Gurna,

Whose population has an Ancient Cultural History, Were studied by sequencing The Control-Region and screening diagnostic RFLP markers.

This Sedentary Population:

(meaning= inhabiting the same location through out life, non nomadic)

Presented similarities to the Ethiopian Population by the

Haplogroups L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the

West Eurasian component (defined by Haplogroups H to K and T to X) and Particularly by a High frequency (17.6%) of Afri-Asiatic Haplogroup M1.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from Upper Egypt (Gurna)sedentary population …

As for the maternal (mother’s) inheritance; this is more varied. From a study at Gurna

(of modern Upper Egyptians): Haplogroups;

H 14.7%, I  5.9%, J 5.9%, L0a* 11.1%, L1* 4.9%, L2a1* 20%,

L3* 11.0%, M1  14.9%, N1b  8.8%, T 5.9%, U  8.8%, L2* 2.0%

U4  5.9%, U6 2.9%, L3e* 4.0%, L3b* 1.9%, L1c* 1.0%

L2b* 2.0%. L1b* 4.9%, L3f*6.9%. L3d*1.0%.

Percentages above are based on mtdna frequencies of

Southern Upper Egypt/Nile Valley collectively..

Percentages below are based onmtdna frequency in

Northern Alexandria/Lower Egypt ( Saunier July 2008)..

The Breakdown is predominantly European 67.5% followed by African @ 20.6% and Asian @ 11.9%.

European: R0 and subgroups (31.4%), I (3.2%), J (7.6%), K (4.7%), T (9.4%), U (9.0%), W (0.7%) X (1.4%)

African Haplogroups: L0 (2.2%), L1 (2.5%),  L2 (3.6%) and L3 (12.3%)..

Asiatic Haplogroups: M (6.9%) and N (5.1%)

Results:

The Egyptian Population Data set has a Low Random Match Probability..

The Egyptian Population also shows a Large number of Unique Haplotypes,

Therefore indicating a High mtDna Diversity within the Country

Overall 238 different haplotypes were defined by 228 variable positions.

Of the 238 different Haplotypes, 31 were shared within the database of 277 individuals.

The Haplotype most common in this dataset was observed in five individuals

There were 17 points of Heteroplasmy identified in 15 individuals (5.4% of the database)

At 16 positions: One Sample indicated three positions of point heteroplasmy>

(16519, 73 and 195)…

Other remarks: Egypt is distinctive Bio-geographically, as it is centrally located,

Among three surrounding continents its home Africa, Asia and Europe..

(which group belongs to your mother ? )…..

Of these, The L haplotypes are Nilotic and Indigenous and are typically Supra and sub Saharan..

Haplogroup L2a (mtDNA) has notable frequencies of 22% among the

Hebrew Affiliated Fulani of Nile Valley to Niger to The Gambia

They are at least 70,000-111,100 B.P. The Oldest in Egypt !!

L2a1 also has (49%) MtDna collectively in,

Sudan, Nile- Valley/Nubia, Ethiopia, and Egypt

(from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)..

(the Nile Valley Civilizations)……

Queen Ahmose Nefertari/ New Kingdom 19th Dynasty

L2a is also in the Great Rift Valley regions @

16% Kenya/Sudan and 33% in Mozambique.

Today, the term is most often used to refer to

The Valley of the East African Rift,

The divergent plate boundary which extends from

The Afar Triple Junction southward

Across Eastern Africa, and is in the process of splitting

The African Plate into two new separate plates.

Geologists generally refer to these incipient plates as

The Nubian and Somalian subplates or protoplates.

East African-Asiatic: Plate of Nubia/Somalia and ArabiaAs for haplogroups M1 and U, they are African/Westasian/Eurasian haplotypes, at 30,000 B.P.

Other West-asian/Eur-asian, Haplotypes have been found in 12,000 year old bones in Morocco.

Haplogroups N and I Mtdna are possibly attributable to Arab ancestry, about 15% non-Arab in upper Egypt. But still, most of that would easily be attributable to the Neolithic input from “AsiA” very little of this would be attributable to Arabs.

To sum up, there doesn’t seem to be majority ‘Arab’ genetic component to the Egyptian DNA pool, 20% absolute maximum. A lot of the non African DNA is traceable to the Neolithic farming expansion that swept across North Africa, so it would be a lot lower in reality.

In upper Egypt a maximum of 20% of the Y chromosomes are Non –African.

{MMother’s mtDNA L2a1 has been shown to be prevalent in North Africa }..

{Since the Dynastic times, of Ethiopian-Nubian and Egyptian Kingdoms} …..

Sesostris the Ist 12th Dynasty from Altes Museum inBerlin

So how these people are supposed to have Magically Changed appearance in the past few thousand

years with so little foreign input I’d like to know

Egyptians are Indigenous “African-Egyptian”, Not Euro/Arabs.. They are in essence “African-Arabs”.

They are part African/Asiatics: (Hamito-Semitic) and are members of

The Nile Valley  and the Great Rift Valley , which could be equally known as

The East African Rift , Nile Valley Civilizations…

(“Nile Valley, “North Africa”, “Horn of Africa” and “West Asian Arab Africans”.)

{copy and paste national geographic link on egyptian mummies and dna}

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/080606-egypt-mummies.html

An important influence on the subsequent genetic landscape

Of the continent is likely to have been the LGM.

Paleovegetational studies have indicated that, between 30,000 and 11,000 years ago,

Much of the continent was extremely arid (Adams and Faure 1997).

The Sahara advanced hundreds of kilometers further south, and the Equatorial Rainforests

Were reduced to a small fraction of their present size, leaving open woodland and savanna in much of the Congo basin.

This may have formed a refuge area from which modern humans later dispersed:

Some with haplogroup L2a East and West, with L1b west;

Perhaps even some with L1a East and L1d Southward.

The origins of these expansions may lie earlier,

At the beginnings of the Later Stone Age, ~40,000 years ago.

Queen Meryt-Amen the 19th Dynasty

The Valley of the Queens, is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharaohs were buried in ancient times. In ancient times, it was known as Ta-Set-Neferu, meaning –‘the place of the Children of the Pharaoh’, because along with the Queens of the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties (1550–1070 BCE) many princes and princesses were also buried with various members of the nobility. The tombs of these individuals were maintained by mortuary priests who performed daily rituals and provided offerings and prayers for the deceased nobility.

The distributions and ages of L1a, L1c/L3e, and L1d testify to the habitation of East, and Central, and southern Africa, respectively, by modern humans, ~40,000 years ago.

Similarly, L1b, L3b, and L3d imply that West Africa has been inhabited since at least 20,000–30,000 years ago.

Haplogroup L1b is concentrated in West Africa, with some overflow into Central and North Africa

(particularly geographically adjacent areas, connected by the West African coastal pathway)

but little in East, southeastern, or southern Africa.

It is also common in so called African Americans

(~27% of all L1b-types in the database)

By contrast, the commoner haplogroup L3b (fig. 8c) is predominantly West African,

with a substantial representation again in today’s socalled African Americans.

It has also spilled over into North Africa and on into the Near East as well.

And Its sister clade, Haplogroup L3d (fig. 9a), is also mainly West African and African American.

A number of types are found in SouthEastern Africa, including one type (in L3d1), matching a Fulbe/Fulani lineage,

At considerable elevated Frequencies.

L3e (fig. 9b) is the most widespread, frequent, and ancient of the African L3 clades, comprising approximately one-third of all L3 types in sub-Saharan Africa.

This haplogroup has recently been dissected in some detail by Bandelt et al. (2001),

Who suggest an origin for the haplogroup in the Central Africa/Sudan region ~45,000 years ago.

As they recognized, L3e1 in particular is common amongst SouthEastern African Bantu speakers,

Along with some L3e2 and L3e3 lineages.

L3e also represents approximately one-third of all African mtDNA lineages in Brazil.

Alves-Silva et al. (2000)

Finally, there are two small sister clades, L3e3 and L3e4.

L3e3 is primarily West African,But with its root type present at elevated frequency in the

Southeast and with some southeastern African derivatives. There is also a Kenyan/Kikuyu derivative,

Again raising a possible connection with the Eastern stream.

L3e4 is present in East, Central, and West Africa, with One individual in the Southeast,

But is too rare to draw conclusions from.

The area occupied by Cameroon is not always considered as part of the geographic region known as West Africa.

Taking into account its haplogroup composition it could also be considered a genetic outsider.

There are numerous lineages

(L0a, L0a1a, L0a2, L2a1e, L4g, and L5)

that have a more Central-Eastern than Western Assignation.

(Pereira et al. 2001Salas et al. 2002Kivisild et al. 2004).

The L4g haplogroupis most frequent in Eastern and

NorthEastern Africa and waspreviously Dated to ~40–45 kya

(Salas et al. 2002Go; Kivisildet al. 2004Go).

Haplogroup L4g (previously designated L3g) is present in both Eastern Tanzanian

Click-speaking populations at high frequencies (60%Hadza, 48% Sandawe) but is Absent in the SAK.

History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDna …

The only L4 Saudi haplotype belongs to the L4a1 subclade defined by 16207T/C transversion.

Although it has no exact matches its most related types are found in Ethiopia [30].

Four L5 lineages have been found in Saudi Arabia but all have the same

Haplotype that belongs to the L5a1 subclade defined in the

HVSI region by the 1635516362 motif [30]. It has matches in Egypt and Ethiopia.

L6 was found the Most Abundant clade in Yemen [30].

BioMed Central |  Macro-Haplogroup L mtDNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula …

HAPLOGROUP L2A:

Haplogroup L2a is Nilotic and the most common and widely distributed sub- Saharan African Haplogroup and is also frequent in the Americas (~19%).

The wide distribution of L2a in Africa makes identifying geographical origins of lineages difficult.

(Excerpt from: The African Diaspora: Mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic Slave Trade)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182259/

The Main Puzzle is the almost Ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a,

North Africa Tunisian Bay : Golfe de Tunisia Port Saïd { Carthage}Which we suggest may have become”Prevalent “somewhere in

North-Central Africa  { Prehistoric Central North Africa }

Spreading East and West along the Sahel, during the Last Glacial Period or some what earlier..

Example: Modern day Sahel, Tunisia near Libya and Algeria..

Note: The Jerba Islands of Tunisia/Carthage is located in South Eastern Tunisia,

Tunisia, is inhabited by four ethnic groups: Berbers, Arabs, sub-Saharans, and Jews/Hebrews.

(click link below for isolated Sub/Supra Saharan mtdna of jerba/tunisia)

Isolated Haplogroups of Jerba Island Tunisia: L1b, L2a1L2a1c1, L2d2, L3b, L3b1, L3e1a, L3f, M and U

The Island of Jerba/Tunisia is said to be Inhabited First, by the Descendants of  the Mousterian Population

Between the 5th and 6thMillienia B.C. (Tlatli, 1967), Who were later replaced by Berbers of  the Ketama

and Lemata tribes ( Khaldoun 1852).

The First Arab settlement on the Island Occurred in the 7th Century A.D.

Another study shows results also point to a less Ancient western sub-Saharan gene flow to Tunisia, including Haplogroups L2a and L3b.

This conclusion points to an Ancient African gene flow to Tunisia before 20,000 BP.

These findings parallel the more recent findings of both archaeology and linguistics on the prehistory of Africa.

The present work suggests that sub-Saharan contributions to North Africa have experienced several complex population processes after the occupation of the region by anatomically modern humans.

Our results reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued to evolve in  supra-Saharan Africa.


PCR AMPLIFICATIONS:

PCR amplification of (a) 27 selected NumtS in 4 healthy subjects from

Different ethnic groups ex..  L2a1-c1/16086C in (North Africa) Figure 2

Costa‘s link to mtDna diversity of Tunisia

Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian …

BioMed Central | Full text | The RHNumtS compilation:  North Africa L2a1c1…

Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers.pdf

Tunisia’s reproductive mtDna groups Isolates on Jerba Island.pdf

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] mtDNA sequences from Tunisian …

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/Tunisia and Morrocan Haplogroup L

mtDNA Haplogroup L 72.5% diversity in Sudan (East Africa)

Mitochondrial DNA  L2a and L3a Variation in Mauritania and Mali

RootsWeb: GENEALOGY-DNA-L [DNA] New Egyptian mtDNA sequences

European Journal of Human Genetics – Table 1 for article: The Canary Islands and North Central/NW Africa…

Haplogroup L2a has frequencies of 14% among Algerian Arab/Berbers and

10% among Bilād al-Sūs Morrocan Arab/Berbers in

The Sousse Valley North Africa..

We recognize, however, that the origins of these haplogroups may be more ancient than we can trace

(L2, for example, may be well >70,000 years old )….. and that, in such cases,

evidence of the earlier distribution of these clusters may have been erased by subsequent demographic processe.

We have attempted partly to disentangle the structure of L2a, retaining as irreducible on present evidence three major squares close to the root of the cluster. These reticulations link eight main clusters by single-step mutations.

We assume that the main reticulations of the network are due to the existence of rapid transitions at positions 16189 and 16192

(Howell et al. 2000), which approach saturation due to the high time depth of African lineages.

We also assume that position 16309 is more stable than the two known fast sites and therefore is not responsible for the main reticulations.

On these grounds, clusters α1-α2-α3, as well as β1-β2-β3, might be collapsed into two main clusters,

One of them with the basal motif of “(L2a)” and the other harboring the transition at “16309″ (L2a1).

Several instances in which 16309 must nevertheless evolve in parallel can then be read off the network..

Full report link below on genetic mtdna migrations:

Haplogroup L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309 (Salas et al. 2002).

The most extensive pan-African haplotype

(16189 16192 16223 16278 16294 16309 16390) is in the L2a1 haplogroup.

This sequence is also observed in West Africa among the Malinke, Wolof, and others; in

North Africa among the Maure, Hausa, Fulbe, Tuaregs , Hebrews and others; in

Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the

Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in

East Africa among the Kenyan/KikuyuClosely related variants are observed among

The Tuareg in North and West Africa and among the

East African Dinka of Sudan and Eastern Somalians. (Ely et. al. 2006; Watson et al. 1997).

Also striking is the presence in Sakai, Mani of  Thailand of an unequivocal representative

With this  motif (16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309)

Of the sub-Supra Saharan African L2a haplogroup (Torroni et al. 2001),

Which again is compatible with the physical characteristics of this Negrito group.

Although the suggestion that the first spreading out of Africa of modern humans could have carried

some L2 lineages in addition to the L3 ancestors (Watson et al. 1997)…

(Note: my thoughts are the Sakai, and  Mani people of Thailand who genetically belong to the

Motif: 16223–16274–16278–16294– 16309 could very well belong to L2a1 by 16309 as according to the updated

Haplogroup Phylotree 2010 by Van Mannis) ex: Coding region 12693, 15784, and HVS1: (16309) for L2a1.

A compliation 0f 185 mtDNAs sampled across North Africa showed that about Half of the

Lineages belonged to the L Haplogroups otherwised observed mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa

And  that most of the rest fell into Haplogroup U6 (Sala et al. 2002) Which perhaps Originated

In the Near East and Spread into North Africa ~30 thousand years (KY) ago (KYA) (Maca-Meyer et. al. 2003).

A proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages, in higher frequencies as geographic proximity to sub-Saharan Africa increases.

The distribution of the main L haplogroups in North Africa somewhat reflects the known trans-Saharan slave routes:

West is dominated by L1b, L2b, L2c, L2d, L3b and L3d;

the Center by L3e and some L3f and L3w;

the East by L0a, L3h, L3i, L3x and, in common with the Center, L3f and L3w;

while, the ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a is almost everywhere.

Another major contribution to the pool of North Afri- can populations was the sub-Saharan one.

It is known that a proportion of 1/4 to 1/2 of North African female pool is made of typical sub-Saharan lineages

(designated as haplogroups L0-L6)

Japan mtDna Genome Variation in  Sakai Eastern Asia from Thailand…

Joshua Project – Sakai, Mani of Thailand Ethnic People

The mtDna of the  trans-Saharan slave trade

HAPLOGROUP L2a

mtDNA phylo tree Build 10 (10 Aug 2010)

PhyloTree.org | sub-haplogroup |Haplogroup L

The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

Mitotool.org Macro-Haplogroup L  PhyloTree and Ethnic Groups..

Comparison of Craniofacial features of African-Asiatic Human Groups.

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in  Prehistoric Egypt”

Click link for Origin Date of mtDna>{TB5}

L1b 30,550 (16,250) B.P.
L2a 55,150 (19,350) B.P.
L2a1 33,700 (13,400) B.P.
L2d 121,900 (34,200) B.P.
L3e 49,250 (11,750) B.P.
L3e1a 26,750 (12,000) B.P.
L3e1 32,150 (11,450) B.P.
L3b 21,600 (6,850)  B.P.
L1c2 44,100 (10,650) B.P.
L3d 30,250 (8,450) B.P.
L3f 36,300 (12,800) B.P.

University College London 2004. mtdna study..

nile-valley-in-egypt

Afterword:

According to the profile of West African Dna study, on

Nilotic – Haplogroup L2a

The Percentages clearly shows an clear Eastern Distribution:

Eastern Africa 82%,

Western African 69%,

North-West African 27%,

South Africans 3% Kung Khwe

As well as Cabo Verde Islands 20% and

Fulani people from East-West, Central and North Africa at 22%

Chart on pg.5 (click counter clock-wise to view)

Shows Sahara, Horn of Africa and Congo regions as Well as Krings 1999. Nile Valley mtdna% ....

Click Link below:

http://www.africandna.com/ScienPapers/MtDNA_Profile_of_West_African_Guineans.pdf

Egyptian Triad Statue. Menkaura The Goddess Hathor and Goddess BatNorth Africans tend to cluster with West Africans, suggesting that the sub-Saharan component of

North Africans Originates primarily from West rather than East Africa

(as expected, on geographical grounds).

Unlike other North Africans,Egyptians are closer to East Africans

than to West Africans. [Rando et al. 1999].)

PC2 has a large contribution from the Eastern lineage groups L3g and L3*;

However L2a, L1b1a, and L3e2* also make a similar contribution.

And though Egypt in the North as well, Egyptians tend to Genetically cluster with East Africans

mtDna Lineages of  Ethiopians, Egyptians and Hebrew Yemenis, Populations MDS plot (fig.3)

Clustered together with the Egyptian Population

In between the Near Eastern and West African as well as Southern African Clusters.

It is interesting that both Semitic and Cushitic Speaking Populations of Ethiopia,

Were close to each other and did not reveal significant differences

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC1182106/

A recent study on mtDNA suggested that modern Nubians and Egyptians are much more similar to one another than either is to southern Sudanese populations and that the divergence between the two northern populations may have occurred during the past few hundred or few thousand years (Krings et al. 1999).

Forensic Misclassification of Ancient Nubia:

http://www.cas.gsu.edu/anthropology/images/ANTH/Forensic_Misclassification_PDF.pdf

GambHotep with Gucci Addidas

TRG presents..Billy Gamble the Warriors on iTunes…Custom made Gucci- Adidas Sneakers by Alhassan Tou’re { http://www.touredesigns.com}

NOTE: Haplgroup L2a being prevalent in North-Central Africa with an  Origin Date of 55,150 B.P.

Would place L2a in the Upper Paleolithic era in North Africa beginning around 50,000 years before the present (ybp),

As well as the Mousterian Pluvial period circa 50,000 B.C. and  lasting 20,000 years, and finally ending around 30,000 ybp.

Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia or Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago

All the stone tools are very much alike and Unsophisticated.

However after 50,000 years ago there is “Sharp Increase” in the diversity of Artifacts.

For the First Time Bone Artifacts, and the First Art appear in the fossil record in Africa.

The First Evidence of Human Fishing is also noted from Artifacts in places like Blombos cave in South Africa.

After 50,000 years ago, Firstly in Africa, it was found that Human Artifacts could be placed into Many different categories,

such as {Projectile Points, Engraving Tools, Knife Blades, and Drilling and Piercing Tools}

All of the above are Found in (Al’kebu-lan) AFRICA...

Frequencies of  North West- East Asiatic Africans

(Haplogroup L, mtdna % chart)

Origin Population Number tested %
East Africa Somalia 26 Watson et al. (1997) 50.00%
East Africa Sudan 112 Afonso et al. (2008) 72.50%
East Africa Ethiopia 270 Kivisild et al. (2004) 52.20%
North Africa Libya (Jews) 83 Behar et al. (2008) 3.60%
North Africa Tunisia (Jews) 37 Behar et al. (2008) 2.20%
North Africa Morocco (Jews) 149 Behar et al. (2008) 1.34%
North Africa Tunisia 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 48.40%
North Africa Tunisia (Takrouna) 33 Frigi et al. (2006) 3.03%
North Africa Tunisia (Zriba) 50 Turchi et al. (2009) 8.00%
North Africa Morocco 56 Turchi et al. (2009) 26.80%
North Africa Morocco (Berbers) 64 Turchi et al. (2009) 3.20%
North Africa Algeria (Mozabites) 85 Turchi et al. (2009) 12.90%
North Africa Algeria 47 Turchi et al. (2009) 20.70%
Europe Italy (Latium) 138 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Italy (Volterra) 114 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.60%
Europe Italy (Basilicata) 92 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.20%
Europe Italy (Sicily) 154 Ottoni et al. (2009) 2.00%
Europe Spain 312 Alvarez et al. (2007) 2.90%
Europe Spain (Galicia) 92 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.30%
Europe Spain (North East) 118 Pereira et al. (2005) 2.54%
Europe Spain (Priego de Cordoba) 108 Casas et al. (2006) 8.30%
Europe Spain (Zamora) 214 Alvarez et al. (2010) 4.70%
Europe South Iberia 310 Casas et al. (2006) 7.40%
Europe Spain (Canaries) 300 Brehm et al. (2003) 6.60%
Europe Spain (Balearic Islands) 231 Picornell et al. (2005) 2.20%
Europe Portugal 594 Achilli et al. (2007) 6.90%
Europe Portugal 549 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.83%
Europe Portugal (North) 187 Pereira et al. (2005) 3.21%
Europe Portugal (Central) 239 Pereira et al. (2005) 5.02%
Europe Portugal (South) 123 Pereira et al. (2005) 11.38%
Europe Portugal (Madeira) 155 Brehm et al. (2003) 12.90%
Europe Portugal (Açores) 179 Brehm et al. (2003) 3.40%
Middle East Yemen 115 Kivisild et al. (2004) 45.70%
Middle East Yemen (Jews) 119 Behar et al. (2008) 16.81%
Middle East Bedouins (Israel) 58 Behar et al. (2008) 15.50%
Middle East Palestinians (Israel) 117 Achilli et al. (2007) 13.68%
Middle East Jordania 494 Achilli et al. (2007) 12.50%
Middle East Iraq 116 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.48%
Middle East Syria 328 Achilli et al. (2007) 9.15%
Middle East Saudi Arabia 120 Abu-Amero et al. (2007) 6.66%
Middle East Lebanon 176 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.84%
Middle East Druzes (Israel) 77 Behar et al. (2008) 2.60%
Middle East Kurds 82 Achilli et al. (2007) 2.44%
Middle East Turkey 340 Achilli et al. (2007) 1.76%
South America Colombia (Antioquia) 113 Bedoya et al. (2006) 8.00%
South America Mexico (North-Central) 223 Green et al. (2000) 4.50%
South America Argentina 246 Corach et al. (2009) 2.03%

Funerary Boat from Egypt Middle Kingdom 12th Dynasty

Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population …

Mtdna Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt.

National Geographic Magazine -Ancient Egyptian Origins .

Ancient Egyptian Origins

ብልልይ።ጋምብለ

Egyptian Y-Chromosomes Indigenous to North Africa and Nile Valley ኒለ ቫልለይ: My Fathers’ Haplogroup E Familia: PN2= M78, M35 , M2 the Egyptian triad..

Posted in afri asiatic, Africa, African Diaspora, Afro Arabs, afro asiatic, Ancient Greece, anthrolpology, Asia and Europe.., Asiatic African, Asiatic African mtdna in Europeans, Beja, Blood type O, Cushitic, Declaration of the Rights of indigenous people, DNA, Dna Bill S.1858 ( Biometrics), Do you have a Nationality ?, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Indigenous Y-chromosomes (father's) Dna in Egypt/Nubia, Kushites, Macedonian, National DNA Database in the U.S.A, Nile Valley/Nubia, Nilo Saharan, North Africa, Nubians, O-positive blood, Sahara, Sephardic Hebrews, Sephardic Jews, Sudan, Supra-Sahara, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

King Thutmose. III the 18th Dynasty

king-tut

800px-maler_der_grabkammer_des_ramose_002 Egyptian Y-chromosome Diversity @ Luxor


This is more focused on the Egyptians around Luxor, where Upper Egypt was located.

A recent DNA study by Cruciani that focused on the Y chromosome E-M78 revealed that it was ’born’ in North East Africa , not East Africa as previously thought. This means, that an Egyptian with an M78 Y chromosome has had a male line ancestry reaching back to the Pleistocene inhabitants of Egypt; as far back as the Halfan culture about 24,000 years ago.

Below is a display of the most prevalent among Egyptian Males..

Keita Study on Y-chromosomes of Egypt

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pdf

Y-chromosome (IV) E-M2 is diversified with (1.2% )- Lower Egypt, (27.3%) -Upper Egypt. And ( 39.1% ) -in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (XI) E-M35 is diversified with (11.7%)-Lower Egypt, (28.8%)Upper Egypt. And (30.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.

Y-chromosome (V) E-M78 is diversified with (51.9%)- Lower Egypt, (24.2%) - Upper Egypt. And (17.4%) in Lower Nubia/Nile Valley.


(W
hich group belongs to your father ?)….

The M2 lineage is mainly found primarily in ‘‘Eastern,’’ ‘‘sub-Saharan,’’ and sub-equatorial African groups, those with the highest frequency of the ‘‘Broad’’ trend physiognomy, but found also in notable frequencies in Nubia and Upper Egypt, as indicated by the

RFLP TaqI 49a, f variant IV (see Lucotte and Mercier, 2003; Al-Zahery et al. 2003 for equivalences of markers), which is affiliated with it.

Results show that out of three Egyptian triad M78, M35 and M2, Y-chromosome

M78 has the Highest frequency in Northern lower Egypt @ 51.9%

M35 has the slight Highest frequency  in Southern Upper Egypt @ 28.8%

M2 has the Highest frequency  in Northern and Southern Nubia @ 39.1%.

M2 is virtually absent in North Africa’s lower Egypt at 1.2% and grows to a higher frequency traveling south-bound towards Upper Egypt

and Nile valley’s Nubia.

Senusret III 12th Dynasty. triad statue. Middle Kingdom Egypt.. ( the British Museum )

The distribution of these markers in other parts of Africa has usually been explained by the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’?

but their presence in the Nile Valley in Non- Bantu speakers cannot be explained in this way...

Their existence is better explained by their being present in populations of the “Early Holocene Sahara”,

who went on to people the Nile Valley in

The mid-,Holocene era (12,000 B.P.) according to Hassan (1988);

This occurred way long before the ‘‘Bantu migrations,’’

which also do not explain the high frequency of M2 in Senegal, since there are No Bantu speakers there either.”

Haplogroup M2 also coincides with Egyptian/Nubian Halfan Culture 24,000 B.C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfan

The Halfan people, of Egypt and Nubia flourished between 18,000 and 15,000 BC in Nubia and Egypt.

One Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC.

M2- (20,000-30,000 B.P.)

M35- (22,400 B.P.)

M78- (18,600 B.P.)

This would also give the plausible assignment of the Nubian-M2 and the Ethiopian PN2 (35,000 B.P.) as the

“Progenitors”

of Nubian-Egyptian/Halfan Culture”..

They lived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing.

Although there are only a few Halfan sites and they are small in size, there is a greater concentration of artifacts, indicating that this was not a people bound to seasonal wandering, but one that had settled, at least for a time.

The Halfan is seen as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.

Sometimes seen as a proto-Afro-Asiatic culture, this group is derived from “The Nile River Valley culture known as Halfan”, dating to about 17,000 BC.

The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan,which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival…

The material remains of this culture are primarily stone tools, flakes, and a multitude of rock paintings.

The end of the Khormusan came around 16000 B.C. and was concurrent with the development of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.

[S. Keita, "Exploring Northeast African Metric Craniofacial Variation at the Individual Level: A Comparative Study Using Principal Components Analysis," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 16:679–689 (2004)]

Ancient Y-Chromosomes Samples shows Ancient Pharoah Ramesses III belonged to E1b1a/M2:

King Ramesses III of Egypt reigned from about 1187 until 1156 BC , but his death has been shrouded in mystery.

Ramesses III

According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the Last Great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup E1b1a/M2, mainly found in North Africa, East Africa and  Sub-saharan Africa.[28]


Thutmose III the 18th Dyanasty (marble display)

Egyptian total presence of indigenous y-chromosomes haplogroup E familia

(egypt/nubia nile valley)…

(M78-94%,/ M35-71%,/ M2-68%).

NOTE:

M2 collective Nubian-Egyptian 67.6% with the Addition of Eastern Tutsi’s @ 80%, as well as 52% among the

Kenyan Males and 3.4% with E-thi-op-iansGarners Haplogroup M2 a Clear Unequivocal 203. % Eastern Distribution...

Tutsi M2 is 80% and Kenyans 52% Haplogroup E/M2 bidirectional migration

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1182266 (copy and paste, if link above is inactive)..

(click link below for chart to see PN2 =

articlerender.fcgi

(M2/M191) at 48% and (M2/PN1) at 32% for Tutsi (M2) total at 80% Eastern Distribution.

( the Nilotic Valley Family: from the White Nile to the Blue Nile)…...

(click in link below to view Nubian-Egyptian 67.6 % of M2 known as variant IV)

Haplogroup M2 ( IV ) Y-Chromosome Variation. Egyptian study.pdf

Y-chromosome haplotypes analyzed in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated Males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism.

Revealedthese individuals were born in Three regions along the nile river:

in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt),

in Upper Egypt, and in (Nile Valley’s)Lower Nubia.

Fifteen different p49a,f TaqIhaplotypes are present in Egypt,

The Three most “common” being

Haplotype V (39.4%),

Haplotype XI (18.9%),

Haplotype IV (13.9%).

Haplotype V is  of theHorn/Supra Saharapopulations, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley.

Haplotype XIhas a characteristic of theHorn/ Supra and Sub-Sahara populations, with a geographic distribution inthe Hornand Nile Valley.

Haplotype IV, has a characteristic of EasternSub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in UpperEgypt and Nubia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 121:000-000, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nubian Village along NileHaplogroup E’s    (E3a/E3b) at positions: Dys388-12*, Dys393-14, Dys392-11 and Dys391-10*, Dys426-11*, Dys439-10*

also has high frequencies of:

Jerbian Hebrews from (North-Africa) Carthage/Tunisia’s IslandJerba.” As well as:

Sephardic-Hebrews”  Judaeo-Christians at  8.4 – 12. % North-Africa .

example: (Mauretania-8.0%,  Morocco-8.8%,  Algeria-8.5%,  Libya-7.9%  and  Iberia 5-10% ..)

The Western Distribution of M2 show 80% in Senegal Males and as well as a Southern Distribution in the Khoisan at 17.9% with

A small percentage of  3.4% In Ethiopians while the Brother clade M191 is 1% in Senegalese and 0% in Ethiopians..

{Click link below to view Chart of PN1-M2/E3a Family Quad}

(M191), (M154)(M180/M2) and (M58). articlerender.fcgi

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y -Chromo Phylogengy:

(copy and paste in browser)

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=384897

Modern day genetic studies on the y-chromosome also show the Tutsi Males to be 100% of African origin @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi

(80% M2/E1b1a, 15% B, 4% E3, 1% M35/E1b1b)…

Tutsi 48% (M2-M191) and 32% (M2-E3a) = 80% M2 lineage..

(click link to see Chart) articlerender.fcgi

When taken in context with previous studies, the current NRY data seem to reflect the linguistic boundaries demarcating

Southern Kenya as the Northern limit of the “Bantu speakers” as they progressed eastward through

The Central African corridor and southward along the Swahili coast.

The Eastern Population in Kenya displays an E3a-M2 frequency of 52%,  (Underhill et al. 2000 ;)

About 20% of the Y chrom0somes are Near Eastern in Origin, and 10.5 % are Haplogroup R Ychromosomes.

Some of these African-Asiatic, Asian and Euro Y chromosomes show an ancient entry to Africa

(G, K2, R1a, R1b and R1b1a are 8,000 B.P. and older)

The Afri-Asiatic Haplogroup R* and family also have percentages from 3%-6.8%

( R*, R1a1 and R1b ) in lower and Upper Egypt combined 12.9%, and is virtually absent in Nile valley’s Nubia 0.0%.

Which is in contrast of the Yemen and West Asia frequencies 10% or higher.

Southern Egyptians Y Chromomses are mainly native to Africa, both sub and supra Saharan.

This makes a grand total of 80.3% definitively African non-Arab ancestry in the upper Egypt region.

Y-chromosomes possibly attributable to Arab males are very much in the minority in this area.

A rough estimate (since no women invaded Egypt) is that about 5% or less of this population are from

Non Dynastic Egyptian peoples, and

not all of these would be Arabs.

Senusret III

Although Haplogroup R1* has an African-Asiatic Origin and Migration, It has Notable frequencies through out Africa as well..

Haplogroup R1*-M173 is the pristine form of Haplogroup R. In Africa researchers have detected frequencies as high as 95% among Sub-Saharan Africans.

The phylogenetic profile of R-M173 supports an ancient migration of Kushites from Africa to Eurasia as suggested by the Classical Writers. In Fig. 3, we outline the spread of Haplogroup R from Nubia into Asia and West Africa.

This Expansion of an African Kushite population probably took place Neolithic period.

The Accumulated Classical literature, Archaeological, Craniometric, Genetic and Linguistic evidence suggest a Genetic relationship between the Kushites of Africa and Kushites in Eurasia that cannot be explained by Micro Evolutionary Mechanisms.

The phylogeographic profile of R1*-M173 supports this Ancient Migration of Kushites fromAfrica to Eurasia as suggested by the Classical writers.

This expansion of Kushites into Eurasia probably took place over 4kya.

The present studies on Y-chromosomes M78 , M35 , M2 shows the  Egyptian Dynasties has Northern and Southern inhabitants.

The migration difference from North to South mimics the Nubia, Upper Egypt and lower Egypt  Kingdoms of ancient times.

While Kashta of the 25th dynasty ruled Nubia from Napata, which is 400 km north of Khartoum, the modern capital of Sudan,

He also exercised a strong degree of control–over Upper Egypt by managing to install his daughter, Amenirdis I,

as the presumptive God’s Wife of Amun in Thebes in line to succeed the serving Divine Adoratrice of Amun,Shepenupet IOsorkon III’s

Daughter.

This Development was “the Key moment in the process of the extension of

Kushite power over Egyptian territories” under Kashta’s rule since iofficially legitimized the Kushite takeover of the Thebaid region.

The Hungarian Kushite scholar László Török notes that there were probably already Kushite garrisons stationed in Thebes itself during

Kashta’s reign both to protect this king’s authority over

Upper Egypt and to thwart a possible future invasion of this region from    Lower Egypt.

Going back to E1b1a and the discovery of two SNPs (V38 and V100) according to Trombetta et al. (2011) this significantly redefined the E-V38 phylogenetic tree. This led the authors to suggest that E-V38 may have originated in East Africa with an East African Origin. V38 joins the West African-affiliated E-M2 and the Northern East African-affiliated E-M329 with an earlier common ancestor who, like E-P2, may have also originated in East Africa. It is possible that soon after the evolution of E-V38, trans-Saharan migrants carried the E-V38 marker to Northern and Central and/or West Africa where the more common E-M2 marker later arose and became prolific within the last 20,000-30,000 years.[1][3]

Outside of Africa, E1b1a has been found at low frequencies. In Eurasia, the clade has primarily been found in West Asia. There have also been a few isolated incidents of E1b1a/M2 in Southern Spanish Europeans populations in Spain[26] and Portugal.[2

Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Tânout, Niger 44.4% (8/18 subjects) [14]
Tuareg from Gorom, Burkina Faso 16.6% (3/18) [14]
Tuareg from Gossi, Mali 9.1% (1/9) [14]
Cape Verde 15.9% (32/201) [15]
Maasai 15.4% (4/26) [7]
Luo 66% (6/9) [7]
Iraqw 11.11% (1/9) [7]
Comoros 23.46% (69/294) [16]
Merina people (also called Highlanders) 44% (4/9) [17]
Antandroy 69.6% (32/46) [17]
Antanosy 48.9% (23/47) [17]
Antaisaka 37.5% (3/8) [17]

Incidence of E1b1a in Eurasia
Population group frequency References
Saudi Arabians 7.6% (12/157) [28]
Omanis 6.6% (8/121) [10]
Emiratis 5.5% (9/164) [29]
Yemenis 4.8% (3/62) [29]
Majorca 3.2% (2/62) [27]
Qataris 4.2% (3/72) [29]
Southern Iran 1.7% (2/117) [30]
Iraq 1.4% (2/139) [31]
Pakistan 1.4% (9/638) [32]
Istanbul, Turkey 1.2% (1/81) [33]
Incidence of E1b1a
Population group frequency References
Tuareg from Al Awaynat and Tahala, Libya 46.5% (20/43) [Note 1] [19]
OranAlgeria 8.6% (8/93) [20]
Berbers, southern and north-central Morocco 9.5% (6/63) [21][Note 2]
Morrocan Arabs 6.8% (3/44) [21]
Saharawis 3.5% (1/29) [21]
Egyptians 8.33% (3/36), 1.4% (2/147), and (0/73) [10][22][23]
Tunisians 1.4% (2/148) [23]
Sudanese Hausa 12.5% (4/32) [24]
Sudanese Nubian 39.1 % (10/274) [25]
Somalis 1.5% (3/201) [18]
Ethiopians 3.4% (3/88) [26]
Oromo 2.6% (2/78) [13]
Amhara 0% (0/48)[Note 3] [13]
Incidence of E1b1a in populations of the Americas
Population group frequency References
African Americans, US 7.7%-7.9% [Note 4] [9]
Bahia, Brazil 19% (19/100) [34]
Nicaraguans 5.5% (9/165) [35]
Alagoas, Brazil 4.45% (11/247) [36]
Cubans 9.8% (13/132) [37]



 The Indigenous Carioca from Rio de JaneiroBrazil  tested positive for the E1b1a1a M58 SNP.[38] 

The Place of Origin and Age is Unreported, (hmmmpt I wonder why)

What would that mean to have indigenous Africans in Pre-Columbian America? 

A long and hard re-write of His-Story….

The Egyptian Y-Chromosome  variation links below:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ Ramesses E1b1a 23247979

HapgroupE.2011.tree.

www.Kemetology.com

Ancient Egyptian Origins

http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita6.pd

Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia

Y-chromosomal diversity in West Africa of Guinea-Bissau:

Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa

Preliminary Results of Sephardic -Hebrew Y-DNA  Haplogroup M2/E3a

Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and relationship with nearby regions”

Ethiopians and Khoisan Share Deepest Clades of the  Y -Chromo- E- Phylogengy:

Evidence of the Early Penetration of socalled Negroes in North Africa Prehistoric Egypt”

Y-Chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians, Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

The ብጃ Beja The Egyptian (Ta-seti) ጥሰቲ Warriors known as the FuzZy Wuzzies/ Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty

Posted in anthrolpology, Beja, Egypt, Egypt and the Blue Nile, Egypt another Nile Valley Civilization, Eritrea, Horn of Africa, Indigenous people, Nomadic, North Africa, Sahara, Sudan, Ta-Seti with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

old-kingdom-official

Ta Seti Fuzzy Wuzzy Beja 2

The WARRIORS ?


በጃ Beja the Ta-Seti Archers

Of

Nubia-Egypt

The  Beja በጃ (Ge’ez language:)(Arabic: البيجا‎) are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

The term Bejawi comes from Ta-Itjawypeople of Itjawy“.

Ta-Seti Neferet, the mother of Egyptian King Amenhemet I‘s was of a peoples from Upper Egypt known as Ta-Seti. He built a great city state called “Amenemhat-itj-tawy” (“Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands“), more simply called Itjtawy.

Amenemhat’s Ta-Seti army and conscripts came to be known Ta-Itj-tawy. In modern languages this is pronounced Bigawy, Bedjawi or Bejawi, Beja.

The Beja are found mostly in Sudan, but also in parts of Eritrea, and Egypt. They formerly were classified as belonging to the Hamitic race (a classification now generally regarded as scientifically incorrect).

Most of them live in the Sudanese states of Red Sea around Port Sudan, River Nile, Al Qadarif and Kassala, as well as in Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba Regions in Eritrea, and southeastern Egypt.

Other Beja ethnic groups are endemic to Egypt’s Western Desert and to Yemen. Some Beja groups are nomadic.

bedscha2

In Ancient Egyptian times, the Beja በጃ were known as Ta-Seti ታሰቲ

and were renowned for their skill as “archers in the Egyptian army”.

The Beja በጃ have also been named Blemmyesin Roman times,

ቡጋስ “Buga”s in  አፁሚተ Axumite inscriptions in Ge’ez,

and ፉዝዝይ ዉዝዝይ ”  “Fuzzy Wuzzyby Rudyard Kipling.


The Bejas attach a high importance to their “Hair”.  Their Prominent Crown of Fuzzy Hair”

(it is called tiffa in their language) and has characterized the Beja for centuries….

http://www.ancienthistoricalsociety.org/BejaTribe.html

Ta-Seti Beja (fuzzy wuzzy)

(Bejas believe that they are the descendants of a female Lioness deity and her Hue-man consort…)

The Prophecy of Neferti is an Ancient Egyptian literary text, wriiten for

King SnoFru from the 4th Dynasty Old Kingdom:

“Then a King will come from the South,  Amen ye the Justified by name.

SoN of a Ta-seti Womb-man, child of Upper Egypt..

He will take the White Crown and He will wear the Red Crown, He will join the two Mighty Ones..

Rejoice O’ People of his time..

The Sun of womb-Man, will make his name for all Eternity ! ..

Asiatic invaders will fall to his Sword..

Libyans will fall to his Flame..

Rebels to his wrath , Traitors to his Might !

As the serpent on his brow, subdue the rebels for him..

One will build the Walls -of- the- Ruler to Bar Asiatics from entering Egypt”..

Beja Young Man  ..  photo by Vit HassanThe Egyptian Beja groups are believed to be the descendants of

The Maahes Caste of High Priests of Amen and their Soldiers.

Ta-Seti (beja) WarriorsEgyptian- Priest-Kings ; Pinudjem, Psusennese and Masaharta are acknowledged as

The patriarchal ancestors of Egypt’s Western Desert Maahes by Egyptian Bejas.

Hereditary Chief Sheikh Beja Khawr al`allaqi is a descendant of one of Egypt’s oldest surviving lineages.

Egyptologist, Emile Brugsch traced the clan of the Khawr kiji through the matriarchal Female line to the 20th Dynasty.

The Khawr kiji claim their Ancestress Maternally was the Mother of an even “earlierDynasty.

Most Egyptian deities first appeared as very local cults and throughout their history retained those local centres of worship, with

most major cities and towns widely known as the home of these deities.

The Goddess Isis originally was an independent and popular deity established in predynastic times, prior to 3100 B.C.,

at Sebennytos in the Northern Delta’s Lower Egypt.

Beja worshiped the Goddess Isis“(Eye-Sis) at Philae until the 6th century. After the temple was closed down officially in the 6th century

A.DGoddess Isis, wall painting 1360 B.C.

Queen Tiye of the 20th Dynasty THE NEW KINGDOM..

Queen Tiye of the 18th Dynasty .. the New Kingdom,

Queen Tiye ( 1398 B.C.-1338 B.C.) also spelled ( Taia, Tiy and Tiyi)


She was the daughter of the Royal Family,  Yuya and his Wife Tjuyu @ Amarna..Family Royal Temple@ Amarna of Yuya and Thuya

Tiye became the Great Royal Wife of the Egpytian Pharaoh Amenhotep III and the matriarch of the “Amarna Family”.Amenhotep III

The Amarna Family’s lineage can be traced back to the Royal Family of Ancient egypt..Amenhotep III and Queen Tyie

Tiye’s Father, Yuya , was a wealthy landowner from a Southern Upper Egypt town of Akhmin.

There it is said that he served as a Priest and Superintendent of Oxen...

Tiye’s Mother, Thuya was involved in many Religious sects, as her many titles attested..

( singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of both Amun and Min..)

These traits suggest that she was a member of the Royal Family..

Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the second year of his reign. he had been born of a secondary wife of his father

and needed a stronger bond to the Royal lineage...

Amenhotep III Head  Statue

Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child perhaps between the ages of 6-12 yrs old.

Tiye and Amehotep had at least 6 children, out of the six, one went on to become Pharaoh, his name is Akhenaten.Amehotep IV aka Akhenaten

Tiye’s eldest daughter Sitamun, was said to have married her father Amenhotep III, and become entitled , the

Royal Great Wife , as well…

The Great Land of Mother Al’kebu-Lan.. (Africa)

The Mother Land

Map of Egypt/Sudan's Nubia Nation. year of 1910

Names for Ancient Nile Valley Egypt

as a source for population classifications…

The Ancient Egyptians called their land many things

including ta-meri ታመሪ and km.t. ከሚተ.

Also, They called Upper Egypt- ta-shemu ታ ስሀሙ , “the sedge”, and

Lower Egypt- ta-mehu ታ መሁ or “the papyrus thicket”.

One of the most popular names for Egypt in ancient Egyptian is km.t (ከሚት) (read “Kemet”), meaning “blacks”.

The word is composed of the noun km , which translates into “black”, and determinative t, which makes the word a plural.

The use of  ከሚት km.t “blacks” in terms of a place was generally in contrast to the “Desert” or “Red land”: the desert beyond the Nile valley.

When used to mean people, ከሚት km.t “people of  Kemet”, “black people” is usually translated “Egyptians”, some writers argue.

Debate has centered around whether the ‘kmt’ term is an ethnic, cultural, spiritual reference, or a combination of the three.

Some scholars suggest that the term refers to the ‘racial’ or ethnic characteristics of the people.

Still, other scholars disagree with this position, and hold that k.m.t refers to the color of the land, or soil, and not that of the people.

It is of note that terms meaning land, such as ta, orateb, are No where to be found in the name km.t Land,

However is found in other names, typically as ta, like in terms:

British East Africa Map of Ethiopia Tana land of the Ta Nahesi.jpg

Ta-Nahisi ታ ናሂሲ , and Ta-Seti ታ ሰቲ , which translate to

“land of the southerners”, and “land of the bow” respectively,

The latter a reference to the Nehesy or “Nubian” weapon of choice…

The Nile river was sometimes called “Ar” አር or “Aur” ዐኡር

(Coptic ‘laro‘).

The land itself may have been given its oldest name,

‘Kem’ ከም or Kemi’ ከሚ ..

which signifies darkness, based on the black color of the sediments from it….

Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: The Beja, Nubians Dinka and Afro-Asiatic Speakers

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

ቢልልይ ጋምብለ

Asiatic Afro-Arabs of Africa: North Africa-Ifriqiya* / Horn of Africa and SouthWest Asia.. (Nubians, Tuareg and Beja “Sahara” People)

Posted in Afro Arabs, Nomadic, North Africa, Nubians, Sahara, Tuareg with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 28, 2009 by Biléh* Gambéla በላይ ። ጋምበላ

afroasiatic-westasia-map

nubian-lil-girls1
800px-nomad-tuaregs Afro-Asiatic Arabs of Africa..

Afro-Arab (sometimes referred to as African Arab) refers to people who possess both African and/or Arab ancestry. In addition, it may refer to Arabs who are not descended from recent African ancestry, but who live on the African continent.

There are large communities of Afro-Arabs in East Africa, North -Africa and Nile Valley Regions

West-Asia’s Middle east, and  through recent migrations, Western Europe.

The phrase Afro-Arab may also refer to African Union efforts to improve co-operation between Africa and countries of the Arab world.

Tuareg Barber and Tuareg Teen... Afro-Asiatic Family

The Arabs of the Middle East have very old connections to the African continent, and in addition more than half the Arab world now exists in Africa (in terms of area, and possibly population too), i.e. from

Egypt and Sudan in the east to Mauritania in the west, although much of the North African population are Berbers (a separate, native ethnic group speaking an Afro-Asiatic language) or Arabized Berbers.

The Islamic world covers even more area, ie. /Niger Sahara and Nigeria in the west and many other West African nations too.

So this intermingling of peoples from the African continent, along with the spread of Islam, has resulted in Large Populations of African Arab peoples covering a vast area of Africa and Asia.

Present-day Sudan is home to millions of Arabs, with 40% of the population identifying themselves,

Under the ethnic group of ‘Arabs’ Even though the option of ‘Afro-Arabs’ is also available…

.


Nubian.Woman with Henna Tattoos from Aswan Upper Egypt

Afro-Arabs within West Asia’s Middle East itself are for the most part descendants of

Black African slaves who were brought there during the Arab slave trade.

Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar as well East Africa hosts a significant Afro-Arab population

Along the Swahili Coast, such as in Zanzibar, Mombasa, Lamu, Malindi, the Comoros, Bagamoyo, and Ujiji.

One of the most famous Afro Arabs of ancient times was the Pre Islamic Hero like figure Antar Ibn Shadded.

Antar was in Laiwa, He was born the son of Shaddād, a well respected member of the Arabian tribe of BanuAbs, and of Zabaibah,

An Ethiopian Female whom Shaddad had Enslaved after a Tribal War.

The tribe neglected Antar at first, and he grew up in servitude.

Although it was fairly obvious that Shaddad was his father, his

Ethiopian Dark Skin made it easier to classify him among the African-Asiatic slaves.

Antara claimed attention and respect for himself by his remarkable personal qualities and courage in battle, excelling as an accomplished poet and a mighty warrior.

(Antarah ibn Shaddad)

The Zanj Rebellions took place near the city of Basra, located in southern Iraq over a period of fifteen years (869-883 AD). They grew to involve over 500,000 slaves who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over “tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq” .

The major revolt is said to have been led by Ali ibn Muhammad,

Who claimed to be a descendent of Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib.

Not all part takers in the Zanj revolt where of Black African descent,

Many where Slaves of Indian, Iranian and of Slavic ancestry.

The majority that where forced to work in the Iraqi salt marshes where however of Zanj (East African Bantu) Ancestry

Because the East European Slavs would simply die in the humid heat of the salt marshes.

It is believed that many of today’s Basra area “Afro Arabs” are Descending from one of these Zanj Groups though many May have settled that area under different circumstances via the Arab-African.

In Medieval HistoryIfriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabicإفريقية‎) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western LibyaTunisia, and Eastern Algeria.

This area included what had been the Roman province of Africa, whose name it inherited

Ifriqiya was bounded on the south by the semi-arid areas and salt marshes called el-Djerid. At various times, the rulers of this area also conquered Sicily and parts of mainland Italy, and the western boundary was in continual flux but usually went as far as Bejaia.

Its Capital was Qayrawan (Kairouan) in Central Tunisia.

Arabic Thought and its Place in History, De Lacy O’Leary, London: Kegan, Paul [1922], p. 227-8 says: “Gradually the Arabs spread all along North Ifriqiya*/Africa and down to the desert edge, their tribes as a rule occupying the lower ground, whilst the older population had its chief centres in the mountainous districts.

During the invasion of 45 (A.H.) the city of Kairouan (Qairouan, Qayrawan) was founded some distance south of Tunis.

The site was badly chosen, and is now marked only by ruins and a scanty village, but for some centuries it served as the capital city of Ifrikiya, which was the name given to the province lying next to Egypt, embracing the modern states of Tripoli, Tunis, and the Eastern part of Algeria up to the meridian of Bougie.”

From their base in Kairouan the Aghlabids Conquered Sicily, beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was displaced by the Normans, effecting lasting changes in Sicilian culture.

Nubian la bezza

Nomadic

Arabs

Etymology of the word Arab

ቢልልይ ጋምበላ

Sources

  • Ibn KhaldunHistoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l’Afrique; traduite de l’arabe par le baron de Slane; nouv. éd / pub. sous la direction de Paul Casanova, et suivie d’une bibliographie d’Ibn Khaldoun. 4 vols. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1925-34.
  • Julien, Charles-André, Histoire de l’Afrique du Nord, des origines à 1830, édition originale Paris: Payot, 1931, réédition Payot, Paris, 1961


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